Understandings of Impoliteness in the Greek Context

Cover Page

Abstract


Interest in non-academic ways of understanding of im/politeness has so far been evident primarily in analyses of the sequential development of real-life interactions. However, understandings of im/politeness can be found in other sources such as related articles in on-line newspapers and their ensuing comments. The main aim of this paper is to contribute to this rather neglected area in im/politeness research, thus placing emphasis on the underexplored societal rather than individual level of im/politeness. The data to be investigated comes from two on-line articles and the comments they received. The articles appeared in a popular Greek free press on-line newspaper, LIFO, in 2014 and 2017 and were written by the same journalist. Both articles and ensuing comments express lay understandings of impoliteness and are discussed in the paper in terms of van Dijk’s (1998, 2006a, b) ideological discourse analysis and ‘ideological square’ that revolves around positive self-presentation and negative other-presentation. In exploring understandings of impoliteness in this context, we identified two emerging social identities, those of ‘polite’ and ‘impolite citizen’, dynamically co-constructed as binary opposites by the journalist and posters involved. Despite the fact that on-line newspaper articles and their accompanying comments reflect stereotypical thinking, they also depict pervasive views and are worth exploring because they concern the societal level of im/politeness.


About the authors

Angeliki Tzanne

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

Author for correspondence.
Email: msifian@enl.uoa.gr
Panepistimioupoli Zographou, 157 84 Athens, Greece

Professor Emerita at the Department of English Language and Literature, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

Maria Sifianou

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

Email: atzanne@enl.uoa.gr
Panepistimioupoli Zographou, 157 84 Athens, Greece

Associate Professor in Linguistics at the Department of English Language and Literature, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

References

  1. Alexander, Jeffrey C. (2006). The civil sphere. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  2. Archakis, Argiris & Villy Tsakona (2012). The narrative construction of identities in critical education. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
  3. Archakis, Argiris & Angeliki Tzanne (2009). Constructing in-group identity through story-telling: evidence from conversational narratives of young people in Greece. In Georgakopoulou, A. & V. Lytra (eds.) Language, Discourse and Identities: Snapshots from Greek Contexts. Pragmatics Special Issue, 19 (3), 343-362.
  4. Barnes, Renee (2018). Uncovering online commenting culture: Trolls, fanboys and lurkers. Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.
  5. Benwell, Bethan & Elizabeth Stokoe (2006) Discourse and identity. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Uni­versity Press.
  6. Berg, Janne (2016). The impact of anonymity and issue controversiality on the quality of online discussion. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 13 (1), 37-51.
  7. Bolander, Brook & Miriam A. Locher (2015). “Peter is a dumb nut”: Status updates and reactions to them as ‘acts of positioning’ in Facebook. Pragmatics, 25 (1), 99-122.
  8. Bou-Franch, Patricia & Pilar Garcés-Conejos Blitvich (2014). Conflict management in massive polylogues: A case study from YouTube. Journal of Pragmatics, 73, 19-36.
  9. Boyd, Richard (2006). The value of civility? Urban Studies, 43 (5/6), 863-878.
  10. Brown, Penelope (2015). Politeness and language. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed.), 18, 326-330. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.53072-4.
  11. Bucholtz, Mary & Kira Hall (2003). Language and identity. In Duranti, A. (ed.) A Companion to Linguistic Anthropology. Oxford: Blackwell, 368-94.
  12. Bucholtz, Mary & Kira Hall (2005). Identity and interaction: A sociocultural linguistic approach. Discourse Studies, 7, 584-614.
  13. Canakis, Costas (2007). Εισαγωγή στην πραγματολογία: γνωστικές και κοινωνικές όψεις της γλωσσικής χρήσης [Introduction to pragmatics: Cognitive and social aspects of language use]. Athens: Ekdoseis tou Eikostou Protou.
  14. Culpeper, Jonathan (1996). Towards an anatomy of impoliteness. Journal of Pragmatics, 25, 349-367.
  15. Culpeper, Jonathan (2011). Impoliteness: Using language to cause offence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  16. Davies, Bethan L., Andrew J. Merrison & Michael Haugh (2013). Epilogue. In Davies, B.L., M. Haugh, & A.J. Merrison (eds.) Situated Politeness. London: Continuum, 270-277.
  17. De Fina, Anna, Deborah Schiffrin & Michael Bamberg (eds.) (2006). Discourse and identity. Cam­bridge: Cambridge University Press.
  18. Dynel, Marta (2015). The landscape of impoliteness research. Journal of Politeness Research, 11 (2), 329-354.
  19. Eelen, Gino (2001). A critique of politeness theories. Manchester: St. Jerome.
  20. Eller, Monika (2017). Reader response in the digital age: Letters to the editor vs. below-the-line comments: A synchronic comparison. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg. https://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/volltextserver/23857/.
  21. Fukushima, Saeko & Maria Sifianou (2017) Conceptualizing politeness in Japanese and Greek. Intercultural Pragmatics, 14 (4), 525-555. https://doi.org/10.1515/ip-2017-0024.
  22. Fyfe, Nicholas, Jon Bannister & Ade Kearns (2006). (In)civility and the city. Urban Studies, 43 (5/6), 853-861.
  23. Garcés-Conejos Blitvich, Pilar (2013). Introduction: Face, identity and im/politeness: Looking backward, moving forward: From Goffman to Practice Theory. Journal of Politeness Research, 9 (1), 1-33.
  24. Garcés-Conejos Blitvich, Pilar & Maria Sifianou (2017). Im/politeness and identity. In Culpeper, J., M. Haugh & D. Kádár (eds.) The Palgrave Handbook of Linguistic (Im)Politeness. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 227-256.
  25. Georgalou, Mariza (2017). Discourse and identity on Facebook. London: Bloomsbury.
  26. Grainger, Karen & Sara Mills (2016). Directness and indirectness across cultures. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
  27. Hall, Stuart & Paul Du Gay (eds.) (1996). Questions of cultural identity. London: Sage.
  28. Halliday, M.A.K. (1985) An introduction to Functional Grammar (1st ed.). London: Edward Arnold.
  29. Hardaker, Claire (2010). Trolling in asynchronous computer-mediated communication: From user discussions to academic definitions. Journal of Politeness Research, 6, 215-242. doi: 10.1515/JPLR.2010.011.
  30. Hardaker, Claire & Mark McGlashan (2016). “Real men don’t hate women”: Twitter rape threats and group identity. Journal of Pragmatics, 91, 80-93.
  31. Haugh, Michael (2007). Emic conceptualisations of (im)politeness and face in Japanese: Implications for the discursive negotiation of second language learner identities. Journal of Pragmatics, 39, 657-680.
  32. Haugh, Michael (2010). When is an email really offensive? Argumentativity and variability in evalua­tions of impoliteness. Journal of Politeness Research, 6 (1), 7-31.
  33. Haugh, Michael (2012). Epilogue: The first-second order distinction in face and politeness research. Journal of Politeness Research, 8 (1), 111-134.
  34. Haugh, Michael & Jonathan Culpeper (2018). Integrative pragmatics and (im)politeness theory. In Ilie, C. & N. Norrick (eds.) Pragmatics and its Interfaces. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 213-239.
  35. Howard, Judith A. (2000). Social psychology of identities. Annu. Rev. Sociol., 26, 367-393.
  36. Jaworski, Adam, Nikolas Coupland & Dariusz Galasiński (2004) Metalanguage: Why now? In Jaworski, A., N. Coupland & D. Galasiński (eds.) Metalanguage: Social and Ideological Pers­pectives. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 3-8.
  37. Johnstone, Barbara (2008). Discourse analysis (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.
  38. Joseph, John E. (2004) Language and identity: National, ethnic, religious. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
  39. Kádár, Dániel Z. & Michael Haugh (2013). Understanding politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  40. Kienpointner, Manfred (1997). Varieties of rudeness: Types and functions of impolite utterances. Functions of Language, 4 (2), 251-87.
  41. Kienpointner, Manfred (2018). Impoliteness online: Hate speech in online interactions. Internet Pragmatics, 1 (2), 329-351.
  42. Kristiansen, Tore (2003). The youth and the gatekeepers. Reproduction and change in language norm and variation. In Androutsopoulos, J. & A. Georgakopoulou (eds) The Discursive Construction of Youth Identities. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 279-302.
  43. Lakoff, Robin (2005). Civility and its discontents: Or getting in your face. In Lakoff, R.T. & S. Ide (eds.) Broadening the Horizon of Linguistic Politeness. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 23-43.
  44. Locher, Miriam A. (2008). Relational work, politeness and identity construction. In Antos, G., E. Ven­tola & T. Weber (eds.) Handbooks of Applied Linguistics. Volume 2: Interpersonal Communica­tion. Berlin / New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 509-540. doi: 10.1515/9783110211399.4.509.
  45. Locher, Miriam A. (2013) Situated impoliteness: The interface between relational work and identity construction. In Haugh, M., B.L. Davies & A.J. Merrison (eds.) Situated Politeness. London: Bloomsbury, 187-208.
  46. Locher, Miriam A. & Brook Bolander, (2017). Facework and identity. In Hoffmann, C.R. & W. Bublitz (eds.) Pragmatics of Social Media. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, 407-434. doi: 10.1515/9783110431070-015.
  47. Locher, Miriam A. & Brook Bolander. (2019). Ethics in pragmatics. Journal of Pragmatics, 145, 83-90.
  48. Locher, Miriam A. & Martin Luginbühl (2019). Meta-discussions on Swiss and German politeness in online sources. In Ogiermann, E. & P. Garcés-Conejos Blitvich (eds.) From Speech Acts to Lay Understandings of Politeness: Multilingual and Multicultural Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 250-279.
  49. Locher, Miriam A. & Richard J. Watts (2005). Politeness theory and relational work. Journal of Politeness Research, 1 (1), 9-33.
  50. Lodewijkx, Hein F.M. (2008). Reciprocity, norm of. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (2nd ed.), 107-109.
  51. Lorenzo-Dus, Nuria, Pilar Garcés-Conejos Blitvich & Patricia Bou-Franch (2011). On-line polylogues and impoliteness: The case of postings sent in response to the Obama Reggaeton YouTube video. Journal of Pragmatics, 43 (10), 2578-2593.
  52. Luzón, María-José (2018). Constructing academic identities online: Identity performance in research group blogs written by multilingual scholars. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 33, 24-39.
  53. Marwick, Alice (2013). Online identity. In Hartley, J., J. Burgess & A. Bruns (eds.) Companion to New Media Dynamics. Malden MA: Blackwell, 355-364.
  54. Mills, Sara (2003). Gender and politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  55. Mills, Sara (2009). Impoliteness in a cultural context. Journal of Pragmatics, 41, 1047-1060.
  56. Mills, Sara (2017). English politeness and class. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  57. Mills, Sara & Dániel Z. Kádár (2011). Culture and politeness. In Kádár, D.Z. and S. Mills (eds.) Politeness in East Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 21-44.
  58. Moser, Gabriel & Denis Corroyer (2001). Politeness in the urban environment: Is city life still synonymous with civility? Environment and Behavior, 33 (5), 611-625.
  59. Mouffe, Chantal (2005). For an agonistic public sphere. In Tønder, L. & L. Thomassen (eds.) Radical Democracy: Politics between Abundance and Lack. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 123-132.
  60. Mutz, Diana C. (2015). In-your-face politics: The consequences of uncivil media. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
  61. Mutz, Diana C. & Byron Reeves (2005). The new videomalaise: Effects of televised incivility on political trust. American Political Science Review, 99 (1), 1-15.
  62. Neurauter-Kessels, Manuela (2011). Im/polite reader responses on British online news sites. Journal of Politeness Research, 7, 187-214.
  63. Niedzielski, Nancy A. & Dennis R. Preston (2003). Folk linguistics. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
  64. O’Driscoll, Jim (2013). Situational transformations: The offensive-izing of an email message and the public-ization of offensiveness. Pragmatics and Society, 4 (3), 369-387.
  65. Ogiermann, Eva & Vasiliki Saloustrou (2019). Conceptualising im/politeness in Greece and Great Britain. Paper presented at the 12th international conference on (im)politeness. Cambridge, 17-19 July 2019.
  66. Ohashi, Jun & Chang, Wei-Lin, Melody (2017). (Im)politeness and relationality. In Culpeper, J., M. Haugh & D. Kádár (eds.) Handbook of Linguistic (Im)Politeness. Basingstoke. Palgrave MacMillan, 257-281.
  67. Oz, Mustafa, Pei Zheng & Gina Masullo Chen (2017). Twitter versus Facebook: Comparing incivility, impoliteness, and deliberative attributes. New Media & Society, 20 (9), 3400-3419.
  68. Papacharissi, Zizi (2004). Democracy online: Civility, politeness, and the democratic potential of online political discussion groups. New Media & Society, 6 (2), 259-283. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/1461444804041444.
  69. Pavlidou, Theodossia-Soula (2014). Constructing collectivity with ‘we’: An introduction. In Pav­lidou, Th.-S. (ed.) Constructing Collectivity: ‘We’ across Languages and Contexts. Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1-19.
  70. Perugini, Marco & Marcello Gallucci (2001). Individual differences and social norms: The distinction between reciprocators and prosocials. European Journal of Personality, 15, 19-35.
  71. Pinto, Derrin (2011). Are Americans insincere? Interactional style and politeness in everyday America. Journal of Politeness Research, 7 (2), 215-238.
  72. Preston, Dennis (2005). What is folk linguistics? Why should you care? Lingua Posnaniensis, 47, 143-162.
  73. Reader, Bill (2012). Free press vs. free speech? The rhetoric of “civility” in regard to anonymous online comments. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 89 (3), 495-513.
  74. Rowe, Ian (2015) Civility 2.0: A comparative analysis of incivility in online political discussion. Information, Communication & Society, 18 (2), 121-138. doi: 10.1080/1369118X.2014.940365.
  75. Santana, Arthur D. (2014). Virtuous or vitriolic: The effect of anonymity on civility in online newspaper reader comment boards. Journalism Practice, 8 (1), 18-33. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/17512786.2013.813194.
  76. Scott, Craig R. (2004). Benefits and drawbacks of anonymous online communication: Legal challenges and communicative recommendations. Free Speech Yearbook, 41 (1), 127-141. doi: 10.1080/08997225.2004.10556309.
  77. Sellers, Mortimer (2003). Ideals of public discourse. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id= 1144719. (Last accessed, 16 September 2018).
  78. Sifianou, Maria (2019). Im/politeness and in/civility: A neglected relationship? Journal of Pragmatics, 147, 49-64.
  79. Sifianou, Maria & Angeliki Tzanne (2010). Conceptualizations of politeness and impoliteness in Greek. Intercultural Pragmatics, 7 (4), 661-687.
  80. Smith, Philip, Timothy L. Phillips & Ryan D. King (2010) Incivility: The rude stranger in everyday life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  81. Spencer-Oatey, Helen (2002). Managing rapport in talk: Using rapport sensitive incidents to explore the motivational concerns underlying the management of relations. Journal of Pragmatics, 34 (5), 529-45.
  82. Stryker, Robin, Bethany Anne Conway & Taylor J. Danielson (2016). What is political incivility? Communication Monographs, 83 (40), 535-556. doi: 10.1080/03637751.2016.1201207.
  83. Temmerman, Martina (2014). “Nail polish - We’ve chosen the nicest shades for you!”: Editorial voice and ‘we’ in a Flemish women’s magazine. In Pavlidou, Th.-S. (ed.) Constructing Collectivity. ‘We’ across Languages and Contexts. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 247-263.
  84. Terkourafi, Marina (2011). From politeness1 to politeness2: Tracking norms of im/politeness across time and space. Journal of Politeness Research, 7 (2), 159-185.
  85. Terkourafi, Marina, Lydia Catedral, Iftikhar Haider, Farzad Karimzad, Jeriel Melgares, Cristina Mostacero-Pinilla, Julie Nelson & Benjamin Weissman (2018). Uncivil Twitter: A socioprag­matic analysis. Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict, 6 (1), 26-57.
  86. Thurlow, Crispin, Lara Lengel & Alice Tomic (2004). Computer-mediated communication: Social interaction and the Internet. London: Sage.
  87. Tzanne, Angeliki (2019). Politeness, praising, and identity construction in a Greek food blog. Ogiermann, E. & P. Garcés-Conejos Blitvich (eds.) From Speech Acts to Lay Understandings of Politeness: Multilingual and Multicultural Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 48-67.
  88. Upadhyay, Shiv R. (2010). Identity and impoliteness in computer-mediated reader responses. Journal of Politeness Research, 6, 105-127.
  89. van Dijk, Teun A. (1998). Ideology: A multidisciplinary approach. London: Sage.
  90. van Dijk, Teun A. (2006a). Ideology and discourse analysis. Journal of Political Ideologies, 11 (2), 115-140.
  91. van Dijk, Teun A. (2006b). Politics, ideology and discourse. In Wodak, R. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, Volume on Politics and Language. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 728-740.
  92. Verschueren, Jef (2012). Ideology in language use: Pragmatic guidelines for empirical research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  93. Watson, Tony J. (2008). Managing identity: Identity work, personal predicaments and structural circumstances. Organization, 15 (1), 121-143.
  94. Watts, Richard J. (1989). Relevance and relational work: Linguistic politeness as politic behaviour. Multilingua, 8, 131-166.
  95. Watts, Richard J. (2003). Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  96. Watts, Richard J., Sachiko Ide & Konrad Ehlich (1992). Politeness in language: Studies in its history, theory, and practice. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  97. Wieland, Stacey M.B. (2010). Ideal selves as resources for the situated practice of identity management. Communication Quarterly, 24 (4), 503-528.
  98. Zappavigna, Michele (2012). Discourse of Twitter and social media: How we use language to create affiliation on the web. London: Continuum International.

Statistics

Views

Abstract - 1464

PDF (English) - 313

Cited-By


PlumX

Dimensions


Copyright (c) 2019 Tzanne A., Sifianou M.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies