Vol 30, No 1 (2022)


Phytosozological study of natural monuments to determine the ecological status of specially protected natural areas

Volodkin A.A., Larionov M.V.


The article gives a phytosozological assessment of natural monuments of regional importance in the Penza region, based on a number of phytosozological criteria that characterize the vegetation cover and their ecological state. The assessment is based on such criteria as the degree of study of the vegetation cover of the territory, the demonstration (reference) value, the area occupied, the anthropotolerance of the vegetation cover, the coenotic diversity of the territory, the total number of species diversity of vascular plants, the number of species listed in the Federal and regional Red Books, the degree transformation and recovery potential. The assessment used is of interest as a test express system that allows you to quickly assess the dynamics of the main qualitative and quantitative indicators of natural complexes. On the territory of the Penza region, located mostly on the western slope of the Volga Upland, and geobotanically located within the forest-steppe zone, in order to preserve biological and landscape diversity, 90 natural monuments of regional significance were identified on an area of 627.4 km2, which is 1.44% from the territory of the region. The highest concentration of natural monuments is noted in the north-east of the region, the most elevated and wooded part of the region. The largest area of more than 40 thousand hectares was noted in the Vyshe-Moksha botanical-geographical region. The largest number of monuments, of which 70% are botanical, are noted in the Prisursky botanical-geographical region with an average rating score of 62.2. The maximum score was noted at the natural monument Ardymsky Shikhan. The largest number of hydrological monuments of nature are located in the Zasursky and Prisursky botanical and geographical regions, which is associated with the location of the Sura River basin in these regions. The largest number of zoological monuments is located on the territory of the Vyshe-Moksha botanical-geographical region. The results obtained are necessary to determine the dynamics and directions of the processes of conservation and restoration of the composition of the flora and fauna of unique communities of regional natural monuments, as well as to increase the level of representativeness and ecological status, which in the future will allow monitoring changes in ecosystems.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(1):7-27
pages 7-27 views

Impact of mammals during foraging and trampling of vegetation in the taiga and forest-steppe natural and natural-anthropogenic complexes of the Pre-Urals and Urals

Dvornikov M.G., Saxonov S.V., Bukina L.A.


Generalizations of territorial allocation of natural complexes (NC) on their identification in the taiga and forest-steppe protected and developed territories as the main stage of complex research providing structural and functional analysis of their condition when assessing the impact of mammals Alces alces L ., Capreolus pygargus pygargus Pallas, Cervus elaphus sibiricus Sever., Cervus nippon Tim., Sus scrofa L., Castor fiber L., Meles meles L., Meles leucurus Hodgsen, Ursus arctos L., when feeding on and trampling the plant component in specific biogeocenoses (BGC). At high biomass of herd domestic ungulates 150-180 kg/ha their interrelations on pastures are shown with limited amount of forage plants and impact on vegetation cover leads to negative changes. Biomass of wild animals (up to 10 kg/ha) does not exceed zonal structural parameters of BGC, their interrelations are shown locally, with a large number of plants and impacts of subpopulations are balanced in processes of forest formation, productivity, accumulation and destruction of plant mass, respectively, in substance-energy flows, providing a sustainable functioning of NC. In places of intensive activity of animals (in former NCs) there are synanthropic plant species that grow abundantly in other communities, where zooanthroponous foci of diseases dangerous to humans also arise, advancing to urbanized areas.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(1):28-44
pages 28-44 views

Maximum global warming potential formula

Tetelmin V.V.


The calculations of the global warming dynamics were made taking into account the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions according to the recommendations of the Paris Agreement. Based on the analysis of thermodynamic parameters of the climatic system during the last glacial and pre-industrial periods of the Earth’s history, the functions of the maximum global warming temperature dependence on the mass and volume concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere were obtained. The mass of greenhouse saturation of the atmosphere by anthropogenic greenhouse gases and the corresponding maximum global warming temperature have been determined. With unrestricted emission of the three major greenhouse gases, the maximum temperature they can provide is 9.2 °С. With annual global emission reduction by 2060, global warming will continue until about 2108 with a global temperature increase up to 3.1 °С.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(1):45-57
pages 45-57 views

Human ecology

Ethnic aspects of toxic elements in the Russian Northeast

Pokhilyuk N.V., Gorbachev A.L.


One of the urgent problems of ecology is the environmental pollution of the northern regions with toxic elements and their negative impact on human health. The analysis of the content of lead, cadmium and mercury in the body of aboriginal and visiting residents of the Northeast of Russia was carried out. The balance of essential (calcium, zinc) and toxic (lead, cadmium) elements was considered. Statistically significant differences in the content of cadmium and lead in aboriginal residents and Caucasians were noted. Among the Evens, the median of cadmium exceeded that of the Koryaks, Chukchis, and Caucasoids; the value of the median of lead among the Chukchis was lower compared to that in other ethnic groups. There were no statistically significant differences in the content of mercury between Koryaks, Evens and Chukchis, as well as between aboriginal residents and Caucasians. There are no critical levels of mercury in the body of aborigines. The median mercury in the hair of the Koryaks, Chukchis and Evens did not exceed the biologically acceptable level - 0.5 µg/g. Among aboriginal residents, the highest percentage of samples with mercury content in the range from 0.5 to 1.0 µg/g (background level) was noted in 33.8% of Evens and 30% of Koryaks; among the Chukchi, this figure was 8.6%. Elevated levels of mercury in some aboriginal people may be due to the high proportion of fish and seafood containing methylmercury in the diet. The proportions of toxic metals (Pb, Cd) in relation to their essential antagonist elements (Ca, Zn) indicate that toxic elements do not disrupt the biochemical processes controlled by the corresponding essential elements. Thus, the study area of the Northeast of Russia, in terms of toxic load on the population, can be attributed to territories with a relatively favorable environmental situation.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(1):58-66
pages 58-66 views

Rat hematological parameters of subacute multifrequency electromagnetic next-generation cellular communications exposure

Orlova V.S., Perov S.Y., Lifanova R.Z., Pinegin S.A.


The cellular communication electromagnetic fields have become a significant physical environmental factor recently, which cannot but cause reasonable concern due to the possible adverse effects of human health. Experimental laboratory animal studies are an integral part of the development and substantiation maximal permissible levels, in which the blood system is an objective functional indicator of the electromagnetic field biological effects. Thus, the purpose of the research was to study the hematological parameters of the male and female rat blood of subacute multi-frequency electromagnetic exposure from cellular communication systems and possible long-term biological effects. The object of research was male and female Wistar line rats. There were multi-frequency 30-days electromagnetic field exposure with 500 μW/cm2 power density at 3.5, 28 and 37 GHz summary. Hematological parameters of peripheral rat blood of the experimental and control groups were determined at the end of 30 days of exposure and 30 days after exposure. 30 days exposure did not lead to statistically significant changes in the blood cell composition in either male or female rats compared with sham exposure. In post exposure period (30 days after), significant changes in hematological parameters shown female rats only, which consisted in a decrease in the average content (MCH) and the average concentration (MCHC) of hemoglobin (Hb) in erythrocyte (RBC), the level of leukocytes (WBC), lymphocytes (LYM) and an increase in monocytes (MON). There were no statistical changes in all hematological parameters in male rats. The research results suggest the development of aftereffect adaptive reactions in rats upon completion of subacute electromagnetic exposure and their correlation to the effect depending on the sex of the animal.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(1):67-75
pages 67-75 views


Designing a cultural landscape in order to preserve the natural and cultural heritage: on the example of the Neverskinsky District of the Penza Region

Artemova S.N.


Approaches to the preservation of natural, cultural and historical heritage are shown on the example of the administrative district. Along with the existing list of objects of natural and cultural heritage, it is proposed at the regional level to identify historical cultural landscapes, including villages with preserved ethnic culture and their natural environment, and to classify them as heritage sites. Landscape planning capabilities of ecological balance zones and tourist and recreational systems are shown on the example of the Neverskinsky District of the Penza Region. Historical cultural landscapes together with fragments of wildlife are attributed to the ecological framework of the countryside, which can be used as a tourist and recreational area.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(1):76-85
pages 76-85 views

Environmental Monitoring

First results of assessment of transport pressure on the RUDN University campus and the South-West Forest Park

Redina M.M., Khaustov A.P.


Preliminary results of the evaluation of transport pollution of the RUDN University campus (Moscow) and adjacent forest park are presented. These objects are under the conditions of intensive road and highway impact. The assessment of the load is carried out on the basis of data from the environmental monitoring system in operation since 2017, information from the accounting of vehicles on highways, using specific emission indicators (established experience). The territory is considered as a representative experimental ground for studying and modeling the flows of various types and forms of pollutants in the “atmosphere - soil - plants” system, as well as greenhouse gas flows. Such a variety and density of materials make it possible to reliably identify areas of influence of traffic flows on the territory and simulate the migration of pollutants. The focus is on tire wear products, asphalt, as well as engine emissions: solid particles and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The results obtained indicate a significant level of load and generally correspond to modern estimates of total transport loads in Moscow.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(1):86-91
pages 86-91 views

Methodological aspects of a new method for determining the mass of oil in bottom sediments of water bodies

Perminova V.V., Vorobiev D.S., Frank Y.A.


A method is proposed for determining the mass of oil pollution per unit area of bottom sediments of water bodies, which makes it possible to associate pollution not only with the concentration of pollutants, but also with the area of the reservoir. The approach relates to the field of environmental protection, in particular to the analytical control of the content of oil pollution in mineral, organogenic and mixed bottom sediments. It can be used for environmental monitoring of polluted water bodies, for assessing the damage caused to a water body, and for planning treatment works. The method for determining the mass of oil pollution per unit area of bottom sediments of water bodies includes sampling, drying the sample to an air-dry state, extraction of oil products from bottom sediments, chromatographic separation of oil products from associated organic compounds of other classes, quantitative determination of oil products by absorption intensity in the infrared spectrum. A survey of 88 oil-contaminated reservoirs within the Samotlor oil field in the north of Russia was carried out, in which the proposed method was tested.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(1):92-99
pages 92-99 views

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