About the Section. Secular Religiosity in the “Dialogue of Worldviews” of Russian Thinkers

Martseva A.V.



RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2020;24(2):161-164
pages 161-164 views

L.N. Tolstoy's Principle of “Non-Resistance to Evil by Violence” in the Context of Russian Religious Philosophy of the Late XIX - Early XX Century

Evlampiev I.I., Matveeva I.Y.


The article discusses how the meaning of the principle of “non-resistance to evil by violence” was changing in L.N. Tolstoy's religious and philosophical teachings and how this principle was evaluated in Russian religious philosophy of the late XIX - early XX century. In the first version of Tolstoy’s teachings, set forth in the book “What is my faith?”, the principle of non-resistance was understood in a moral sense, as the norm for all people; its execution should lead to the perfection of earthly life. This idea of L. Tolstoy was sharply criticised by his contemporaries, who noted that there was no truly religious content in Tolstoy’s teachings, it was turning into a utilitarian doctrine of the earthly progress of mankind. Given this criticism, Tolstoy in his later works changed his understanding of the principle of non-resistance. Drawing a distinction between two levels of human life - “animal” and divine, Tolstoy recognised the principle of non-resistance to the law as the divine life of a man. As a result, the principle of non-resistance has acquired a religious rather than moral meaning, since the transition of a man to a divine life means a mystical transformation of his being. He is aware of his super-spatial and super-temporary unity with all people and with all being, and therefore can evaluate the consequences of his actions not only in the limited sphere of his life, but also in all infinite being. In this regard, a person realizes the absolute superiority of good deeds over evil, even if the latter are committed to confront evil. It is shown that some critics of Tolstoy came to a similar understanding of the religious meaning of the principle of non-resistance at the end of their lives (N.A. Berdyaev, L.P. Karsavin).

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2020;24(2):165-180
pages 165-180 views

Problem of Intellectual Doubles in Contemporary Research of Russian History of Philosophy (an Example of Russian Narodism)

Marchevsky O.


The paper enters contemporary discourse concerning the examination of history of Russian philosophy, which initiates a new reading of the Russian thinkers’ works. These contemporary examinations problematize the phenomenon of so called intellectual doubles as well. The contribution proceeds from the definition of these issues which was published in journal Problems of Philosophy (Voprosy filosofii) by M. A. Maslin in 2013. In this work, Maslin mentions A. I. Herzen among the examples of intellectual doubles phenomenon, who is one of the founders of the Russian Narodism. Following from this basis, the contribution shifts an attention toward issues of intellectual doubles in the context of the Russian Narodism. The work represents an endeavour to deepen the existing problematization of this phenomenon on the basis of examination the N. K. Mikhailovsky’s creative legacy. There can be found two faces in works of this Narodnik thinker. The first one can be figuratively designed as a Petersburgian and the second one as a Yaltian. These designations are borrowed from the notes of Sergey Elpatevsky, who had been Mikhailovsky’s friend. The two faces express the specificity of the problem of doubleness in Mikhailovsky and his qualitative shift in relation to contemporary examinations of the reflected phenomenon.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2020;24(2):181-186
pages 181-186 views

Sobornost’ and Humanism: Cultural-Philosophical Analysis of V. Ivanov Essay “Legion and Sobornost’ ”

Corrado-Kazanski F.


This paper addresses the philosophical and cultural significance of the concept of «sobornost’» both in the cultural context of Silver Age and in the historical context of World War I. The analysis of Ivanov’s thought is based on a philological approach of his essay «Legion and Sobornost’» (1916), in which the author explains his understanding of such terms as organisation, cooperation, collectivism in order to clarify his own idea of collegiality and the ontological opposition of the title. The opposition between legion and collegiality duplicates the confrontation between Germany and Russia. Vyach. Ivanov first conducts a cultural analysis of such a confrontation, and criticizes Nietzscheanism in German culture at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. He proves the false understanding of the organization in modern German culture. In his opinion, the main values of freedom and personhood are the measure of lies or truth. In the last chapter of his essay, Vyach. Ivanov gives his own definition of collegiality, not referring to Russian thinkers, but quoting the two cities of St. Augustine’s thought. The author of the article shows that the culturological perspective is overcome by the Christian anthropological and mystical perspective, which proclaims humanism and Christocentrism. Therefore, accordind to Vyach. Ivanov, the word “sobornost” is a “universal word”, which mentions that the true social union has Christ as its center. In this sense, the concept of collegiality signifies the same mystical reality that the City of God of St. Augustine.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2020;24(2):187-200
pages 187-200 views

Andrei Bely's Concept of the “Self-Conscious Soul”: Synthesis of his Early Reception of Kant with Steiner's Teachings and Esoteric Practice

Schmitt A.


This article deals with the connection between the anthroposophical practice of meditation and the concept of self-conscious soul, which is developed in the main theoretical work of Andrei Bely, “The History of the Becoming of Self-conscious Soul.” After a brief review of the esoteric practice, in which Bely was introduced by Rudolf Steiner in the years 1912-1914, it examines the topography of the meditative space, according to the descriptions given by Bely in the “Krizisy”. Relevant sources of Steiner on the higher stages of knowledge are involved, from which the concept of Bely differs in a few points. It is considered, how the inner experience of Bely is reflected in the cognitive principles of the self-conscious soul, which he understands as a reflection of the higher cognitive abilities at the lower level of the soul. It is shown, that the cognitive principles of the self-conscious soul, which Bely names “composition of space”, “theme in the variations of time” and “symbol”, are a synthesis of the esoteric practice of Bely with his early reception of the critical philosophy of Kant. He fuses them into a gradational model of multi-stage deepening of knowledge into the construction of the universe and the human cultural evolution. This process is carried out with the creative participation of the cognizing subject and culminates in his deification.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2020;24(2):201-218
pages 201-218 views

To the Origins of the Formation of Russian Neo-Kantianism: Methodological Grounds of A.I. Vvedensky’s Philosophy

Vladimirov P.A.


The article reveals the value and contribution of A.I. Vvedensky in the formation of Russian neo-Kantianism on the example of a systematic and integrated review of his research. The author reveals the significance of A.I. Vvedensky critical methodology for the subsequent development of Russian neo-Kantianism in the first third of the XX century. The method of “logicism” is designated as an integral part of criticism, which consists in the elimination of dogmatic foundations from philosophical discourse. In turn, the critical methodology, understood as a theoretical tool for constructing a holistic picture of the world on the principles of science, serves as the basis for identifying the problems of the correlation of the rational and the irrational. The indicated problem in the works of A.I. Vvedensky becomes the beginning of the formation of Russian neo-Kantianism, which is opposed to dogmatism and religious and philosophical research. Developing a critical methodology, the Russian philosopher turns to the consideration of the role of philosophy in the formation of ideological foundations. The contents of the article consistently reveal the key provisions of the philosophy of A.I. Vvedensky, from raising the question of the methodological foundations of criticism to identifying the specifics of philosophy in relation to scientific disciplines, on the example of experimental psychology, based mainly on empirical methods. In conclusion, the article indicates the prospect of further comprehensive study of the works of A.I. Vvedensky in order to establish a reliable understanding of the development of the national philosophy of thought.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2020;24(2):219-227
pages 219-227 views


Idea of the Proof

Anisov A.M.


The article explores the informal side of the idea of the proof. The word "idea" is used in a sense dating back to Plato. Proof is understood as a precisely established connection of precisely formulated and objectively existing ideas. This connection of ideas belongs to the realm of the possible and can be present in some possible worlds and absent in others. Attempts to interpret the proof as a procedure of convincing argumentation are criticized. It is shown that the proof is not necessarily convincing, and that persuasiveness may be inherent outside the proof-based forms of argument. The genesis of the idea of the proof is briefly traced from its origins to the present day. Arguments are made in favor of the thesis of the idea of the proof in Pythagorean philosophy. The question of why the idea of the proof has not been rediscovered anywhere and never is discussed. The problem of the time gap between the appearance of the proof and the exact definition of the concept of the proof in modern logic is considered. An accessible example substantiates the inseparability of the idea of the proof from its formal presentation in one or another logic. A list of some basic informal predicates of the proof is given and a brief description is given.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2020;24(2):228-243
pages 228-243 views

Long-timed words, Peirce Triangle, Tetrahedron of Ontological Propis

Pavlenko A.N.


In this work author analyses names (signs) with the period of existence greater than zero. The whole body of names (signs) is divided into 1) “long-timed words” and 2) “singular words”. It is shown that in Peirce Triangle the name (sign) itself, its denotation and meaning may last in different combinations. Typology of “long-timed words” and “singular words” is described. New notion describing the world of possible and real objects is introduced - Ontological Space or Writing Sample (Propis). Tetrahedron of Propis is also introduced with meaning (concept) rather than name (sign) as its apex. It is shown than neither “name” nor “denotate” can exist without sense whilst sense can exist without “name” or “denotate”. The fact that Writing Sample (Propis) consists of “segments-streaks” is justified. It is also shown that “long-timed words” do (do not) correspond to these “segments-streaks” of the Propis. Analysis of the Propis led to formulating fourteen axioms that its “segments-streaks” and “long-timed words” obey.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2020;24(2):244-261
pages 244-261 views

Ontology of Semantics in Information Technologies

Kolychev P.M.


The article analyzes ontological possibilities of the meaning of information setting. For this, a modern approach of information technologies is considered in relation to setting the meaning of textual information. At the same time, the problem of setting the meaning of number and the meaning of word (text) is formulated, which is discussed from the perspective of an ontological approach based on the solution of the problem of being, where the ontology of semantics is the result of such a solution. As the ontology itself, a relational ontology is chosen, the initial position of which is the thesis: “to be” means “to be distinctive”. Based on this, information is defined as the result of ontological distinction, which allows mathematical formalization through the operation of subtraction, which expresses the essence of ontological distinction. This in turn allows to build constantly a numerical order of the meanings of any information, including textual, while the meaning of the information is its place in such a numerical range. Such a method, called Relational method, leads to an exact numerical specification of the meaning of any information, and by dignity of this numerical form, the meanings of any information can be easily input into a computer with subsequent processing and operation of these senses.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2020;24(2):262-275
pages 262-275 views


From Dialogical Ontology to the Theory of Semiosphere: the Idea of the Dialogue of Cultures in the Philosophical Concepts of M. Buber and Yu. M. Lotman

Volkova A.A.


Today, the dialogue is regarded as a basis for cultural being, while the dialogue of cultures has become a key notion in modern philosophical thinking. The concept of dialogue has been transformed over the past century, acquiring new meanings and changing its internal content from understanding it as an ordinary exchange of information to a complex creative interaction and mutual influence of different cultural and value consciousnesses. Not only different personalities, but entire ethnoses, cultures, and civilizations may become subjects of the dialogue, thus increasing the dialogue functionality up to the means of developing inter-cultural, inter-ethnic and inter-civilizational relations and accentuating commonality of the global historic process and cultural heritage of mankind. Appearing as a form of interpersonal relations in the ontology of M. Buber, who was one of the first to focus on the transition of relations from "subject-object" to "subject-subject", the concept of "dialogue" has become an important philosophical concept throughout the mid-XX century. Brand new turn of development of the theory of dialogue, and the entire human culture in General, was due to the concept of Semiosphere Yu.М. Lotman. The article deals with genesis of the philosophical concept of the dialogue between cultures in the 20th century. The focus is on its emergence - in the early 20th century - in M. Buber's theological concept and at the highest point of its development in Yu. M. Lotman’s semiotic philosophy.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2020;24(2):276-285
pages 276-285 views

Digital Society and Multi-Dimensional Man (Repositioning Marcuse’s One-Dimensional Man)

Chernyak A.Z., Lemanto E.


One of the major concerns of the social philosophy is the technological revolution and its impacts on the social systems. Critical views on the systems from the social philosophers depart from the social predicaments of their time. The pivotal critic of Karl Marx in his work of Das Capital , for example, is on poverty caused by the system of capitalism. Capitalism, for him, only produces various social downturns such as slavery, oppressions, exploitations and impoverishment. Herbert Marcuse, meanwhile, pointed at the same problem, but he came from a different point of view from Marx. Marcuse criticized the abundant society. In One Dimensional Man Marcuse rendered a couple of incisive critics on the industrial society. Industrial society, for him, is marked by the abundance and surplus but this society is still oppressed under a new type of slavery, called voluntary slavery . We may briefly say that both philosophers rendered critics on the same matter of the industrial society, but the two stood on the different position. Marx’s critic was on the hungry and deficient society, while Marcuse on a satiated, plenteous and surplus society. The aim of this paper is to present of how Marcuse’s One-Dimensional Man ends in the digital age.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2020;24(2):286-296
pages 286-296 views

Information Warfare Within the Context of Cybernetic Epistemology

Bindas D.V.


In the present article the author studies and reviews the essential scientific opinions and discourse on the understanding of the term and phenomena of Cybernetics. The article is the author's vision of the concept of cybernetic epistemology based on its progressive methodological features. The main idea of the understanding of the information warfare category as a complex social system (society) in the context of cybernetic epistemology is also developed in the present research. The concept of complexity theory has not yet been applied in the study of ontological characteristics of the "information warfare" phenomenon so far. This kind of analyzing method allows us to highlight the true essential characteristics of "information warfare". There are recursiveness and spontaneous nature among them. This kind of epistemology methods and their possible and proper application in Cybernetics were analyzed and reviewed in the present paper. Such an analyzing confirmed the relevance of this research for the formalization of the world’s complex phenomena. It also determined the possibility of constructive generalization of knowledge and research data. However, this knowledge should be gained in the process of complex formalization of the studied phenomena characteristics (ontology) and the maximum permissible changes and transformation in their conditions and forms.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2020;24(2):297-302
pages 297-302 views


Review of the International Scientific Conference: “XII Kant Readings. Kant and the Ethics of the Enlightenment: Historical Foundations and Modern Significance”

Salnikova T.V., Lebedeva A.V.



RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2020;24(2):303-309
pages 303-309 views

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies