The State of Military Medicine during the Russian Civil War

Cover Page

Cite item

Full text / tables, figures

Abstract

Along with the analysis of military strategy and tactics and of the ideological component of the struggle, the history of the Russian Civil War can also be studied with regard to the “supporting” factors in the opposing camps. The present article is based on the study of sanitary-medical services of the Red Army and the armies of the White Movement. Under war conditions, the boundary between military and civil medicine was blurred, as we are talking about a domestic war that coincided with several major epidemics. The personnel as well as the organizational forms and practices of medical care went back to the experiences of World War I. At the outbreak of the war the armed formations competed with each other to attract specialists to their ranks. Members of the medical community thus had to decide which side to serve - a choice that some made consciously and others situationally. At the beginning of the war, the Whites had an advantage regarding medical personnel; by the end of the war, the Bolsheviks had managed to rectify this situation. The Whites adopted the experience of World War I, assigning public organizations a special role in supplying the army. The Reds, in contrast, sought to match the revolutionary spirit of the era by encouraging initiative. This they combined with a fairly tight control of their services, creating a centralized system from the outset. The analysis of how the warrying parties organized their military medical-sanitary services can thus add new insights to our understanding of why the Bolsheviks achieved victory in the Civil War.

About the authors

Olga M. Morozova

Don State Technical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: olgafrost@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8232-8189

Dr. habil. hist., Professor of the Department of Public Relations

1, Gagarina Sq., Rostov-on-Don, 344000, Russia

Tatiana I. Troshina

Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov; Northern State Medical University

Email: tatr-arh@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5517-5949

Dr. Habil. Hist., Professor of the Department of Social Work and Social Security, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov; Professor of the Department of Humanities, Northern State Medical University

17, Severnaya Dvina Emb., Arkhangelsk, 163002, Russia; 51, Troitsky Av., Arkhangelsk, 163000, Russia

References

  1. Baroyan, O.V. Itogi poluvekovoi bor'by s infektsiiami v SSSRinekotorye aktual'nye voprosy sovremennoi epidemiologii. Moscow: Meditsina Publ., 1968 (in Rissian)
  2. Davydova, T.V. “Stanovlenie sistemy sovetskogo zdravookhraneniia: mif ili real'nost'.” Istoriya v podrobnostyakh, no. 3 (2013): 22-29 (in Rissian)
  3. Gotovkin, V.V. “Rol' Soveta Raboche-Krest'yanskoi Oborony v razvitii sovetskoi voennoi meditsiny v period grazhdanskoi voiny.” Izvestiia vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii. Severo-Kavkazskii region. Obshchestvennye nauki, no. 8 (2005): 38-42 (in Rissian)
  4. Ippolitov, S.S. “The Activity of the Russian Red Cross Society in Ukraine, Kuban Oblast, and the Crimea, 1918-1920.” Novyj Istoriceskij Vestnik, no. 56 (2018): 154-167 (in Rissian).
  5. Ippolitov, S.S. “The Russian Red Cross society in Siberia and the Russian Far East: Organisation and support of the army and the population (1919-1920).” Novyj Istoriceskij Vestnik 35, no. 1 (2013): 56-68 (in Rissian).
  6. Morozova, O.M. “Tifoznaya vosh' v soldatskoi shineli: o vliyanii estestvenno-prirodnykh faktorov na khod i iskhod Grazhdanskoi voiny v Rossii.” Relga, no, 10, http://www.relga.ru/Environ/WebObjects/tgu-www.woa/wa/Main%3Ftextid%3D3424 %26level1%3Dmain%26level2%3Darticles (in Rissian)
  7. Nesterenko, A.I. “O medrabotnikakh - pervykh kavalerakh ordena Krasnogo znameni.” Sovetskoe zdravookhranenie, no. 3 (1965): 38-43 (in Rissian).
  8. Petrovskiy, B.V. Sovetskoe zdravookhranenie za 50 let SSSR. Moscow: Meditsina Publ., 1973 (in Russian).
  9. Posadskii, A.V. “Medicine in the White South during the Russian Civil War: Structures, Solutions, Everyday Life.” Modern History of Russia 10, no. 2 (2020): 315-329, https://doi.org/10.21638/11701/spbu24.2020.203 (in Russian).
  10. Potulov, B.M. “Voprosy zdravookhraneniya v deyatel'nosti Soveta rabochei krest'yanskoi oborony (dekabr' 1918 g. - aprel' 1920 g.).” Sovetskoe zdravookhranenie, no. 11 (1962): 65-69 (in Russian).
  11. Reili, D. ‘Zalozhnik proletariata.’ Otryvki iz vospominanii A.A. Minkha. Saratov: SGU Publ., 2001 (in Russian).
  12. Troshina, T.I. “Meditsinskoe obespechenie boevykh deistviy voisk v period Grazhdanskoi voiny (na primere Arkhangel'skogo raiona Severnogo fronta).” Voenno-meditsinskii zhurnal, 341, no. 10 (2020): 85-92 (in Russian).
  13. Zdybko, S.A. Military Hospital in the development of hospital business on the Arkhangelsk North. Arkhangelsk: Arkhangelsk military hospital Publ., 2008 (in Russian)

Copyright (c) 2022 Morozova O.M., Troshina T.I.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies