Vol 26, No 4 (2018)

ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Some estimates of human capital and its role in the economic development of Russia
Baranova N.M.
Abstract

Innovation is the main source of long-term economic growth, the basis of competitiveness in world markets and the source of solutions to social challenges, and human capital (HC) is the driver of economic efficiency and achievement of the country’s competitive advantages. Unfortunately, Russia is far behind the capacity not only of the developed world, but also to fast-growing economies, in most indicators that characterize the level of development of scientific and technical potential. This problem is further exacerbated by the negative dynamics of the HC. The technological inferiority can lead the country to dependence on highly developed countries, and, consequently, to worsening of its security situation and loss of sovereignty, to weakening and “diluting” the country’s HC. To address these problems, Mr. Vladimir Putin, President of the Russian Federation, signed the “May decree” defining the national development goals of the country until 2024. There was carried out data analysis of the reports of the UN, the World Bank, WEF in Davos, Russian Federal State Statistics Service and other sources to explore the level of the development of the Russian HC and its role in the national development. There were completed the calculations of the Human Development Index (HDI) according to the UN methodology for 2025 and 2030 on their basis. Econometric models for analyzing and forecasting the development of the Russian HC in the near future under different scenarios were constructed with the Eviews 9.5. The forecasting calculations of the HDI showed that if the “May Decree” is implemented at least to a greater extent, many of the Presidential instructions to the Federal Assembly will be fulfilled, and the digitalization of the Russian economy will contribute to “the country’s entry into the top 10 countries with economic growth rates higher than the world”.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2018;26(4):559-569
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Economic and innovative development of Russia and World: trends and landscape
Gladysheva I.V.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the analysis of the main factors of innovative spatial development that affect the economy of Russia and the world. The purpose of the article is to identify trends in Russia’s innovative development and “new” aspirants for world innovative leadership. Analysis of differences in the state of spatial innovation development, including the identification of features and factors of influence on the economy, has made it possible to note the limitations of existing approaches for assessing the innovative development of countries, including Russia, and to propose an authorial approach to the formation of a model of the interconnection of modern markets. The author’s idea of the model of innovative development in the system of economic development of the country is presented in the form of a conceptual model for the formation of an innovative landscape in which a qualitative aspect of management plays a special role: defining the requirements for the innovative character of development management, using new ideas, technologies and management methods at the state level. The study of the new innovative landscape of Russia and other countries of the world, as a result of the assessment of spatial innovation development, suggests the definition of new solutions in the field of innovative development at the regional and world level.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2018;26(4):570-584
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INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION MARKETS
The use of modern technologies in agriculture as a means of increasing productivity and minimizing losses in terms of import substitution
Vartanova M.L.
Abstract

This article discusses the development of new technologies that can increase productivity, reduce production costs and improve product quality. Much attention is paid to the problems of choice, and the use of equipment, because the lack of advanced technology hinders the production of agricultural products, not allowing it to fully break into the world arena. In the article the author reveals the need to find new innovative approaches to the organization of work processes and resource consumption, a new progressive approach to the process of automation of agriculture, which in turn will bring the industry out of stagnation and get the most out of the fertility of our soils.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2018;26(4):585-597
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Economic efficiency of the nuclear power industry and social aspects of its development
Lukyanets A.S., Nguyen C.T., Moiseeva E.M.
Abstract
The article attempts to develop a system of parameters for an objective and comprehensive assessment of the efficiency of the nuclear power industry in terms of its contribution to the country’s economic and social development, as well as its environmental well-being and its geopolitical position. Currently, nuclear power industry makes up a significant part of the energy supplies in the developed countries throughout the world. However, in the developing economies, including those of East and Southeast Asia, it plays a less prominent role. Nevertheless, in recent years, China has been the leader in commissioning new atomic facilities, thanks to the consistent implementation of its state program for the development of the nuclear power industry. Forecasts indicate that in the near future, the share of atomic energy will remain stable and account for about 10 % of all global energy capacity, which is confirmed by the estimates made during the study. However, in the long term nuclear energy cannot be ignored as an economically efficient and environmentally friendly source of energy, as well as a factor in improving the quality of life of the population when developing a strategy for the sustainable development of a country. The article examines the already existing assessment criteria for the economic efficiency of nuclear power plants (NPPs), and proposes new standards for the assessment of its contribution to the development of the community and a country’s stance on the global political stage. The article also identifies the main obstacles to the further development of the industry in the modern world. The research showed that the main specific feature of an NPP operation from the economic point of view is extremely high initial construction and commissioning costs, with relatively low further operation costs, which determines long payback lines and liquidity shortages reducing the attractiveness of such projects for potential investors. These peculiarities determine the leading role of state authorities in the launch, operation and modernization of nuclear power facilities.
RUDN Journal of Economics. 2018;26(4):598-608
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Mexico’s energy reform: experience and lessons of the energy sector transformation in South America
Ojeda Kalluni E., Chadaeva E.A.
Abstract

The study of fuel and energy complex of Mexico occupies a very important place in the world’s leading research centers. Among Russian and foreign studies there are a number of works that consider the problems and peculiarities of fuel and energy complex of the countries of Latin America including Mexico. This article is devoted to the analysis of Mexico’s energy reform and use their experiences to transform the energy sector of the countries of South America. Presents the history of the Mexican energy reform. Discusses basic principles of energy reform and energy security of the country. It also examines the factors that Mexico should include in its energy policy and management system to ensure the safe delivery of energy across the country. Offers a brief overview of the current state of TEK of Mexico. Mexico has a large and varied potential for producing energy from renewable sources. With the recent opening of the energy sector, the country has the necessary conditions to attract major investments to develop projects on renewable energy. The liberalization of the sector allows Mexico to meet the growing energy demand and to diversify its productive matrix, creating at the same time as energy security and reduce greenhouse gases, positively affecting the environment. Reform of the energy sector of Mexico and the analysis of the sector in this country can be of great importance for the transformation of the energy sector in many countries of the region, especially in places such as Argentina, Brazil and Venezuela.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2018;26(4):609-619
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Support tools of Russia’s oil and gas industry under western sanctions restrictions
Chernyaev M.V., Korenevskaya A.V.
Abstract

The article discusses the possibilities of promoting the development of the Russian’s oil and gas industry in the current unstable political and economic conditions. The analysis of tools and mechanisms to support the oil and gas industry to ensure energy independence and improve energy security of the fuel and energy complex of the Russian Federation through import substitution of critical technologies, development of legislative and tax measures to stimulate the development of the Russian state company. The authors of the study assess the effectiveness of state and corporate import substitution plans, external trade contracts and markets, as well as provide a forecast of possible ways of development of the oil and gas complex of Russia, taking into account sanctions restrictions, fuel prices and in the future competition with alternative energy sources. The implementation of effective state support for the Russian’s oil and gas industry can contribute to the development of scientific and technological potential of companies to implement the import substitution program, as well as to strengthen the position of the Russian Federation in the global system of energy resources.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2018;26(4):620-629
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REGIONAL ECONOMY
Recreational agglomeration as a historically established trend in the process of urbanization in recreational areas
Voitehovsky D.V.
Abstract

We substantiated the uniqueness of recreational agglomerations as a separate functional type and considered features of the process of urbanization in recreational areas with a secondary type of appearance of recreational functions. It is spoken in detail about existing scientific literature on the problems and indicated the existing “white spots” which requiring deeper scientific study. The main methodological principles are indicated, on the basis of which a subsequent deep analysis of the process of agglomeration in recreational areas was carried out. The peculiarities of the urbanization process in recreational areas with the secondary type of recreational functions appearance are considered. Basis on this we presented the author’s scheme which reflects the evolution of the urbanization process in the recreational area. The much attention is given to interrelations between the rapid development of recreational functions and agglomeration in the region. The author’s scheme of the features of the formation process of the planning structure of recreational settlements is presented, on the basis of which the analysis of the main transformations of the planning structure of coastal recreational cities in the socio-economic conditions characteristic of the historical past of the Russian Federation was carried out. We studied the main problems and internal conflicts of recreational agglomerations as complex polyfunctional systems. The nature and sources of hotbeds of tension in urban recreational centers are considered, on the basis of which their classification is derived. After we presented a detailed analysis of the identified types of conflicts and gives examples of hotbeds typical for large urban recreational centers. Based on the selected types, we give some recommendations aimed at overcoming the main problematic situations of recreational agglomerations in conclusion we indicated the possibilities of alternative ways of development of the urbanization process in recreational areas, which allow to prevent a high level of social tension in the system of settlement of recreational areas.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2018;26(4):630-642
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Spatial differentiation of activity of nonresident buyers in the housing market in the Moscow region
Kurichev N.K., Kuricheva E.K.
Abstract

Housing construction in the Moscow agglomeration is closely linked with the migration of the population to the capital region. The acquisition of real estate by nonresident buyers in the primary market of the Moscow capital region (MСR) in the amount of 2.5 mln m2 provides housing for about 100 000 migrants per year, or about 40 % of the net migration inflow. Buyers from other regions account for 17 % of transactions in Moscow and 23 % in Moscow Oblast. The activity of buyers in the real estate market of the MCR has a spatial differentiation by the Russian regions, which is determined by the factors of natural resource rents, agglomeration effect, the status rents in the large cities, the distance from the MCR. Regional identity of buyers was determined by the addresses of their initial registration. Factor of natural resource rents is evident in the high share (6.4 %) of housing buyers in Moscow from Khanty-Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs that is almost four times higher than their share in the population. The factor of distance leads to exceeding 2.1 times the share of housing buyers in Moscow from the neighboring regions of the first order over their shares in the population. The greatest activity in the housing market of Moscow is characteristic for residents of cities with the 250 000-500 000 population, of Moscow Oblast - with the 100 000-250 000 population. The share of buyers from the million-plus cities (17.7 %) is slightly greater than their share in the population. Small towns and rural areas have weak buying activity in the housing market. Thus, the development of alternative to Moscow centers of attraction at the national level is associated with a change in migration incentives for residents of cities with 100 000-500 000 population.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2018;26(4):643-652
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Evolution of the spatial structure of the urban system of settlement in the coastal zones of European Russia
Sukhinin S.A.
Abstract

The study of the development of settlement systems has traditionally been included in sphere of public geography and regional economics. Based on statistical material, the author characterizes the urban system of settlement in coastal zones of European part of Russia. The author analyzes the structural differences between the Northern and Southern coastal macrozones, the features of cities location and their functional specialization. Is emphasized the role of “sea factor” in the history of origin and development, the dynamics of population of coastal cities. The author shows the dominant influence of demographic, socio-economic and administrative factors on evolution of spatial structure on the urban settlement system in the coastal zones of European Russia in recent decades. Conclusions are drawn about polarization of the urban settlement system in direction of population concentration in urban agglomerations and strengthening of their role in social and economic development.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2018;26(4):653-661
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Selected problems and roles of innovation development in the Slovak Republic
Gonda V.
Abstract

In the current conditions of globalization, the importance of innovation is growing. Innovation is a key to sustainable growth, a tool to increase the competitiveness of companies, regions, states and integration groups, a means to address societal challenges. The European Union pays great attention to innovation efforts - f.e. through the group-wide strategies of competitiveness such as the Lisbon strategy and the Europe 2020 strategy. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the fulfillment of the Europe 2020 national goals for Slovakia in the field of smart growth, to analyze selected issues of innovative development in Slovakia and to propose possible measures for its improvement. As the subject matter is extremely complex and multitangular, the paper discusses only selected issues and questions.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2018;26(4):662-673
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Ethno-demographic position of Serb population in Republic of Slovenia after the dissolution of former Yugoslavia
Medar-Tanjga I.
Abstract
The problem of Serb population in Republic of Slovenia is a paradigm of all the problems that have arisen with the dissolution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Political and geographic processes during this disintegration led to the creation of new political and territorial subjectivities, with significantly changed conditions of ethno-cultural and ethno-demographic development. Serbs who lived in the same country now are living in Diaspora with limiting institutional framework of development. The contemporary ethno-demographic position of Serbs in Slovenia is conditioned by numerous regional (Balkan) and local determinants. The number of Serbs, territorial arrangement, their awareness of ethnic affiliation, mutual relations within the community, relations with the country in which they live, relations with the states they came from, all together with the influences of surroundings, are essential elements of their position in Slovenia. This position was different in different historical epochs and required different forms of action to preserve the ethnic identity of this community. Serbs in Slovenia went from constituency and equality to ignorance and eradication, they have not been officially recognized as minority, although the existence of an indigenous community in Bela Krajina presents a historical basis for their better status. Minority status is very important, although for the preservation and development of national and cultural identity is not decisive. Namely, apart from legal regulations, stable and favorable social and political circumstances are needed to preserve the identity of each minority.
RUDN Journal of Economics. 2018;26(4):674-684
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Disintegration of the former SFR Yugoslavia and changes in the ethno-confessional structure of some cities of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Zekanović I., Gnjato R.
Abstract
Disintegration of Yugoslav state union, which was carried out marked by ethnic conflicts and creation of new political and geographical subjectivities, resulted in major changes in ethnical and ethno-confessional structure of most of the urban settlements in Bosnia and Herzegovina and especially those which until 1992 had a heterogeneous structure according to listed features. In this context, the biggest changes were recorded in three urban settlements: Sarajevo, Banja Luka and Mostar. Today, these settlements have a role of poles of development and affirmation of individual ethno-national ethno-confessional interests. Sarajevo - of Bosniaks and Islam, Banja Luka - of Serbs and Orthodoxy and Mostar - of Croats and Catholicism. Changes in ethnical and ethno-confessional structure of population of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the period from 1992 to 1995, strongly contributed to the territorial organization of Bosnia and Herzegovina into two entities, the Republic of Srpska with Serbian majority and Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina within which the cantons are formed either with the Croatian or Bosniak majority. This division of Bosnia and Herzegovina, according to ethnical or ethno-confessional principle, is again a source of different, and usually conflicting, geopolitical relations and aspirations between mentioned constituents.
RUDN Journal of Economics. 2018;26(4):685-696
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INTERNATIONAL LABOR MARKET AND INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
Role of Iranian immigrants in Iran - Russia trade development
Afzali M.
Abstract
Migration and international trade are two important dimensions of globalization. Migration plays an important role in development of countries. Immigrants send their remittances, ideas, innovation and investments to their home countries. Migrants can influence on countries’ trade, they are able to decrease the transactional costs for companies willing to trade. In this article has been tried to study the case of Iranian immigrants in Russia. We can see that Iranians have migrated mostly to developed countries such as USA, Europe, Australia, Canada and part of them have migrated to the Persian Gulf countries. And of course many of these immigrants have high levels of economic, human, social, and cultural potential, which can be used for social and economic development of the country. Iranians have migrated to two kinds of countries. First, those who are developed and second those with high income which have the potential of trade with Iran. When we look at these two groups they either migrated to American and European countries, which this group has a high educated and human capital background or they migrated to neighbor Persian Gulf countries that they have mostly strong economic backgrounds which increased the chance of trade. In this article Iranian businessmen have been interviewed and they have explained their roles in trade, and if they had any advantages in comparison with those in the home country.
RUDN Journal of Economics. 2018;26(4):697-705
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Academic mobility of Russian scientists: from “brain drain” to “brain circulation” model
Rostovskaya T.К., Pismennaya E.Е., Skorobogatova V.I.
Abstract
Academic mobility is one of the key directions of development of intellectual potential and realization of professional opportunities of both youth and highly qualified specialists, scientists and teachers. This category of the population is the intellectual potential of the country, able to carry out an “innovative breakthrough” of the economy, able to act as a mechanism for strengthening the integration processes in the Eurasian space (within the EAEU and SCO), as well as to become a certain reserve for the demographic development of some Russian regions. The term “circulation of minds” is defined, which has become increasingly used in relation to the emigration of specialists from Russia. The circulation of minds implies that the migration of highly skilled professionals and scientists follows the movement of capital and projects, is temporary and returnable. The concept of “academic mobility” is specified and its key characteristics are given. The evaluation of the implementation of international programs to promote academic mobility, including such programs as Erasmus Mundus, DAAD, Tempus, Fulbright Program, etc., which allow participating countries to obtain positive socio-economic, scientific and demographic effects. Unfortunately, this potential of educational migration is not fully realized in Russia. In addition, the Russian science lacks the necessary amount of scientific research on the problems of academic mobility, which is largely due to the negative “color” of educational migration in the country, due to the significant attention to the problem of “brain drain”. Nevertheless, in our opinion, Russia has enormous unrealized potential and unique opportunities for the development of academic mobility. In conclusion, there are proposals for the formation of Russia’s policy in relation to the development of academic mobility, maintaining a positive trend to attract highly skilled migrants from near and far abroad, but also for the further development of forms of academic mobility.
RUDN Journal of Economics. 2018;26(4):706-717
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Labour immigration to Russia: myths and contrarguments
Ryazantsev S.V.
Abstract

The article analyzes the role of immigration and labor immigration in the demographic and socio-economic development of Russia in the post-Soviet period. Two main migration flows (immigration for permanent residence and labor immigration) to the country are analyzed on the basis of both absolute numbers and socio-demographic structure. The four most common myths regarding the negative impact of labor migration on the socio-economic situation in Russia are considered in detail: immigration hampers technological re-equipment and the renewal of the Russian economy; immigrants squeeze national labor from the Russian labor market; immigrants contribute to the dumping of wages on the Russian labor market; immigrants are to blame for raising the retirement age in Russia. The author’s counterarguments on each of these myths are cited. A distinctive feature of labor migration to Russia is the clearly expressed labor motivation of migrants. For the most part, migrant workers are people from the countries of the former USSR (primarily citizens of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan) who are willing to work actively, many speak Russian, are oriented towards Russia, want and are ready to register honestly, get permits documents and pay taxes. Many migrants have quite successfully adapted to the Russian labor market, some receive a temporary residence permit and a permanent residence permit, and many become citizens of Russia. This is partly evidence of their successful integration into Russian society. Given the demographic situation in which modern Russia is located, labor migration could not only replenish the cohort of labor resources on a temporary basis, but also increase the population of the country on a permanent basis. At the same time, the sociocultural consequences of labor migration for local societies and Russian society as a whole require additional study. In this regard, Russia needs to develop the infrastructure for the adaptation and integration of migrants into Russian society - to ensure access to learning Russian, medical services, education of children and migrants.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2018;26(4):718-729
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Forms and directions of migration from the countries of the Middle East in 1990-2017
Homsi M.
Abstract

The article examines the modern forms and directions of migration from the countries of the Middle East in the period from 1990 to 2017. It is shown that the high emigration potential of the countries of the Middle East is formed not only by socio-economic and political factors, but also by demographic development trends. Based on a detailed study of official statistics, special attention is paid to the study of the dynamics and geography of international migration in the region. Detailed donor countries and recipient countries of migrants from the Middle East. The political and ethnocultural consequences of large-scale migration from this region to European countries are considered.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2018;26(4):730-741
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WORLD CAPITAL MARKET
Cash innovations and digital economics: reaction of the state, society and universities
Bystryakov A.Y., Nenovsky N., Ponomarenko E.V.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the study of theoretical approaches to the content and functions, as well as the results of the introduction of modern digital financial innovations (cryptocurrencies, blockchain technologies) into modern financial and economic circulation in various countries of the world. It analyzes the positions of government structures, central banks of different countries in relation to challenges and risks, on the one hand, and progressive changes that accompany the introduction of digital technologies in financial and economic relations, and also discusses some of the prospects for the global monetary system. A special place in building the architecture of the new global financial system is given to higher education, modern universities that can implement training for the new economy and social sphere. The analysis allows to draw conclusions about the active role of the state, the structures of civil society in the adaptation of the population to the challenges of the information revolution.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2018;26(4):742-759
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The impact of the sanctions regime on foreign direct investments in Russia
Zaytsev Y.K.
Abstract

The economic and political sanctions had a significant impact on the behavior of foreign investors in the real sector of the Russian economy in the period 2014-2017. Despite a significant outflow of foreign direct investment (FDI) in 2015, in 2016-2017, there was an increase in investment activity associated with a steady inflow of FDI, which could be explained by the change in investment strategies of foreign business in Russia. The purpose of the study. The article assesses the impact of Western sanctions and Russian countersanctions on the influx of foreign direct investment into Russia. Methods. The work is based on methods of statistical analysis of the behavior of foreign investors in Russia on the basis of macroeconomic data of the Central Bank of Russia and microeconomic data of the “Ruslana” database. Results. The author gives various assessments of sanctions and counter-sanctions impact on the Russian and European economies, and compares the effects of sanctions policies in Russia and Iran. The stylized facts, identified by the author at the micro level, allow to interpret the macro statistics provided by the Central Bank of Russia at a qualitative level. The conclusion . In conclusion, the author gives recommendations on the possibilities of using new mechanisms of interaction with international institutions to overcome the investment crisis as a consequence of the sanctions regime.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2018;26(4):760-772
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