The Discourse Semantics of Attitudinal Relations: Continuing the Study of Lexis

Cover Page

Cite item


This paper explores some aspects of the problem of categorizing attitudinal relations in English, as part of a description of evaluation informed by systemic functional linguistics (SFL) - appraisal. It reviews paradigmatic and syntagmatic orientations to lexis within this tradition, and the development of typological and topological representations of systemic relations. Corpus based argumentation is considered in relation to work on evaluation by Bednarek 2008; and proposals for continuing the study of lexis are suggested, focusing on resources for negotiating sadness and negative reactions to behavior (e.g. embarrassed , ashamed ) and the affordances of topological representation. The paper highlights the possibilities and challenges involved in continuing the study of lexis in descriptions using SFL as their informing theory.

About the authors

J R Martin

Martin Centre for Appliable Linguistics Shanghai Jiaotong University

University of Sydney The University of Sydney NSW 2006, Australia 800 Dongchuan Road, 200240 Shanghai, China


  1. Almutairi, B A. A. (2013). Visualising patterns of appraisal in texts and corpora. Text & Talk 33.4/5. 691-723
  2. Bazell, C. E. (1966). In J. C. Catford & M A K Halliday (Eds.) In Memory of J R Firth. London: Longman
  3. Bednarek, M. (2006). Evaluation in Media Discourse. Analysis of a Newspaper Corpus. London/New York: Continuum
  4. Bednarek, M. (2007). Polyphony in APPRAISAL; typological and topological perspectives. Linguistics and the Human Sciences 3.2. 107-136
  5. Bednarek, M. (2008). Emotion Talk across Corpora. London/New York: Palgrave Macmillan
  6. Bednarek, M. (2008). Semantic preference and semantic prosody re-examined. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory 4.2. 119-139
  7. Bernstein, B. (2000). Pedagogy, Symbolic Control and Identity: theory, research, critique. London: Taylor & Francis. [Revised Edition]
  8. de Souza, L. M. F. (2010). Interlingual re-instantiation: a model for a new and more comprehensive systemic functional perspective on translation. PhD Thesis. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Brazil
  9. Dreyfus, S. S. (2011). In Hood & M Stenglin (Eds.) 2011 Semiotic Margins: meaning in multimodalities. London: Continuum
  10. Firth, J. R. (1957) A Synopsis of Linguistic Theory, 1930-1955. Studies in Linguistic Analysis (Special volume of the Philological Society). London: Blackwell. 1-31. [reprinted in F. R. Palmer 1968 [Ed.] Selected Papers of J R Firth, 1952-1959. London: Longman. 168-205]
  11. Halliday, M. A. K. (961). Categories of the theory of grammar. Word 17.3. 241-292
  12. Halliday, M. A. K. (1966). Lexis as a linguistic level. Bazell et al. 148-162
  13. Halliday, M. A. K. (1973). Explorations in the Functions of Language. London: Longman (Explorations in Language Study)
  14. Halliday, M. A. K. & J. R. Martin [Eds.] 1981 Readings in Systemic Linguistics. London: Batsford
  15. Halliday, M. A .K. & C M I M Matthiessen (2014). An Introduction to Functional Grammar (4th edition). London: Arnold
  16. Hasan, R. (1987). The grammarian's dream: lexis as most delicate grammar. M A K Halliday & R P Fawcett [Eds.] New Developments in Systemic Linguistics Vol. 1: theory and description. London: Pinter. 184-211. [reprinted in Ways of Saying: ways of meaning. 73-103]
  17. Hjelmslev, L. (1947). Structural analysis of language. Studia Linguistica 1.1-3. 69-78
  18. Hunston, S. (2011). Corpus approaches to Evaluation.: phraseology and evaluative language. London: Routledge
  19. Knight, N. (2013). Evaluating experience in funny ways: how friends bond through conversational humour. Text & Talk 33.4/5. 553-574
  20. Lamb, S. (1966). Epilegomena to a Theory of Language. Romance Philology. 531-573
  21. Lockwood, D. G. (1972). Introduction to Stratificational Linguistics. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich
  22. Macken-Horarik, M. & J.R. Martin (Eds.) 2003. Special issue of Text 23/2 on ‘Appraisal’
  23. Malinowski, B. (1935). Coral Gardens and their Magic: a study of the methods of tilling the soil and of agricultural rites in the Trobriand Islands (Volume Two: The Language of Magic and Gardening). London: George Allen & Unwin
  24. Martin, J R (1992). English Text: system and structure. Amsterdam: Benjamins
  25. Martin, J R (1997). ‘Analysing genre: functional parameters’. In: Christie, F. & J. Martin (eds). Genres and Institutions: Social Processes in the Workplace and School. London: Cassell: 3-39
  26. Martin, J R (2000). Beyond exchange: appraisal systems in English. S Hunston & G Thompson [eds.] Evaluation in Text: Authorial Stance and the Construction of Discourse. Oxford: OUP. 142-175
  27. Martin, J R (2010a). Systemic Functional Linguistic Theory. Vol. 1 in the Collected Works of J R Martin (Wang Zhenhua Ed.). Shanghai: Shanghai Jiao Tong University Press
  28. Martin, J R (2010b). Semantic variation: modelling system, text and affiliation in social semiosis. M Bednarek & J R Martin [Eds.] New Discourse on Language: functional perspectives on multimodality, identity and affiliation. London: Continuum. 1-34
  29. Martin, J R (2011). Multimodal semiotics: theoretical challenges. Dreyfus et al. 243-270
  30. Martin, J R (2013). Systemic Functional Grammar: a next step into the theory - axial relations. (Chinese translation and extensions by Wang Pin & Zhu Yongsheng). Beijing: Higher Education Press
  31. Martin, J R & C M I M Matthiessen (1991). Systemic typology and topology. F. Christie [Ed.] Literacy in Social Processes: papers from the inaugural Australian Systemic Linguistics Conference, held at Deakin University, January 1990. Darwin: Centre for Studies in Language in Education, Northern Territory University. 1991. 345-383. [Reprinted in Martin 2010. 167-215]
  32. Martin, J R & D Rose (2003). Working with Discourse: meaning beyond the. London: Continuum. [2nd revised edition 2007]
  33. Martin, J R & D Rose (2008). Genre Relations: mapping culture. London: Equinox
  34. Martin, J R & P.R.R. White (2005). The Language of Evaluation: Appraisal in English. London/New York: Palgrave/Macmillan
  35. Martin, J R, Zappavigna M., Dwyer P. & Cleirigh C. (2013). Users in uses of language: embodied identity in Youth Justice Conferencing. Text & Talk 33.4/5. 467-496
  36. Maton, K. (2014). Knowledge and Knowers: Towards realist sociology of education. London: Routledge
  37. Matthiessen, C. M I M & M A K Halliday (2009). Systemic functional grammar: a first step into the theory. Beijing: Higher Education Press
  38. Matthiessen, C. M I M & C. Nesbitt (1996). On the idea of theory-neutral descriptions. In R Hasan, C. Cloran, & D. Butt [Eds.] Functional descriptions: theory in practice. 38-84. Amsterdam: Benjamins
  39. McMurtie, R.J. (2013). Spatiogrammatics: a social semiotic perspective on moving bodies transforming the meaning potential of space. PhD Thesis: University of New South Wales
  40. Muller, J. (2007). On splitting hairs: hierarchy, knowledge and the school curriculum. In Christie & Martin. 64-86
  41. Painter, C. (2003). Developing attitude: an ontogenetic perspective on APPRAISAL. Text 23.2. 183-210
  42. Sinclair, J. McH (1966). Beginning the study of lexis. Bazell et al. 410-430
  43. Stenglin, M (2009). Space Odyssey: towards a social semiotic model of three-dimensional space. Visual Communication 8.1. 39-64
  44. Stewart, D. (2010). Semantic Prosody: a critical evaluation. London: Routledge
  45. Tucker, G. H. (1998). The Lexicogrammar of Adjectives: a Systemic Functional approach to lexis. London: Cassell
  46. van Leeuwen, T. (2009). Parametric systems: the case of voice quality. C. Jewitt [Ed.] The Routledge Handbook of Multimodal Analysis Oxon/New York: Routledge. 68-77
  47. Whittaker, R. M. O’Donnell & A. McCabe [Eds.] (2009) Advances in Language and Education. London: Continuum
  48. Wolfer, D. & Harrison-Lever, B. (Illus.) (2005). Photographs in the Mud. Fremantle, W.A: Fremantle Arts Centre Press
  49. Zappavigna, M. (2011). Visualizing logogenesis: preserving the dynamics of meaning. Dreyfus et al. 211-228

Copyright (c) 2017 Мартин Д.Р.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies