Vol 30, No 2 (2022)


Self-purification processes of natural water and their laboratory model

Kondrashin K.G.


In this work, the processes of self-purification of natural water masses have been studied, and the possibility of laboratory modeling based on the obtained coefficient of the rate of self-purification of water K from pollutants has been investigated. The correlation between the phenol content and the physical factors of the selected sample was investigated. The calculation of the rate coefficient of self-purification of river water from a contaminant is carried out. The physico-chemical composition of surface waters directly depends on the hydrological regime of the river, which means that the model of self-purification processes can be applied under certain parameters of the studied rivers. On the model obtained during these works, various studies of the correlation of the physico-chemical composition of water from various hydrological parameters can be carried out. The basis of this study was the work of Soviet scientists in the field of mathematical modeling of physico-chemical processes in the natural environment of surface waters.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(2):107-115
pages 107-115 views

Methodological approaches to assessment of aesthetic properties of landscapes

Lozbeneva E.A.


Aesthetic properties are important characteristics of any territory. Currently, there are quite a few methodological developments for evaluating the aesthetic properties of landscapes. Conventionally, they can be divided into traditional assessment methods, where the assessment is based solely on fi surveys, and the other - those based on modern approach, in which fi ld research is supplemented by GIS technologies. In turn, fi surveys are highly labor-intensive and, as a result, are usually carried out for small key areas or individual routes. With the introduction of GIS and remote sensing data (RSD) of high spatial resolution, it became possible without much diffi to assess many indicators of the aesthetic attractiveness of landscapes. This article is devoted to an overview of development of modern methodological approaches to assessing the aesthetic properties of landscapes. The paper opens with historic review of the aesthetic studies of landscapes, then discusses theoretical questions such as the defi of the concept of “aesthetics of the landscape” and the exploration of aesthetic perception and, fi ally, presents a case study of application of GIS technologies for aesthetic evaluation of landscapes.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(2):116-126
pages 116-126 views

Environmental Monitoring

Integrated assessment of the spring waters of the Bryansk region in the system of state monitoring

Soboleva O.A., Anishchenko L.N.


The results of ecological-chemical and toxicological analysis of 20 model springs on the territory of urban and rural settlements of the Bryansk region within the framework of water monitoring are presented. Indicators of hydrochemistry and phytotoxicity by the biotesting method are presented. The springs are classified according to temperature, flow rate, pH value, salinity and total hardness. Correlation relationships between the obtained hydrochemical indicators of spring waters are shown. The additions to the monitoring base for the state of spring waters in the summer low-water period of 2020 showed that the dominant pollutant of water in the tracts of the urban areas of the Bryansk region is nitrate ions; the total iron content exceeds the permissible norms. Among the model springs, 25 % have an excess of the content of nitrate ions relative to the norms of maximum permissible concentrations (45 mg / L), 20 % - a significant excess of the normalized indicator «total iron» (0,3 mg / L). Calculation of the phytotoxicity index showed that water samples from two springs are toxic (coefficient J > 20). Ecological and chemical analysis of springs and determination of the degree of hemerobity of the spring tract showed that nitrate ions and chloride ions are indicator indicators of anthropogenic impact on natural waters. Conjugate analysis of water hydrochemistry indicators revealed strong correlations between the parameters “total mineralization - total hardness”, “total mineralization - chloride ions”, “electrical conductivity - chloride ions”, “electrical conductivity - total hardness”, “electrical conductivity - total mineralization”. The springs are ranked according to the degree of anthropogenic transformation of the landscape. On the scale of hemerobicity, the spring tracts were classified according to seven degrees: metagemerobic (one spring), polyhemerobic (two springs), α-euhemerobic (two springs), β-euhemerobic (one spring), mesohemerobic (six springs), oligohemerobic (eight springs).

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(2):127-142
pages 127-142 views

Bioecological properties of nutrient soils based on production waste as a factor in monitoring and controlling the production process of plants

Stepanova L.P., Korenkova E.A., Stepanova E.I., Yakovleva E.V.


The article presents the results of research on the bioecological assessment of the effectiveness of the fertilizing properties of metallurgical waste in nutrient soils. As a result of studies to assess the toxic effects of water extracts from nutrient soils on the vital activity of daphnia (Daphnia magna), changes in the reaction of this test object were established depending on the composition of the components in the nutrient substrate. The degree of influence of the fertilizing effect of various types of nutrient soils based on soil, slag and zeolite on the germination, growth and development of seedlings of small-seeded vegetable culture of lettuce has been determined. Seed germination, plant growth and development are influenced by the water-physical properties of soils and the amount of available macroand microelements. The effectiveness of the use of visual and computer assessment of the color gamut of lettuce leaves for assessing the level of soil contamination by the intensity of nutrient consumption by plants is shown.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(2):143-152
pages 143-152 views

On the issue of studying the size of dust particles in coal mining areas using the depositing ability of the snow cover

Sumina A.V., Pavlova E.V., Kyrova S.A., Pavlovich V.E.


The analysis of the particle size of suspended solids in snow samples from various areas near the coal-mining enterprise “Razrez Arshanovsky” LLC in the Republic of Khakassia. Snow sampling sites of the snow cover were located in the area of the road along which coal is transported, and at a distance of 0,5 km from the village of Arshanovo in accordance with the wind rose. Particle size analysis was performed using a LaskaTD device. It was found that in the samples under study, the main proportion of suspended particles, regardless of the point of study, had sizes from 5 to 20 microns, which numerically amounted from 63.8 to 81,3 % of the total weight of suspended substances. The site located in the western direction at a distance of 0,5 km from the Arshanovo had such low values of suspended solids that it was not possible to determine them using the Laska-TD device. The average particle size, depending on the point of study, had the following values (μm): № 1 - 11,2 ± 0,4; № 2 - 11 ± 1,6; № 3 - 9,3 ± 0,2; № 4 - 7,3 ± 0,9; № 5 - 13,5 ± 0,3; № 6 - 11,5 ± 0,2; № 8 - 11,6 ± 0,3. The obtained results of the study allow to conclude that there is a large amount of fine dust in the snow cover, which can accumulate in the environment and negatively affect its biological component, including humans.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(2):153-163
pages 153-163 views

Industrial Ecology

Ecological activity of oil and gas companies in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Yugra

Yudin K.S., Prituzhalova O.A.


The enterprises of the oil and gas industry of the Russian Federation are one of the largest sources of negative environmental impacts; therefore, a comprehensive assessment of their ecological activities is necessary. The purpose of the study is to investigate the ecological activities of the subsoil user enterprises of the main oil and gas producing region of the country - Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Yugra, including activities related to the low-carbon transition. The article analyzes the open information on the environmental activities of eight oil and gas producing enterprises of KhMAO-Yugra for the period 2015-2019. A list of evaluation indicators is proposed that allows comparing oil and gas producing enterprises with each other and evaluating the main directions of their ecological activities, including those in the field of decarbonization of production. The key areas of ecological activities of the district’s enterprises are the reduction of pollutant emissions into the atmosphere, including through the utilization of associated petroleum gases, optimization of water use, as well as the fight against pipeline breaks. In the development strategies of most oil and gas producing enterprises of the district, a trend towards decarbonization has been identified.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(2):164-176
pages 164-176 views

Prospects for the use of surface waters of the Irkutsk region for drinking water supply and the production of soft drinks

Dzyuvina O.I., Kotova T.V., Fedorova Y.S., Valnyukova A.S., Masaev V.Y.


One of the urgent problems of modern civilization is the provision of the population with highquality drinking water. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), at least 5-10 % of the population suffers from waterborne diseases. According to the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being in nine cities of the Siberian Federal District, the influence of water quality on the formation of population morbidity (from 7,7 to 41,0 %) has been established. Analysis of the data presented in the State reports on the state and protection of the environment of the Irkutsk region showed that in the surface waters of the region there is a systematic excess of the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) for phenol, and in some controlled areas for chloroform. One of the main components used in the production of various non-alcoholic products is water. Various organic substances, such as phenols, petroleum products, halogenated derivatives of hydrocarbons, according to the requirements for the quality of water used for the preparation of soft drinks, should be absent. Therefore, the purpose of the study was the use of various adsorption systems for wastewater treatment in the Irkutsk region for drinking water supply and the production of soft drinks. Used the adsorption method. The studies were carried out on model aqueous solutions, both of individual substances and in their joint presence. Mathematical modeling of the sorption process under dynamic conditions has been carried out. As a result of the studies carried out, the possibility of using charcoal for wastewater treatment has been proven. Pretreatment of activated carbon with hydrochloric acid practically does not affect the adsorption of chloroform, but leads to an increase in the adsorption of phenol. Hydrochloric acid helps to remove iron ions from the pores of the sorbents. A decrease in the degree of water purification from phenol with an increase in pH leads to the suppression of adsorption. The effect of phenol and chloroform on the value of adsorption has been established. The sorption process is limited by external mass transfer. The discrepancy between the calculated and experimental output curves of phenol and chloroform sorption from individual solutions and in their joint presence is calculated.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(2):177-188
pages 177-188 views

Biological resources

Variability of body weight (Eremias arguta deserti Gmelin, 1789) and (Phrynocephalus guttatus guttatus Gmelin, 1789) in the southeastern part of the Lower Volga region

Mishustin S.S., Polynova G.V.


One of the aspects of studies of micropopulations of ( Eremias arguta deserti Gmelin, 1789) and ( Phrynocephalus guttatus guttatus Gmelin, 1789) in the conditions of the southeastern part of the Lower Volga region was the observation of inter-seasonal fluctuations in body weight of individuals. Males of Eremias arguta deserti are consistently heavier in the spring than females. In the autumn periods, the results turned out to be contradictory and do not make it possible to conclude which individuals of which sex have the greatest mass. Statistical processing of materials using the Kruskal - Walli’s criterion (H) did not reveal significant differences in Eremias arguta deserti when comparing the mass of all females and males both for all periods and separately in spring and autumn periods. Phrynocephalus g. guttatus also showed no statistical significance when comparing all males and females for the entire period. However, the results obtained when comparing between females and males during the 2018 season, as well as when comparing females of different years, were statistically significant. In addition, the body weight of fingerlings of both groups, between the autumn seasons of 2017 and 2018, revealed statistical significance. Individuals of both Phrynocephalus g. guttatus and Eremias arguta deserti steadily gain body weight, despite the slowdown or complete stop of the growth of individuals in the former and autotomy in the latter. Regeneration of the tail or its absence obviously affects the growth of the trunk of Eremias arguta deserti.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(2):189-200
pages 189-200 views

Environmental management

Analysis of dynamics of the structure of Vladimir city district land use

Kurochkin I.N., Trifonova T.A., Chugay N.V.


The processes of urbanization lead to a negative impact on the natural environment and disruption of the balance of ecosystems. The paper considers the main trends in changing the structure of land use of the Vladimir city district in the period 2001-2020. The analysis of the functional zoning of the territory is carried out. The largest share in the structure of land use is occupied by forests in the southwest and southeast of the study area. The territory occupied by them is anthropogenically slightly modified. An increase in the area of forests on the territory of the urban district has been established; a decrease in the areas occupied by meadows and deposits. The analysis of the spatial distribution of green spaces showed that the area of green areas did not correspond to the recommended values. There is a sharp decline in the area of arable land, stagnation of industry, the growth of urbanized areas. There is a restructuring of the road network, which is due to an increase in the number of vehicles, and as a result, an increase in the anthropogenic load on natural areas.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(2):201-210
pages 201-210 views

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