RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics

Honorary Editor: Elena L. Grigorenko, Ph.D. in Psychology, D.Sс. in Psychology, Hugh Roy and Lillie Cranz Cullen Distinguished Professor of Psychology, Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience & Clinical Psychology Department, University of Houston, USA

Editor-in-Chief: Viktoria B. Kurilenko, D.Sс. in Education, Professor, Head of Department of Russian Language at the Faculty of Medicine, RUDN University, Russian Federation

Indexation: Russian Index of Science Citation, RSCI, PsycINFO (APA), DOAJ, Google Scholar, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, WorldCat, East View, Cyberleninka, Dimensions, ResearchBib, Lens, Microsoft Academic, Research4Life, JournalTOCs, British Library, Bodleian Libraries (University of Oxford), Ghent University Library

Open Access: Open Access

Founded in 2003. Publication frequency: quarterly.

Peer-Review: double blind. APC: no article processing charge.

ISSN: 2313-1683 (Print) ISSN: 2313-1705 (Online)

PUBLISHER: Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University)

Journal History


“RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics”   is a quarterly open access, peer reviewed academic journal, established in 2003. The journal is international with regard to its editorial board, experts, authors, and thematic foci of publications. The editorial board of the journal includes renowned scientists from France, Poland, Serbia, the USA, the United Arab Emirates, Belarus, and the Russian Federation.

The journal publishes the results of fundamental and applied scientific studies in the sphere of psychology, pedagogy, education.  The distinctive feature of the journal is the integrated research of a personality: its development, education, various aspects of social behavior, within the multidisciplinary context including the latest advances of the psychological and educational science, cross-cultural and cross-subject studies.

Main aims of the “RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics” are:

  • to promote scholarly exchange and collaboration among scientists from different countries in the field of psychological, educational, interdisciplinary research;
  • to disseminate knowledge about current trends, topical or developing areas of Russian and international psychological and educational science;
  • to publish the latest advances of Russian and international scholars with regard to topical problems and current interests in psychology, education and pedagogy.

We welcome research papers, systematic reviews, scientific reports, historical background information in Russian and English, written by scholars from different countries and various scientific schools. It reflects the common orientation of our journal’s philosophy and policy on the strengthening of international scientific cooperation.

“RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics” is included into the actual list of the academic journals enabled by State Commission for Academic Degrees and Titles of the Russian Federation to publish the doctoral dissertations results on 10 scientific specialties, among them are the following:

  • different subfields of educational science (general pedagogics and history of education, theory and methodology of different levels of education, methods of teaching);
  • different subfields of psychological science (general, social, personality, educational, cross-cultural, clinical, labor psychology, psychodiagnostics, psychophysiology, acmeology, history of psychology).

The journal is included into PsycINFO, the database of the American Psychological Association, which is one of the oldest (contains information since 1887) and the largest (currently contains more than 4 million entries in psychology and related sciences) professional psychological database in the world.

All volumes and articles of the journal, published since 2017, have DOI. Digital Object Identification of the most prominent archive papers, published before 2017, is now in progress.

The journal offers open access to its full-text content, registered with DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals) under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The editorial board strictly follows international standards of publication ethics, declared by COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics):

“RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics” is addressed to scientists, researchers, teachers, practical psychologists, educators, as well as postgraduate students, students and all those interested in modern psychology and pedagogy.




Theory of Social Representation around the World

Dear Colleagues!

2020 marks the 95th anniversary of Serge Moskovici (1925–2014), an outstanding French social psychologist and founder of the Theory of Social Representations. To commemorate this event, our Journal published biographical article “On Serge Moscovici’s 95th anniversary: The Theory of Social Representations — history, postulates and dissemination” by Professor Pascal Moliner (translated into English by Prof. I.Bovina).):

In anticipation of 60th anniversary of the Theory of Social Representations (TSR), the international editorial board of RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics is pleased to announce that the second issue of 2021 will be devoted to the development of the TSR in Russia and in the world (Theory of Social Representations around the World).

Guest Co-Editors of the Special Issue:

Dr. Pascal Moliner (Ph.D. in Psychology, Professor at Laboratory EPSYLON EA4556, University Paul Valéry Montpellier 3, France), one of the leading modern scientist in the field of TSR in the world, the author of numerous articles and monographs on TSR in French and English.

Dr. Inna B. Bovina (Ph.D. in Psychology, Professor at Department of Clinical and Legal Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Russia, editorial board member of our Journal) one of the leading modern representatives of the TSR in the Russia; the author of articles and monographs on applied aspects of TSR in Russian, French and English.

 The special issue will include three types of articles:

  • Scientific articles on the theoretical, methodological and applied aspects of the TSR (reviews, theoretical, methodological, and research articles); volume: 30–55 thousand characters with spaces (including references), abstract: 150–250 words, 5–10 key words;
  • Biographical articles (articles about prominent representatives of the TSR); volume: 10–30 thousand characters with spaces (list of references is facultative, photographs are optional), abstract: 50–100 words, 5–7 key words;
  • Scientific chronicle (book reviews, reviews and announcements of conferences, scientific events in the context of the TSR of 2019–2022); volume: 5–20 thousand characters.

Articles can be submitted in Russian and English (APA style) via e-mail:

The submission deadline is 15 March, 2021.

Brief information about Journal

Posted: 17.02.2021

Positive Psychology across Cultures

We are pleased to announce that the next issue of our journal will be devoted to the development of Positive Psychology in Russia and in the world (Positive Psychology across Cultures).

The guest co-editor of the special issue is Grant J. Rich, PhD LMT BCTMB ( – the author, co-author and editor of articles and books on various issues of positive psychology and its internationalization.

The special issue will include three types of articles:

1) Scientific articles on the problems of positive psychology (reviews, theoretical, historical and research articles);

2) Biographical articles (articles about prominent representatives of positive psychology in different countries);

3) Scientific chronicle (book reviews, reviews and announcements of conferences, scientific events on positive psychology in 2019 - 2021).

Articles can be submitted in Russian and English (APA style) via e-mail:

The submission deadline is 1 September, 2020.

Posted: 26.07.2020

Russian Science Citation Index

Dear Colleagues!

We are happy to inform you that RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics has been accepted into RSCI (Russian Science Citation Index) on the Web of Science platform.

RSCI is a joint project of Clarivate Analytics and the Scientific Electronic Library eLIBRARY.RU. Currently RSCI includes 792 best Russian journals.

You can contact with the Editorial board via e-mail:

Posted: 04.05.2020
More Announcements...

Current Issue

Vol 17, No 4 (2020): Contemporary Positive Psychology in Russia and in the World

Positive Psychology Celebrates its 20th Anniversary!
Rich G.J., Kurilenko V.B., Novikova I.A.


RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(4):575-585
Resiliency and Culture: An Interdisciplinary Approach
Abi-Hashem N.

In recent years, the topics of psychosocial resiliency and cultural competency have been on the forefronts of many academic disciplines and human-care services. This article explores the meaning, nature, and function of resiliency and provides an overview of its foundational role and integrative place in the fields of psychology, pedagogy, physiology, psychotherapy, spirituality, and community. All these explorations and discussions are presented from a sociocultural and interdisciplinary perspective. Most areas of learning and spheres of knowledge could further be advanced if they continue to incorporate cultural resiliency into their basic training approaches and ongoing skillful apprenticeships. This article emphasizes that the essence and manifestation of resiliency is rooted, not only in individual traits or abilities, but also in the capital resources already stored in the larger community - in its cultural wealth and generational wisdom. Resiliency is both an innate capacity, with various dispositions that is dormant within people and groups, and a skill that is gradually learned, intentionally established, and consistently built-up and developed. Then, it will be readily applied as a way-of-life, natural tendency, refined asset, and potential drive or passion for higher-functioning and livelihood, especially in time of adversity, misfortune, and calamity. This article encourages the practice of cross-cultural competence and cross-disciplinary growth. It promotes multi-academic learning and collaboration in order to foster a comprehensive resiliency-training and a dependable approach for survival-coping. Also, this article encourages an enduring social awareness, a continuous emotional empowerment, and a relational respect coupled with cultural humility.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(4):586-603
Posttraumatic Growth in Cambodia: A Mixed Methods Study
Badaracco J., Sirikantraporn S., Rich G.J., Green J., Porter M.C.

The majority of psychological research has focused heavily on the negative outcomes of trauma and tends to ignore the positive outcomes of experiencing traumatic events. Posttraumatic growth (PTG) is a concept that stems from positive psychology and was originally developed by R.G. Tedeschi and L.G. Calhoun (2004). PTG is the process of growth after trauma and has been divided into five domains: greater appreciation for life, more intimate relationships, personal strength, recognition of new possibilities, and spiritual development. This mixed methods study utilizes archival data collected in 2015-2016 at the American University of Phnom Penh to examine the experience of growth after trauma that 70 Cambodian participants faced from a quantitative and qualitative perspective. Quantitative analysis determined that the Adult Resilience Measure (ARM) and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) were considered internally reliable and valid measures when used with Cambodians. It was determined that the number of traumatic events one experiences does not influence one’s ability to experience PTG or resiliency and the concepts of PTG and resiliency are correlated. The qualitative analysis utilized grounded theory to develop a theory of PTG within Cambodia. These results indicated that Cambodians experience PTG in four core categories including: personal strength, relational strength, avenues of growth and religion/spirituality. The quantitative and qualitative results illustrate that Cambodians experience PTG in a similar manner when compared to the original PTG theory. However, there are cultural nuances that must be taken into account when exploring PTG within the Cambodian population.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(4):604-623
Meaning-Making, Forgiveness, and Gratitude: Nurturing a Healthy, Peaceful, and Prosperous Haiti
Kalayjian A.
We have witnessed the growth and resilience of the Haitian people since 2010 and the devastating earthquake, in over fourteen humanitarian missions. In addition, MeaningfulWorld’s global presence, which aims to raise consciousness and nurture resilience and sustainability among local and global communities in Haiti, has highlighted perspectives from vulnerable and marginalized groups including children, women, and traumatized refugees. The results of this work has addressed the ultimate question in resolving emotional and psychological scars and promoting meaning, healing, hope, reconciliation, and trust: what lessons have we learned from our traumatic past? For MeaningfulWorld ambassadors, the only healthy and permanent means of resolution for past traumas is through integration of emotional intelligence (EQ), spiritual connections, love, meaning-making, forgiveness, and empathy, and nurturing gratitude as a basic foundation. This paper will describe the value of cultivating gratitude as a foundation and utilizing forgiveness and meaning-making through post trauma growth, building resilience, and emotional intelligence. Although historically Haiti has shown resilience, while the lessons learned are not only unclear, it is fragmented, misguided, and focused on fear derived from mass spread of horizontal violence, where the majority of the Haitian population pull one another down, and call it the ‘Haitian disease.’
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(4):624-636
Personal Spiritual-Moral Qualities and Empathy as Components of Higher Moral Capacities: Verification of the Relationship based on a Russian Sample
Ozhiganova G.V.

For contemporary societies, psychological research on moral behaviour, moral manifestations and personality traits has acquired special relevance. In addition, the recent rise of positive psychology offers an important perspective on the study of spiritual-moral qualities (virtues), demonstrating the degree to which a person’s happiness in life relates to high spiritual-moral guidelines. Various aspects of personal spirituality, morality and empathy are actively being studied by international scientists; however, in Russian psychology, studies on this topic are scarce. Utilizing a Russian sample, such a study, including the context of higher moral capacities, was conducted for the first time. The theoretical part of this article addresses the issues related to the higher moral capacities, providing definitions and indicating difference between moral capacities and moral abilities: higher moral capacities appropriately belong to the category of spiritual capacities. As part of higher moral capacities, the following components are distinguished: spiritual-moral qualities as a manifestation of a spiritual altruistic orientation and empathy as a manifestation of moral feelings associated with decentration, empathic feeling and empathic care. The relationship between these components is analysed in the empirical part of the article. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between indicators of personal spiritual-moral qualities and empathy. The data for the study were collected and processed using The Spiritual Personality Inventory by A. Husain, M. Anas (adapted by G.V. Ozhiganova) and The Interpersonal Reactivity Index by M. Davis (adapted by N.A. Budagovskaya, S.V. Dubrovskaya and T.D. Karyagina). The empirical study involved 90 high school students (girls represented 56% of the sample). The results confirmed our hypothesis: a correlation analysis revealed a relationship between indicators of personal spiritual-moral qualities and empathy in three aspects: (1) cognitive (the ‘Decentration’ scale), (2) affective (the ‘Empathic Feeling’ scale) and (3) behavioural (the ‘Empathic Care’ scale). No relationship was found with the ‘Personal Distress’ scale reflecting non-spiritual, egocentric tendencies. These findings allow us to consider spiritual-moral qualities (related to a spiritual altruistic orientation) and empathy (disclosed as ‘decentration’, ‘empathic feeling’ and ‘empathic care’) as components of higher moral capacities.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(4):637-655
Selection of Educational Routes by High School and College Graduates: A Positive Psychology Approach
Lubovsky D.V.
Utilizing both perspectives from modern positive psychology and common, conventional theories, this article examines how graduates of high schools and colleges choose individual educational routes (IER). The significance of the issue of choosing IERs is discussed; additionally, the current state of research in this area is described. Methodological difficulties were revealed in the study of the choice of IERs by graduates of high schools and colleges and in the practice of psychological and pedagogical support for choice. Major contradictions and unresolved problems were identified in the theory and practice of psychological and pedagogical support for graduates of high schools and colleges in choosing their IERs. The most important data and findings on the choice of IERs made by modern high school and college students are presented, contradictions in the available data are revealed, and the specific features in disabled students’ choosing IERs are described. In addition, an analysis of the main approaches to studies of students’ choice of IERs (sociological, subjective and based on positive psychology) was conducted. Furthermore, the importance of positive psychology for solving existing problems in research and in the practice of psychological and pedagogical support for graduates of high schools and colleges in choosing IERs was described. The article provides a brief overview of recent positive psychology research on the choice of educational routes, and outlines the prospects for its application in solving urgent research and practical problems related to psychological and pedagogical support for students’ choice of IERs.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(4):656-670
Cognitive Factors of Life Satisfaction among the Russian Elderly
Belovol E.V., Boyko Z.V., Shurupova E.Y.

The overall aim of this article was to examine factors related to life satisfaction in old age. There are several approaches to understanding life satisfaction in psychology. Some theories that emphasize objective circumstances as most influential for life satisfaction are commonly labelled bottom-up theories, whereas theories that focus on stable individual characteristics are commonly labelled top-down theories. It is argued that certain personality traits, in particular extraversion and neuroticism, partly determine a person’s satisfaction with life. At the same time, cognitive factors related to life satisfaction are rarely the subject of empirical research. In this study, age, social status (works, does not work, in retirement), type of family (nuclear or extended), and a number of indices of cognitive functioning (cognitive flexibility, memory - short-term and long-term, creativity and thinking) were used as predictor variables of life satisfaction. Ninety-seven respondents aged 50-84 participated in the research, which finds that, along with non-cognitive factors of life satisfaction, cognitive factors play great roles as well. Based on the data obtained, an empirical model of cognitive factors of life satisfaction was constructed. This research demonstrates that all cognitive variables examined (flexibility of thinking, long-term memory, short-term memory, thinking and creativity) make positive contributions to increasing satisfaction; notably the roles of long-term memory and creativity are especially salient. This study also found satisfaction is significantly higher among working older respondents when compared with their non-working colleagues, with the oldest employees the most satisfied. Family status is a factor related to life satisfaction in old age as well, since old people who live with a spouse are more satisfied than those who live in extended families with children and grandchildren. A regression model combined variables from top-down and bottom-up theories. The model includes memory and age as personal characteristics, and family type as a circumstantial predictor for life satisfaction in old age.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(4):671-684
Wisdom as a Factor in Preventing Emotional Burnout among Medical Professionals
Mekhtikhanova N.N., Murzina J.S., Rusakova J.E.

The authors of this article examine wisdom as an internal resource in a sample of medical workers that can prevent the development of unhealthy deviations and preserve professional and life longevity. The aim of this work was to study the relationship between wisdom and emotional burnout in medical personnel. The article provides a theoretical analysis of the study of emotional burnout in medical workers, offers a description of the phenomenon of wisdom, and describes foreign empirical research on wisdom in the medical field. To collect data, the authors used The Level of Wisdom Questionnaire by N.N. Mehtikhanova and The Inventory for Diagnosing Emotional Burnout by V.V. Boyko. An empirical study conducted with 184 employees of the Tyumen Regional Clinical Hospital found signs of emotional burnout in 53.8% of the respondents. A comparison of groups of the surveyed medical workers having different levels of emotional burnout revealed significant differences in terms of wisdom. A correlation analysis showed a negative relationship between wisdom and emotional burnout of the medical personnel ( rs = -0.48, p < 0.001). A comparison between the groups of male and female respondents showed significant differences in terms of wisdom ( U = 1267.50, p = 0.016) and in terms of emotional burnout ( U = 1253.00, p = 0.013): wisdom was higher in the group of men, while emotional burnout was higher in the group of women. A pairwise comparison using the Mann - Whitney U -test revealed differences in wisdom between the groups of junior medical personnel and managers ( U = 31.00, p = 0.007) as well as between the groups of nurses and managers ( U = 326.00, p < 0.001). Wisdom in both cases was higher for the group of managers. In sum, results of this study found that wisdom helps medical personnel resist burnout syndrome. The formation of this quality will help medical workers to better preserve their mental health and professional longevity.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(4):685-704
The Relationships between Moral Foundations, Social Beliefs and Attitudes towards Economic Inequality among Russian Youth: A Case Study of Altai Krai
Sychev O.A., Protasova I.N.

This article presents the results of an empirical study on the relationships between moral foundations, social beliefs and attitudes towards economic inequality among young people. The topic of attitudes towards economic inequality has primarily been considered by sociologists and economists in the context of group differences, while its psychological factors and correlations have remained understudied. Different negative consequences of economic inequality can be mediated by such psychological mechanisms as subjective perception of existing inequality or personal attitudes towards it, which indicate the significance of this problem. In our study, we put forward a hypothesis that attitudes towards economic inequality among young people are related to moral foundations and social beliefs. To test this hypothesis, a study was conducted with a sample of 215 students (21% of the sample were male). The subjects completed The Scales of Dangerous World Beliefs and Jungle World Beliefs by J. Duckitt, The Moral Foundations Questionnaire by J. Graham and colleagues, and The Scale of Beliefs about Inequality by J. Kluegel and E. Smith. One of the objectives of this study was the development of a Russian version of the questionnaire by J. Kluegel and E. Smith, which full version is given in the appendix of the article. The correlations revealed that attitudes towards inequality are related to moral foundations (fairness, purity, and loyalty) and beliefs in a jungle world. Additionally, structural equation modeling has shown that approval of equality and inequality is most closely related to family welfare. Furthermore, this study found that the relationship between attitudes towards inequality and individualizing moral foundations is mediated by beliefs in a jungle world. Thus, sense of fairness and the value of caring for the weak and defenseless is opposed to beliefs in a jungle world and approval of inequality.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(4):705-718
Relationship between Perfectionism and Forms of Social Activity of Russian Young People: The Case of the Saratov Region
Bocharova E.E.

The phenomenology of positive psychology is associated, first of all, with the assessment of the positive significance of mental phenomena, processes, states and properties of an individual, a qualitative analysis of which makes it possible to determine the degree of realisation of personal capabilities in various spheres of life, contributing to the maintenance and improvement of significant resources of one’s own self. In this regard, of particular interest is the development of the topic of the relationship between perfectionism and forms of social activity of an individual, since the case in hand is the role of individuals and their subjective properties as a resource of not only personal, but also social, capital. The purpose of the study presented in the article is to conduct an empirical study regarding the relationship between perfectionism and various forms of personal social activity. The study involved representatives of student youth aged between 16 and 19 years ( N = 236): high school students ( n = 118) and university students ( n = 118) in Saratov and the Saratov region (Russia). The methodological tools included: a questionnaire aimed at registering various forms of social activity and their manifestations (R.M. Shamionov, I.V. Arendachuk, E.E. Bocharova and others) and The Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (P.L. Hewitt, G.L. Flett, adapted by I.I. Gracheva) to study the relationships between the manifestations of the parameters of perfectionism. The hypothesis of the study was the assumption of the presence of multidirectional relationships between the manifestations of the parameters of perfectionism and self-assessments of various forms of social activity. As a result of the study, the authors established the dominant manifestation of the internal locus of perfectionism and identified the presence of multidirectional relationships between perfectionism and forms of social activity of the students, which made it possible to clarify the specifics of its functional manifestation in the deployment (or limitation) of social activities. It was shown that when the internal locus of perfectionism was fixed, the social and economic activities of the students were deployed, while the educational, spiritual, protest and subcultural activities were limited. However, when the external locus of perfectionism was fixed, the young people initiated subcultural activities against the background of limited educational and developmental activities. In sum, findings from this research can be implemented in the practice of advisory services in educational institutions, and in the organization of socially useful activities for young people, by taking into account their perfectionist orientation.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(4):719-737
Adaptation of a shortened version of Peterson and Seligman’s Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS) with a Russian-language sample
Bashkatov S.A.

The Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS) designed by C. Peterson and M. Seligman is in widespread use in modern psychological research. It includes 240 questions aimed at describing personal qualities relating to a person’s strengths and virtues of character. In 2002, M. Seligman published an abridged version of the VIA-IS in English, measuring the same strengths as the full version of the inventory, but containing 48 items instead of 240. There is no doubt about the convenience of using the abridged version of this questionnaire for conducting large-scale studies on large samples of respondents. Following this logic, the purpose of this research was to adapt this shortened version of the VIA-IS for a Russian-speaking sample. Examination of data gathered from 239 respondents revealed sufficient internal consistency of the inventory: all six of the scales demonstrated sufficient values of Cronbach’s alpha coefficients. Verification of the inventory for retest reliability, carried out six months after the first testing, yielded positive results: it was determined that the correlation coefficients of the data on the scales were within required values for adequate test-retest reliability. A convergent validity test also showed good results. The conformity of the factor structure of the Russian-language abbreviated VIA-IS to the original English-language abbreviated inventory was verified using confirmatory factor analysis. In conclusion, the Russian-language version of the abridged VIA-IS can be used for the psychological measurement of personality strengths of mentally healthy Russian respondents within the context of the positive psychology framework.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(4):738-754
Book Review of Lambert, L., & Pasha-Ziadi, N. (Eds.). (2019). Positive Psychology in the Middle East/North Africa: Research, Policy, and Practice. Cham, Switzerland: Springer
Rich G.J.


RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(4):755-758
Book Review of Congress, E.P., Takooshian, H., & Asper, A. (Eds.). (2020). Behavioral Science in the Global Arena. Vol. 1. Addressing Timely Issues at the United Nations and Beyond. Charlotte NC: Information Age Publishing
Roth R.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(4):759-763
United Nations Psychology Day 2020 focused on Multilateralism
Sandanapitchai P., Takooshian H.
As the United Nations marks its 75th anniversary in 2020, psychologists are increasingly involved in the work of the UN since 1945. This reached new heights on May 27, 2020, as the 13th annual Psychology Day at the United Nations drew a record attendance of 1,271 participants from 104 nations, to hear four international psychologists describe different aspects of their work on “multilateralism.” This report offers a summary of the Day, including its four messages by Drs. Fathali Moghaddam, Susan Michie, Michele Gelfand, and Sarah Lyons-Padilla.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(4):764-769

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