Adaptation of R. Schwarzer’s Proactive Attitudes Scale: Validation and Psychometric Testing on a Sample of Russian Youth


The relevance of studying proactive coping and proactive attitudes in early adulthood is determined by the fact that planning the future and predicting difficult situations are important skills for an adult. In theoretical terms, our study is based on R. Schwarzer’s approach to proactive coping and proactive attitudes as well as the research work of Russian authors on creating and adapting methods for studying proactive coping (E.P. Belinskaya, A.I. Erzin, E.S. Starchenkova, T.L. Kryukova, E.V. Kuftyak, and others). The purpose of the study was to describe the psychometric indicators of The Proactive Attitudes Scale by R. Schwarzer on a sample of Russian university students. The research objectives were as follows: (1) to make an adequate translation of the original version of the scale; (2) to determine the factor structure of the scale and evaluate its internal consistency and discriminativity; and (3) to estimate the test-retest reliability and validity of the scale as well as the average indicators for the period of early adulthood. The following research methods were involved: the construct validity was examined using A. Erzin’s Proactive Behavior Technique and R. Schwarzer’s Self-Efficacy Scale; the external validity was assessed using the Proactive Coping Behavior Technique (adapted by E.P. Belinskaya et al.), Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (adapted by A. Syrtsova et al.) and Folkman and Lazarus’ Ways of Coping Questionnaire (adapted by T.L. Kryukova et al.). The sample consisted of 467 people aged 20-25 (312 women and 155 men). The main study (for scale standardization and validation) involved 400 respondents (272 women and 128 men); 67 respondents participated in the second survey (after 2 and 4 weeks). The study was conducted online in Google Forms. An exploratory factor analysis made it possible to single out the one-dimensionality of the scale (the Possibility of Independent Choice factor) and its acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, α = 0.78). The indicators of test-retest reliability and discrimination were satisfactory. The scale showed acceptable external and construct validity, the average values on the scale were highlighted, and gender differences were presented. The Proactive Attitudes Scale has the necessary psychometric characteristics and can be used for express diagnostics of young people.

About the authors

Anna A. Bekhter

Pacific National University

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1017-558X

PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, is Associate Professor of the Psychological Department, Director of the Psychological Center

68 Karla Marksa St, Khabarovsk, 68000, Russian Federation

Olesya A. Filatova

Pacific National University

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4948-3678

Lecturer, Postgraduate Student of the Psychological Department

68 Karla Marksa St, Khabarovsk, 68000, Russian Federation


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