Vol 25, No 1 (2023): Ideas, Ideologies and Public Consent


Ideas, Ideologies and Public Consent: Introducing the Issue

Gutorov V.A., Shirinyants A.A., Kazarinova D.B.


The concept of consent is essential for every society society, affecting almost all its spheres - from everyday life to socio-political bases. Therefore, it cannot be considered accidental that both the idea itself and the diverse directions of its interpretation, dating back to the era of early modernity, today constitute one of the most priorities, intellectually saturated segments in modern socio-political theory. It is impossible to deny the appeal of the doctrine of personal consent (and the parallel thesis that no government is legitimate unless it acts without the consent of the governed). It has had a great influence on the political institutions of many modern states and has been a major factor in the direction that political theory has taken since 1600. In the second half of the 20th century, two approaches prevailed in political theory, within the framework of which the process of formation of the consensus tradition: personal and historical ones. The most impact to the theory is made by criticism of the unilinear model of consent analysis in the works of George Klosko, analysis by R.D. Bernstein of the problem of consent in the form of critical remarks on the philosophical position of R. Rorty, the concept of socialist “consent strategy” developed in the 1980s by E. Laclau and Sh. Mouffe, the controversy of the Canadian political philosopher James Tully with neo-Marxist theorists, the philosophical interpretation of consent by Jürgen Habermas as part of his analysis of the “rationalization paradox” etc. This theoretical and methodological frame becomes a basis for the thematic volume, where the articles on the history of socio-political thought are followed by the chapter devoted to the problems of Russia between cleavages and social harmony. Russian problems are blended with an international context, and the issue ends with an attempt to understand the ideological attitudes of modern youth.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2023;25(1):9-20
pages 9-20 views


Axiological Foundations of Russian Statehood: “Truth” and “Justice” in the Domestic Ideological and Political Discourse

Perevezentsev S.V., Ananiev D.A.


The concept of “truth” as a valuable spiritual and political category is constantly present in Russian spiritual and political writings from antiquity to the present day. But in the 18th century, there is an important transformation of this concept in the domestic ideological and political discourse: Under the influence of the Western European tradition in Russian socio-political writings of the state, conservative-educational and radical-educational trends, there is a gradual transition from traditional concepts, including the concept of “truth”, to such concepts as “justice” or “common use”. Thus, it acquires a significance that persists, including in modern political science literature. However, the concept of “truth” in its traditional meaning does not disappear at all from the socio-political discourse of the 18th century, but is used mainly in fiction, primarily in poetry, and in the writings of the traditionalist-Orthodox trend. A similar conclusion was made possible by an original methodological approach: the analysis of the works of the authors of the 18th century. It was carried out on the basis of the search database of the National Corpus of the Russian language, while in total more than 800 texts created in 1701-1800 were studied, in which the words “truth” and “justice” were used. In addition to the general scientific methodological apparatus, the main research methods were content analysis and political-textual analysis.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2023;25(1):21-37
pages 21-37 views

Pan-Slavism of F.I. Tyutchev and F.M. Dostoevsky: Historical and Political Analysis

Myrikova A.V., Prokudin B.A.


The ideas of Slavic unity periodically played a significant role in politics. Today, the ideas of pan-Slavism, both political and cultural, are relevant again. The objective of this study is to identify two stable trends of pan-Slavism of the 19th century, “political” and “cultural”, which are reflected in the works of classics of Russian literature: F.I. Tyutchev and F.M. Dostoevsky. The history of socio-political doctrines as an interdisciplinary field of knowledge involves the study of various sources, including fiction. The theoretical basis of this research is a political and textual approach to the study of texts developed at the Department of the History of Socio-Political Doctrines of the Faculty of Political Science of Lomonosov Moscow State University, as well as methods used in the research of political science fiction. According to the results of the study, it can be concluded that ideologically Tyutchev was close to representatives of “political” pan-Slavism. He believed that the “Germanization” and “Turkification” of the Slavic peoples jeopardized the state interests of Russia and called for actions to liberate, unite and Russify the Slavic countries (the idea of the Slavic Empire). Dostoevsky gravitated towards “cultural” pan-Slavism. He did not deny the very possibility of such a union, but believed that first it was necessary to raise the level of civic culture, for Dostoevsky the future of the “Slavic cause” was determined by the Orthodox-Messianic idea. If Russia aims to build allied relations with Slavic countries, it will have to formulate an attractive idea that could also contribute to the spiritual unification of Slavs and other peoples.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2023;25(1):38-48
pages 38-48 views

In Search of Harmony: The Idea of Social Harmony in the Writings of Early Socialists

Anderson K.M., Zvereva M.S.


The problems of the history of socialist ideas, their origin and possible role in nowadays became the subject of scholar interest again. The problem of the social arrangement becomes more acute today than ever. Descriptions and even attempts to construct a harmonious society appeared many centuries ago. Two revolutions The Great French Revolution and the industrial revolution annihilated the ideological basis of previous times pushing forward the class structure instead of medieval system of estates. The first ones who found out the signs of order, not complete chaos, were early socialists A. Saint-Simon, S. Fourier, and R. Owen. This research is devoted to the comparison of approaches to the idea of social harmony of Saint-Simonists and Owenists. The main research method used is political-textual analysis. The conclusion of present study confirms that Saint-Simon and Owen being on the same side, followed different ways leading to harmonious state. However, their projects were united by a common radical idea - the complete reorganization of society, first - the system of classes and estates.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2023;25(1):49-62
pages 49-62 views

There Is No Hierarchy of Norms, There Is a Hierarchy of Instances: Normative and Subject-Political Justification of the Hierarchy of Normative Legal Acts in the Teachings of Hans Kelsen and Karl Schmitt

Ukhanov A.D.


The problem of legal force and the hierarchy of normative legal acts must be considered at the intersection of political and legal knowledge, since such acts are not just a form of external consolidation of legal norms prescribing a certain model of behavior to the subject, but also express the state-power will, fix the institutional and political framework and the alignment of political forces in society. In the history of political and legal thought, two main ways of substantiating the legal force of normative legal acts have taken shape: normative and subject-political. The most consistently and argumentatively indicated methods are set out in the theoretical works of German lawyers of the last century, Hans Kelsen and Karl Schmitt. The article proposes to compare the views of thinkers on the nature of legal force and the hierarchy of normative legal acts. In the final part of the work, a variant of a conciliatory interpretation of competing approaches is substantiated, and conclusions are drawn about the relative practical significance of the analyzed theoretical models in the context of legal practice and the political process.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2023;25(1):63-76
pages 63-76 views


“How Do We Arrange Russia”: The Problem of Social Harmony in the Discourse of Post-Soviet Identity

Iokhim A.N., Laguzova M.A.


The collapse of the Soviet Union, the large-scale transformation of the political and social structure in the early 1990s actualized the problem of nation-building in the new Russian state. The search for a “national idea” has contributed to the fact that over the past thirty years several dominant concepts of identity have changed in the Russian official discourse: from the denial of Soviet identity and the strategy of rapprochement with Western democracies to the construction of a great-power conservative identity of the “successor state”. The central place in the discourse of Russian identity is occupied by the problem of achieving social harmony through the elaboration of attitudes to the past, the construction of political values, the definition of symbolic boundaries of the political community. This research is devoted to the comparison of ideas about social harmony articulated within the framework of key concepts of post-Soviet identity of Russia.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2023;25(1):77-96
pages 77-96 views

Priority Values of the “Genetic Code” of the Russian Statehood

Shatilov A.B., Volkhonskaya Z.I., Osinina D.D.


Under foreign policy pressure, preserving and strengthening the unity of citizens is one of the main tasks of the modern Russian state. Speaking about the challenges facing Russia, first, we are talking about the threat of losing the national and cultural identity of citizens. Ongoing discussions regarding Russia’s self-determination in the system of world and civilizational coordinates, as well as the image of unity in the consciousness of the nation, confirm the need to comprehend the value foundations of the essence of Russian statehood, summarize historical experience and determine the civilizational chronotype. The methodological basis of the research is historical institutionalism. The analysis made it possible to distinguish five priority values of the “genetic code” of Russian statehood: self-identification within the family, the self-perception of an individual as “the owner of his land”, the definition of civil identity as a sense of community with the people and the country, respect for traditions and history, as well as the perception of Russia as a country of global projects. These elements of the “genetic code,” according to the authors, reflect the value core of Russian statehood, and also determine the coordinate system for identifying Russians.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2023;25(1):97-112
pages 97-112 views

Influence of the Digital Environment on the Contemporary Worldview: Pro et Contra

Volodenkov S.V., Fedorchenko S.N., Pechenkin N.M.


Global technological transformations of key areas of life of contemporary society, the formation and active functioning of global and national digital institutions that influence current socio-political processes, and the digitalization of social relations form a demand for comprehensive scientific research on the processes of digital influence on the development and functioning of modern social systems. This article is aimed at considering the problem of the relationship between digital and worldview aspects of the functioning of modern societies. In connection with this, the research issue was to determine the degree and nature of the influence of digitalization processes, as well as directly the digital environment and institutions on the content aspects of the individual’s worldview. This research question is directly related to the study of the phenomenon of public consent in the context of the formation of digital polymentality. To answer the research question posed in the paper, the authors conducted a discourse analysis of the existing scientific literature on the relationship between digitalization and worldview in the pro et contra logic. An international expert study was also conducted, which made it possible to identify the main expert positions on the study, as well as the key risks, threats, and challenges in the field of preserving the traditional worldview and achieving public consent based on the unity of value-semantic and worldview ideas of individuals. The main conclusion of the paper is the fundamental ambiguity of the positions of scientists and experts, justified by the results of the study, in assessing the degree and nature of the influence of digitalization, the digital environment and institutions on the content parameters of the worldview of a modern person, as well as the ambiguity of the value-semantic attitudes formed and maintained in the digital environment.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2023;25(1):113-133
pages 113-133 views

Turkish Ideological Influence in Russian Regions: The Turkic Factor

Mayorova M.A., Sbitneva A.I.


The article underlines the importance of effective implementation of the state national policy for the stability and sustainability of the state. This issue is particularly relevant in the context of such large ethno-linguistic communities as the Turkic peoples, which are vulnerable to external influence objects. The authors consider the issue of foreign influence on the territorial units of the Russian Federation through economic and humanitarian spheres on the example of the activities of the Republic of Turkey. Within the framework of the ideology of pan-Turkism, the Turkic-speaking peoples, especially those living on the territory of the Russian Federation, are of particular importance to Turkey. Ankara justifies interference in the internal affairs of sovereign states with the idea of building a “Turkic world” under the auspices of Turkey. The article reflects the activities of Turkish organizations, as well as the specifics of economic and humanitarian cooperation in the Republics of Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Chuvashia, Crimea, Altai, Sakha (Yakutia), Tyva, Khakassia. The analysis of open sources and official data revealed the degree of intensity of the Turkish presence in the Turkic-speaking regions. In the Volga Federal District, the level of Turkish influence as well as cooperation in various fields is quite high, especially in Tatarstan and Bashkortostan. The Republic of Chuvashia remains the least susceptible to Turkish destructive activity. The informational impact through the pro-Turkish media is mainly observed in the Republic of Crimea. In Altai, Tuva and Khakassia, after 2015, the activity of interaction with Turkey in the humanitarian and economic spheres has decreased to some extent. However, the designation of the factor of external influence and the development of effective measures to counteract it should become one of the most important topics of the new Strategy of the state national policy after 2025.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2023;25(1):134-149
pages 134-149 views


From Social Chronotope to Political Myth: Ukrainian Case

Fadeeva L.A.


The author proposes to consider ideas, values, meanings and orientations regarding the identity of Ukraine that gained independence through the concept of a social chronotope. This implies a conceptual and mental space in which temporal and spatial characteristics are combined. The researcher uses a socio-constructivist approach to identity, a discourse analysis of publications by representatives of the political and intellectual elite, and secondary sociological data. The social chronotope was formed by the Ukrainian elite based on historical myths and new geopolitical realities that made Ukraine the largest country in Europe. The most important component of the chronotope was the idea that Ukraine needs an identity that distinguishes it from Russia. If the events of 2004 determined the vector of Ukrainian identity politics as European, the Euromaidan of 2014 drew a demarcation line not only between Ukraine and Russia, but also between Kyiv as a center of political power and a symbol of political community, on the one hand, and the pro-Russian regions of the eastern Ukraine, on the other hand. Their inhabitants were denied Ukrainian citizenship, their views and values were marginalized, which destroyed the social chronotope. It is, thus, replaced with an ideological confrontation in the form of a political myth about the Europeanness of Ukraine, which is hindered by Russia and the “separatists” under its influence.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2023;25(1):150-162
pages 150-162 views

Russia’s Foreign Policy Ideologemes and Their Relevance for Middle East in Context of Transformation of Modern System of International Relations

Avatkov V.A., Krylov D.S.


As part of this research, there was made an analysis of the foreign policy ideas, values and narratives of the Russian Federation distributed in the information sphere based on the theses that were voiced by the President of Russia V. Putin during his speeches in 2022. These ideas were considered through the prism of ideologemes that determine the strategic vector foreign policy of official Moscow. In addition, an assessment is made of the relevance of these ideologemes for the states of the Middle East region in the context of changes in the global transformation of the entire system of international relations and the building of a new polycentric world order. Conclusions are drawn about the interest of the cross-regional actors of the Middle East subsystem in the promotion of the theses and ideologies put forward by Russia and a certain identity and coincidence of the ideological and value spaces of Russia and the countries of the Middle East. Aspects and directions are outlined in which cooperation and coordination of actions between Moscow and the Middle East leaders can develop. An assumption is put forward about the possibility of building a system of rules and ideas in the Middle East, which can subsequently be extrapolated to the entire global system of international relations.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2023;25(1):163-174
pages 163-174 views

The State and Prospects of the Relations Between Russia and Western Countries Against the Background of the Ukrainian Crisis in the Focus of Chinese Socio-Political Expertise

Makkaveeva S.S., Huang D.


The Russian-Ukrainian conflict is the most serious crisis in international relations since the Cold War. This is not only a turning point in Russian-Ukrainian relations, but also a deep crisis in Russian-Western relations, which marked a change in Moscow’s approach to relations with the West, and the transition from past dialogue to today’s struggle. China, as a third party in the Russian-Ukrainian conflict, took a neutral position from the very beginning, and ignored any requests from the United States and the West to somehow influence Russia. China’s position has increasingly attracted the attention of the Western media, and Beijing has begun to receive accusations from the West of supporting Russia’s special military operation in Ukraine. This paper analyzes the articles published by Chinese academic experts on the media, and analyzes the content of Chinese popular media websites, such as CCTV News The Paper, Guanchazhe for the period from April 1, 2022 to December 1, 2022. In the course of the study, the authors come to the conclusion that the Chinese media mostly cover the events in Ukraine in a neutral way, they try to balance and not criticize Moscow when it comes to Russian-Western relations. Chinese experts have different views and thoughts when talking about the Russian-Ukrainian conflict and Russian-Western relations. Some Chinese analysts talked about Russia’s victory over the West, while others believe that Russia may end up with nothing. The authors concludes that the West and Russia may fall into a new Cold War, and this Cold War may turn out to be even more brutal than the last one for three main reasons: because of the all-encompassing military confrontation, because of economic isolation, and because of breakdown of humanitarian ties.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2023;25(1):175-188
pages 175-188 views

Xi Jinping’s “The Great Rejuvenation of the Chinese Nation - Chinese Dream” as an Ideological Basis for the National Security of China

Abdrakhimov L.G.


The turn of Russia’s foreign policy vector to the East stimulates the better understanding of political processes and phenomena in China, which have not yet been sufficiently considered in Russian academia and political elites. Unlike the lack of a clear value-ideological basis of the national security system in Russia, China has solved this problem by including a conceptual level in the system of national security, with the concept of “The Great Rejuvenation of the Chinese Nation - Chinese Dream” at its center. This concept, developed by Xi Jinping, involves renewing the ideological foundations of China, especially the Communist Party, as the backbone of the entire state. This concept, as is customary in Chinese culture, does not negate the previous ones, but only expands and complements all the previous concepts formulated by the country’s past leaders: “Great Leap Forward”, “Reforms and Openness”, etc. The purpose of the study is to reveal the concept of “The Great Rejuvenation of the Chinese Nation - Chinese Dream” as the ideological basis of China’s national security. The methods of analysis of normative documents and discourse analysis of the Chinese leader’s speeches were applied to reveal the traditional cultural values of Chinese civilization with Confucian and Legist bias are in the center of the idea of the “Great Rejuvenation of the Chinese Nation - Chinese Dream”. This concept was examined in our study through the prism of national security theory, which acquired an updated structure consisting of levels: conceptual, sectoral (spheres), institutional (forces) and resource (means). We conclude that this concept applies to all spheres of China’s national security system and is the ideological basis of this system, predetermining the paradigm of China’s development.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2023;25(1):189-203
pages 189-203 views

The Concept of Political Correctness in Political Process of the Modern United Kingdom

Golovin M.S.


The concept of political correctness is essencial for the modern Western political process. The aim of the article is to find out its role and place in the political discourse of modern right-wing political organizations. The case of the British right-wing radical political party «Britain First» can be explained, firstly, by the popularity of the ideas of political correctness in UK, and, secondly, by the importance of criticism of the semantic content and symbolic nature of political correctness for ideologists the British far-right. The results of the study show that criticism of the ideas of political correctness occupies one of the central places in the ideological discourse of the right-wing radical party in UK, as well as in the rhetoric of both major British politicians and public perception. To sum up, it is worth noting that modern right-wing radical political parties, of which «Britain First» can rightfully be considered a vivid example, which actively, instrumentally and competently highlights this issues in their discourse. They realize the importance of transformation of their ideology and complementing its nationalistic the core of the agenda, which, in one way or another, affects the social, cultural and political processes in modern European states.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2023;25(1):204-217
pages 204-217 views

‘Property of the Nation’ - Resource Nationalism to Become a Political Doctrine in Contemporary Mongolia?

Mikhalev A.V.


The proposed paper is a study of resource nationalism. Resource nationalism appeared in Mongolia in the post-Socialist period. In this paper, we understand resource nationalism as a wide spectrum of strategies domestic elites employ in order to increase their control of natural resources - definition by Paul Domjan and Matt Stone. After an analysis of legal materials, mass media articles and political rhetoric, the author of this paper concludes that the sources of resource nationalism should be searched in the texts that date back to the Socialist era. Also, the sources of resource nationalism can be found in the ideas about justice of those times. The idea that natural resources belong to the people has been fixed in mass opinion, while contemporary nationalists justify this idea from the standpoint of “blood and soil”. That creates serious problems for Mongolia, a country with resource economy. The matter is that economic growth driven with foreign investments has caused a deep social stratification. In its turn, social stratification gave birth to a social demand for fair profit distribution from natural resource extraction. In the political sphere, this social demand quickly received a reaction - in the form of resource nationalism rhetoric. In the paper, we notice that resource nationalism in Mongolia has not been formed as a vivid legal or political doctrine. Today, it is a set of populist rhetoric of current interest which are used both for lobbying future political decisions in mining and for legitimizing the decisions already made.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2023;25(1):218-232
pages 218-232 views


Request for Paternalism: The Concept and Value of State in the Minds of Russian Youth

Evgenyeva T.V., Selezneva A.V., Skipin N.S., Tulegenova D.D.


Modern Russian youth as a whole significantly differs from those of older generations in their values and behavioral disposition, which, in conjunction with internal heterogeneity, has a significant impact on the strategy of working with it. In connection therewith, the purpose of the research presented was the value and semantic analysis of one of the meaning-forming concepts of the person’s political representations system - the concept of the state on the basis of the political and psychological approach. The results of an all-Russian representative survey of young people aged 14-30 conducted during the autumn, 2022 served as an empirical basis for the study (sample size: 2,500). A research question was posed: what are the meanings of the idea and value of the state in the minds of modern youth? As hypotheses, the assumptions were formulated that the modern Russian youth is characterized by paternalistic orientations traditionally characteristic of the national political culture. At the same time, ideas about the state are contradictory, reflect traditional, historically established axiological interpretations and modern meanings. The overall result of the study was the conclusion about the ambivalent and unclear nature of ideas about the Russian state, with positive characteristics dominating. The attitude of young people to the state is utilitarian in nature: it is perceived as a source of benefits, responsible to citizens, they are expected to take care, protect and ensure order. At the same time, young people often do not endow themselves with responsibility to the state and society. In the minds of young people, the state is associated with such concepts as land, people and culture. At the same time, the “Russian land” is not simply perceived as a territory, but as an independent value in the context of identifying an individual with people and its culture. This interpretation has deep historical value and semantic roots. It can be judged as a modern actualization of the notions of «Russian Land» and «Russian State» noted by historians in the Russian political culture.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2023;25(1):233-251
pages 233-251 views

Strategies for Studying the Political Trust of Youth in Modern Political Science

Andriiv I.I., Puzanova A.D.


The article examines the main approaches to assessing and measuring political trust used by Russian and foreign scientists in conducting empirical research in 2018-2022. The authors proceed from one of the accepted in the social sciences understanding of methodology as a set of methods of used for analysis. In this regard, the purpose of the paper is to systematize methods for measuring and evaluating political trust and determining the relevance of their application in the study of youth as a specific socio-demographic group. The relevance of the study is related to the tendency of some scientists to associate the youth political trust with the character of political regime in a particular state and the potential for its transformation. The analysis of scientific literature revealed that the main methods of obtaining information on the topic of political trust are mass surveys and expert interviews. The most important component of studying this area is the comparison of the mechanisms for the formation of political attitudes of various social groups in states with different types of political regimes. The article substantiates the need to develop narrowly focused methods for studying the youth political trust, since a number of studies show the specificity of the formation and individual indicators of this setting of the political consciousness of generations Y and Z. In particular, there is a significant differentiation in the levels of institutional and personalized political trust among different subgroups of young people, a large variability of this political attitude, with a relatively low awareness of real political processes, the desire to articulate rational grounds for the formation of trust. A systematic study of these features of the youth political trust requires the use of a more complex, combining elements of quantitative and qualitative analysis tools than is currently used in empirical studies. It is necessary to develop special methods of analysis based on an integrated approach that combines mix-methods of research. The information obtained with the help of the updated methodology on the state and characteristics of the youth political trust seems to be a significant basis for the formation of strategies for the interaction of government institutions with this socio-demographic group, which is of fundamental importance for the sustainable development of modern states.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2023;25(1):252-265
pages 252-265 views

Patriotic Organizations in the National Republics of the Siberian Federal District: Between National and Ethnic Identity

Kazantsev D.A., Aseeva T.A., Kachusov D.A.


As a response to the special military operation, the discourse on the “colonial” nature of the Russian Federation and the prominent local identity among students in the national-territorial regions of the SFD, such as the Republics of Altai, Khakassia and Tuva, have amplified. This poses the question of the formation of a civic identity and patriotic feelings among young people as the basis for legitimizing political institutions and structures. Important mechanisms for the consolidation and mobilization of patriotic-minded youth are patriotic organizations. As a result of content analysis of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation’s information portal, social network pages of patriotic organizations (n = 121) and expert polls of leaders and members of organizations (n = 85), the authors have identified several categories of patriotic activities, which are aimed at the formation of a civic identity and patriotic feelings among young people in the mentioned regions. It was found that in all the regions studied, organizations of a military-patriotic and military-historical orientation, focused on forming a national identity, predominate. The ethnic component in the activity of patriotic organizations is more present in Khakassia and Tuva, however, in general share of patriotic organizations its representation is insignificant. The processes of standardization and unification of methods of work, formats of events and governing structures of these organizations, associated with the majority of youth patriotic organizations coming under the patronage of the federal movement “Yunarmia”, on the one hand, level out local and ethnic identities, and on the other hand, contribute to the formation of a statist model of patriotism among youth.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2023;25(1):266-278
pages 266-278 views

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