Vol 30, No 3 (2022)


Runoff of nutrients and pollutants from urban watersheds

Klubov S.M., Tretyakov V.Y.


Runoff of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and toxic pollutants from urbanized areas is significant source of toxic contamination and anthropogenic eutrophication of water bodies. It is difficult to calculate the surface runoff value. Overview of the runoff modules from urban watersheds with various degrees of urbanization is presented. Some results of our evaluation of the values for the watersheds of the Volkovka and Okhta rivers of St. Petersburg are considered. The evaluation was carried out with usage of our own methodology. The results of our research are compared with ones of other researches. The comparison demonstrates that urbanization significantly influences at intakes of the nutrients and pollutants into water object. The surface runoff is the main source of the pollutants and nutrients intakes into water objects from urban areas.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(3):217-226
pages 217-226 views

Technologies for the prevention and extinguishing of wildfires in Russia and the world: the dynamics of patent activity and patentological prospects

Perminov V.V., Vorobiev D.S., Kasymov D.P., Perminova V.V.


Рresents a patent review of technologies for the prevention and extinguishing of wildfires in the Russian Federation and the world over the last 30 years. The analysis of patent documents shows that there have been around 300 patent applications per year throughout the study period. The patent offices of China and the United States possess the largest number of patent families. In addition, China has a large number of patents with little legal protection, i.e. to protect specific technical solutions. In the Russian Federation, research organizations in the regions with extensive forest resources and a complex fire situation focus on developments in the field of prevention and extinguishing of wildfires. Technical solutions of Russian developers are relevant since they correspond to global patenting trends and have the thoroughly studied application materials. However, Russian patent holders experience difficulties when their developments enter into civil circulation, which decreases the number of valid protective documents. Thus, the transfer of technologies for the prevention and extinguishing of forest fires needs to be developed. The main technological areas of application are Environmental Technologies, Control, Transport, Measurement, and Computer and Telecommunication Technologies. The distribution shows that traditional ways of fighting fires are being improved, mainly fire-fighting equipment with the most active development of technologies for detecting, monitoring and controlling forest fires. Additional analysis of records has identified software products, registered in the Russian Federation, which are designed to prevent and extinguish wildfires. The prospects of patenting have been assessed and the features of conducting a patent search on this subject have been indicated.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(3):227-239
pages 227-239 views

Simulation of sorption processes of wastewater treatment by modified zeolites

Obuzdina M.V., Rush E.A.


Based on the results of experimental studies of sorption wastewater treatment, a regression-type mathematical model has been developed that adequately describes the effect of all parameters of the ongoing process on the sorption activity of zeolite: initial concentration, sorption time, process temperature, and medium pH. For the first time in research, a generalized criterion for the consistency of behavior and the width of the domain of definition of the model was used. The processes of involving large-tonnage wastes of chemical production to obtain adsorption materials effective for the extraction of heavy metal ions from industrial wastewater have been studied. Natural zeolites were used as the initial matrix, the main component of which is klinoptilolite. A sulfur polymer obtained from epichlorohydrin production wastes with the main component 1,2,3-trichloropropane is proposed as a modifier. Fixation of the modifier on the surface of the zeolite, as well as the effective adsorption of metal ions, have been proven by IR spectroscopy and energy dispersive analysis.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(3):240-249
pages 240-249 views

Lampenflora as a result of karst cave equipment for excursions

Pichugina E.K., Mazina S.E.


This review is devoted to the problem of the development of “lampenflora” - phototrophic fouling communities in karst caves’ areas with artificial lighting used for tourism purposes. The experience of domestic and foreign colleagues helps to understand the causes of its occurrence, the conditions for the formation and development of communities; describes the mechanisms of adaptation of individual species and communities to the complex conditions of underground ecosystems. Lampenflora is not typical for the cave environment, and in this regard, the adverse consequences of its presence are found in the form of an impact on the local biota and abiotic parameters of the environment. The review compares lampenflora and natural communities of phototrophs in the entrance zones of caves illuminated by sunlight.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(3):250-265
pages 250-265 views

Anthropogenic impact on the Taldykol lake system in the city of Nur-Sultan

Akbayeva L.K., Meldeshova A.B., Makazhanov Y.Z.


The article describes study of the hydrochemistry of Taldykol lake system, consisting of the Big and Small Taldykol lakes, in the city of Nur-Sultan. The aim of the work is to assess the anthropogenic impact on the ecosystem of steppe wetlands located in the center of the developing capital. Sampling was carried out from 8 sites of the lake system in autumn 2020. The results of hydrochemical analysis of water samples made it possible to assess the level of chemical pollution and anthropogenic impact on the ecosystem, which, due to rapid urbanization, the lakes have been exposed to for decades. Now, due to the artificial fragmentation of lakes, the surface communication between the sites is disrupted, as evidenced by the different composition of pollutants in water bodies. Nevertheless, to draw up a complete picture and assess the anthropogenic impact on the Taldykol lake ecosystem, it is necessary to consider the results of a comprehensive study of lakes, which includes a number of additional works.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(3):266-279
pages 266-279 views

Biological resources

Assessment of phytotoxicity of ash and slag waste from low-capacity boiler houses and individual heating systems on the example of the town Shakhtersk, Sakhalin region

Dakhova E.V., Mayorova L.P., Lukyanov A.I.


The relevance of the work is due to the study of the issue of disposal and possible use of ash and slag waste in small towns, in particular in the Far East, where the predominant types of heating are low-power boilers or individual heating systems. The simplest and clearest methods for assessing the impact of generated waste on the environment are bioindicative methods, in particular, the assessment of phytotoxicity. The analysis of the phytotoxic effect of ash and slag wastes of various origins and different periods of storage, as well as coal samples in the conditions of urban settlements, was carried town Shakhtersk, Sakhalin region, in relation to herbaceous plants of various systematic groups in the framework of a number of laboratory experiments. The phytotoxic effect of the considered samples was determined by comparing the parameters of the test function of the control and experimental seeds. The dependence of the magnitude of the phytotoxic effect on the shelf life and the type of origin of ash and slag waste is shown. The data obtained are the basis for carrying out additional experiments and studies, as well as determining the chemical composition of the samples under consideration.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(3):280-291
pages 280-291 views

Biological wastes of aquaculture and possibility of its disposal by use of Eisenia foetida earthworms (Savigny, 1826)

Egorova N.A., Shosin A.V.


Presented article outlines the proposals for biological wastes of aquaculture disposal by use of Eisenia foetida earthworms. In the duration of this study an experiment was carried out: productivity of Eisenia foetida earthworm’s biological wastes disposal was studied on the example of existing aquaculture facility. Results of research presented point on actual recyclability of aquaculture biological wastes into vermicompost by use of earthworms and also prove the practical possibility of vermicomposting as biological wastes of aquaculture disposal method.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(3):292-299
pages 292-299 views

Projections of moisture conditions in the Sevastopol region for grapes growing

Vyshkvarkova E.V., Rybalko E.A., Marchukova O.V., Baranova N.V.


The climatic and orographic features of the Sevastopol region are the basis for the development of viticulture, winemaking and obtaining a wide range of high-quality wines. Viticulture is a specialization of agriculture in the Sevastopol region. Observed and predicted climate changes lead to a shift in favorable zones for growing grapes. The amount of precipitation is a key parameter, along with air temperature, for obtaining high quality grapes, and later wine. The water requirements of grapes vary with the season and phase of plant development. The article assesses the possible changes in the conditions of moisture conditions in the Sevastopol region for the grapes growing. The work uses data from numerical calculations of global climate models of the CMIP6 project under an unfavorable scenario of greenhouse gas concentrations SSP5-8.5. The assessment was carried out using two agroclimatic indices - the Selyaninov hydrothermal coefficient and the dryness index, by the middle and end of the 21st century. According to the predicted values of agroclimatic indices, by the middle and the end of the century, the Sevastopol region will remain in the zone where the cultivation of grapes will be possible without irrigation. The results obtained showed the likelihood of an increase in the aridity of the region in future periods, especially towards the end of the century, which will entail additional stress for the grapes. Adaptation measures such as selection of drought-tolerant grape varieties, changes in tillage systems, and placement of vineyards on northern slopes will be required to minimize unfavorable conditions.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(3):300-311
pages 300-311 views

Human ecology

Assessment of potential risks to the health of the population of the Baikal region when using products contaminated with antibiotics

Timofeeva S.S., Timofeev S.S., Tyukalova O.V.


Modern ecological problems are considered - pollution of the natural environment with antibiotics and resistance to antimicrobial drugs, when microorganisms mutate and lose susceptibility to antibiotics. The reasons for this dangerous phenomenon are the ever-growing and uncontrolled use of antibiotics in medicine, veterinary medicine and agriculture. Most antibiotics are not completely metabolized in humans and animals, a significant part of the injected drugs enters the water and soil through urban wastewater, animal manure and sewage sludge transported to agricultural fields as fertilizers and pose environmental risks to human health. Assessment of environmental risks from the accumulation of antibiotics in natural waters and food is extremely important for the Baikal natural territory. This is an area that includes Lake Baikal (a World Heritage site), a water protection zone adjacent to Lake Baikal, its catchment basin on the territory of the Russian Federation, natural zones of primary protection adjacent to Lake Baikal, as well as an area about 200 km wide adjacent to Lake Baikal to the west and northwest of it. It may be at potential risk both for endemic species of Lake Baikal and for the population in case of chronic exposure and accumulation of antibiotics in environmental objects. The purpose of this work was a predictive assessment of the environmental risk to public health with direct oral consumption of water, meat and other products grown in an area contaminated with antibiotics. The initial data were the results of monitoring the quality of food products entering the retail network of the Irkutsk region. It was found that on average, an adult resident of the region receives 0.5718 mg/kg of antibiotics daily with food. A child aged 6 to 12 years receives 1.3803 mg/kg of antibiotic daily with food, and a child aged 2 to 6 years receives 2.6686 mg/kg of the substance. Residents of the Baikal region, adults and children aged 2 to 12 years, have a potential environmental health risk as a result of exposure to antibiotics coming with food on the body an order of magnitude higher than the safe level and it is necessary to take actions aimed at minimizing such risks.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(3):312-325
pages 312-325 views

Public hearings for environmental impact assessment in Russia - changes in legislation and practice of performance 2021-2022

Ledashcheva T.N., Kukhtina T.Y., Pinaev V.E.


The article is dedicated to the issues of changing in the legislation of the Russian Federation on environmental impact assessment in terms of informing the public about new projects. Significant changes that have occurred in the practices and requirements of legislation, including one connected with the COVID-19 pandemic, have made changes, among other things, in the ways of informing the public - it has become possible to hold public discussions and inform the public remotely. With a low level of interest of the general public in the results of the impact assessment, the remote format of public discussions did not make fundamental changes. The main changes of 2021-2022 that occurred in the part of public discussions are presented in the Order of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation No. 999 dated December 1, 2020 “On approval of requirements for environmental impact assessment materials”, and the permissibility of using a remote format for public discussions is given in the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 440 of April 3, 2020 “On the Extension of Permits and Other Features in Relation to Permitting Activities in 2020-2022”.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(3):326-331
pages 326-331 views

Industrial Ecology

Purification of domestic wastewater with a sand filter from biogenic elements

Volkova V.N., Golovin V.L., Kirichenko K.Y.


Wastewater after biological wastewater treatment very often exceeds the natural ability of reservoirs and watercourses to self-purify. Increasing requirements for the environmental safety of wastewater discharge into natural water bodies determines the particular relevance of improving technological methods and wastewater treatment facilities. In the world practice of post-treatment, preliminary filtration and filtration are rightfully considered one of the most effective methods. At the same time, one of the most common devices used in post-treatment of wastewater are sand filters with granular filter material, the effectiveness of which is often overestimated. The problems of post-treatment of wastewater by filtration using sand filters with a granular filter load are considered, the main problems that arise when using such devices are considered without taking into account the features of post-treatment processes in the presence of organic matter in highly dispersed colloidal forms. Substantiated are additional requirements for reducing the concentration of toxic substances when discharging wastewater into natural water bodies and minimizing changes in the conditions for the development of the biocenosis of these objects. The reasons for the insufficient efficiency of wastewater post-treatment on sand filters, including the reasons for the increase in the content of organic substances in the filtrate after post-treatment, are determined. The main criteria for the effective use of filtering devices in wastewater treatment systems are formulated.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(3):332-344
pages 332-344 views

A multi-parameter approach to assessing the environmental performance of oil and gas production facilities

Gubar E.V., Tupitsyna O.V.


The results presented in this article are an attempt to develop a methodology for predicting productivity and determining the contour of the object of the I category of negative impact on the environment. Using an empirically derived set of methods of analysis, a study of the state of oil and gas fields in the Samara region of different terms and stages of the life cycle of operation, productivity, etc. was carried out. The methodology is based on the evaluation of fields as a part of the license area for the purpose of further decision-making on the system of measures in the field of waste management, development of programs for improving environmental efficiency, taking into account the development of the fields. The basic principle of the developed methodology implies a comprehensive analysis of the balance schemes of material flows of technological cycles of raw materials and energy, as well as the formed types of chemical compounds in the composition of emissions, effluents and wastes. Application of multi-parameter method of assessment will allow not only to identify additional volumes of uncontrolled impact and to implement preventive measures, but also to maintain communication between the participants of the process of environmental management: public authorities, public, production.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(3):345-356
pages 345-356 views

Environmental Monitoring

Review of drinking water quality in the northern regions of the Moscow region based on data from Rospotrebnadzor and private laboratories

Lukyanova T.S., Larionov M.V., Kryuchkov S.A.


The problem of drinking water quality affects many aspects of our lives. The use of water that does not comply with the established safety standards can provoke various adverse consequences for humans. This article reviews the quality of drinking water in water intake wells, public wells, springs, and centralized water supply points in apartment buildings in the Taldom and Dmitrov town districts of the Moscow region. As a result of the analysis of the indicators of 76 sources in these areas, it was found that drinking water that fully complies with the Sanitary Regulations and Norms is observed only in 3 sources. Which advises 3.9% of the total. In 96.1% of the sources, the water is not suitable for drinking and requires additional cleaning measures (up to sanitary and hygienic regulatory requirements for disinfection).

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(3):357-372
pages 357-372 views

Drinking water quality assessment according to water quality index and health risk assessment: а case study of Pedro Vicente Maldonado canton, Ecuador

Salazar Flores C.A., Kurbatova A.I., Mikhaylichenko K.Y.


The effluent water quality of a treatment plant in a canton of Ecuador according to water quality index (WQI) and health risk assessment was investigated in this study. The quality of the influent and effluent water of the treatment plant was monitored monthly from January 2017 to December 2019. Physicochemical and microbiological parameters, such as temperature, pH, turbidity, color, suspended solids, electrical conductivity, free chlorine, nitrates, nitrites, ammonia nitrogen, sulfates, fluorides, manganese, iron, fecal coliforms and total coliforms were determined. To evaluate the impacts of studied water on human health, health risk assessment for non-cancerogenic elements, including hazard index (HI) and risk of olfactory-reflex effects for organoleptic indicators were performed in accordance with Russian and foreign guidelines. Water quality parameter results were compared with WHO drinking water standards, revealing that the influent was contaminated microbiologically and other parameters such as color, turbidity, and iron were also above the limit values. The WQI results showed that water after purification is suitable for drinking (I class - excellent). Hazard Index (HI) results showed that the non-carcinogenic substances studied had a low risk for both adults and children (<1). Additionally, the risk of olfactory-reflex effect was characterized as acceptable for all the collected purified water samples.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(3):373-392
pages 373-392 views

Risk-based approach in food safety monitoring: algorithms for chemical pollutants ranking

Makarov D.A., Balagula T.V., Lavrukhina O.I., Shirkin L.A.


A risk-based approach in food safety monitoring suggests that the number analysis of contaminants and (or) products depends on the risk caused by product contamination, first of all for consumer health and economic (prevention of unsafe products realization). Risk-oriented sampling, planning and assignment of studies can be opposed with representative, aimed at obtaining reliable information about the contamination of the main types of products and conducted taking into account the requirements of mathematical statistics. The core of the various risk-based approaches as a rule is the ranking of contaminants/groups of contaminants and combinations of «contaminant-product» according to the risk degree. Ranking algorithms may be subdivided into qualitative (verbal characteristics) and quantitative (scores estimation). Algorithms for food chemical contaminants ranking proposed by authority agencies of the most successful in food safety countries are reviewed in this paper. The proposed approaches have a certain (sometimes limited) scope of application and provide scientifically based data for enhance compound control, unite toxicological characteristics, consumption, identification, and other information about xenobiotics. A serious limitation of the ranking effectiveness may be missing data of veterinary drugs (antibiotics) residues below maximum permissible level. There are additional but important criteria for health risk, the ability of drugs to cause pathogenic microorganisms’ resistance for the example.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(3):393-406
pages 393-406 views

Assessment of snow cover pollution by heavy metals as one of the methods of atmospheric air monitoring on the example of settlements in the Far East

Lukyanov A.I., Dakhova E.V., Mayorova L.P.


The relevance of the work is due to the study of technogenic load by studying snow cover in small settlements of the Far East. The possibility of including this method in the monitoring system of small cities of the Far East as an additional means of assessing atmospheric air pollution is being considered. The article presents an analysis of the content of heavy metals in the melt of snow collected in the port of Vanino in the Khabarovsk Territory. The concentration of heavy metals in meltwater obtained after melting snow samples was compared with MPCd-c of chemicals in the water of water bodies of economic, drinking and cultural water use and MPCf-s of chemicals in water of fishery significance. The results obtained indicate an excess of MPCf-s for some heavy metals. These studies correlate with previous surveys (modeling, calculation of dust load) and allow us to assert that the analysis of snow cover can be successfully used in monitoring atmospheric air for various purposes.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(3):407-416
pages 407-416 views

Assessment of the degree of air pollution by fluctuating asymmetry of leaves of various tree species

Gubasheva B.E., Idrissova G.Z., Tumenov A.N., Miftakhov R.R.


Fluctuating asymmetry of the hanging birch ( Betula pendula Roth), black poplar ( Populus nigra L . ), common ash ( Fraxinus excelsior L . ), common maple ( Acer platanoides L . ), common lilac ( Syringa vulgaris ) was evaluated as an integral measure based on five morphometric features of the plate. Samples of the leaf apparatus were taken at each point of technogenic load from the lower part of the crown of several close-growing trees of Betula pendula Roth, Populus nigra, Fraxinus, Acer platanoides and Syringa randomly select 30 intact leaves from each tree. In the future, calculations of the coefficient of fluctuating asymmetry were carried out in order to obtain an average value that determines the quality of the air environment corresponding to a certain score. An attempt was also made to find the correlation relationship of each bilateral feature with the average coefficient of fluctuating asymmetry. As a result, the correlation coefficient was equal to one, which corresponds to a high correlation. Considering this circumstance, it was decided to find a connection between the correlation dependence of the fluctuating asymmetry of the hanging birch with the fluctuating asymmetry of the leaf apparatus of poplar, maple, ash and lilac. The correlation coefficients were close to one, which made it possible to compile regression equations, with the help of which air quality assessment scales were compiled.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(3):417-427
pages 417-427 views

Environmental education

Ecological reflection and its verbalization in the Russian, English and French media discourse space: a comparative approach

Guslyakova A.V., Guslyakova N.I., Valeeva N.G.


The article covers the problem of ecological reflection and the ways of its linguistic realization in the Russian and foreign media discourse space at the present epoch of digitalization and sustainable development. The main goal of this research is to characterize the key linguistic ways of expressing ecological reflection at its individual and collective levels of information perception by human consciousness in Russian, English and French media discourses. The study contains a comparative approach towards the analysis of the language units that express ecological reflection in the media discourses of different language domains. This method helps define the relevance of the study, which is primarily explained by the increasing number of interactive media materials focused on the environmental issues of the third millennium. The results of the study demonstrate a different degree of the language expression of ecological reflection (evolutionary, mediative and radical) by means of a particular choice of linguistic instruments specific for a certain language media space. In the end, one common principle is identified in the expression of ecological reflection in the Russian, French and English media discourse space. Despite almost opposite linguistic approaches towards the implementation of ecological reflection in the Russian, English and French media, there is one common challenge that unites them all, and this is the survival of the planet as well as its further sustainable development. Thus, at this stage the language choice for the promotion of eco-reflective ideas becomes convergent for three media discourse space of Russia, France and the English-speaking world.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(3):428-440
pages 428-440 views

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