Vol 27, No 4 (2019)

Industrial Ecology
Principles of constructed wetlands designing
Rybka K.Y., Shchegolkova N.M.

Constructed wetlands (CW) - shallow surfaces or subsurface water bodies, planted with higher aquatic plants and designed to treat wastewater - have been actively used in world practice for the last decades. There are no universal principles for designing such systems, so for each combination of landscape (in which a CW is located) and the quality of wastewater, an individual type of CW is selected. The article provides an overview of the principles adopted in the world for calculating the main technological parameters of CWs (choice of the type of CW, calculation of the area of CW, the residence time of the water in the system, the choice of filtering medium, etc.) developed on the basis of numerous functioning objects. The recommendations given in the article are applicable for small and mediumsized CWs intended for the treatment of domestic, storm and agricultural wastewater.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2019;27(4):255-263
Effect of firing temperature waste from water treatment on sorption characteristics of petroleum products
Shaikhiev I.G., Shumkova I.N., Sverguzova S.V., Sapronova Z.A.

The article reflects the results of research on the influence of roast temperature of water treatment waste obtained from drinking water generation (at the water treatment plant in Nizhnekamsk, Republic of Tatarstan) for sorption characteristics for native and used oil products - oils 5W40, 15W40 and И-20А. The methods of instrumental and computational means of research are presented. Differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry of water treatment waste were performed. The graphs of the influence of roast temperature on the aqueous extract pH value, maximum oil capacity and water absorption were constructed. It was found that at high temperatures, the decomposition of organic compounds with formation of carbon black occurs. It increases the maximum oil capacity in dynamic and static conditions in water and water absorption. It is determined that the best adsorption indicators are achieved for a sample of water treatment waste subjected to heat treatment at 600 °C.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2019;27(4):264-274
Economic aspects birds of prey usage as bird control operation
Kuznetsova I.N., Sergeev S.A., Enaleev I.R.

Birds attracted to city’s waste landfills represent a significant hazard and additional inconvenience to people. It is necessary to understand not only the reasons for which birds enter the given territory, but also the economic components of the scaring process. The article analyzes the results of bird control management work at several waste management facilities. Based on these calculations, it’s possible to determine of costs level and select the optimal model for the work of specialists in bird scaring.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2019;27(4):275-281
Life Safety
Сurrent state of the problem of ship waste management
Mizgirev D.S., Zakharov V.N., Otdelkin N.S., Naumov V.S.
The article is devoted to the current state of the problem of ship waste management. The paper deals with the problem of anthropogenic impact on water bodies and adjacent territories resulting from shipping, ship repair and industrial production. The classification of hazardous impacts of ships on the environment in accordance with Russian and international regulations. The main methods of solving the problem of ship waste that are currently used are indicated, the main equipment of engineering environmental protection is classified. Comparative analysis of Russian regulatory documents (The Rules of Russian River Register) and international regulatory documents (MARPOL) was held. The conclusion was made about more stringent requirements for emissions of polluting substances on inland waterways. The definition of operational wastes from vessels was proposed. The general trend was shown for toughening of rules and regulations for handling and disposing of ship-generated waste.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2019;27(4):282-297
Landscape structure of coastal cliffs of the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus
Aleynikova A.M., Lipka O.N., Krylenko M.V.

This work is devoted to the analysis of the landscape structure of the coastal cliffs of the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. The paper analyzes the features of vegetation growth and the landscape structure of the cliffs of the Tuaphat massif, proposes and substantiates the classification of landscapes of coastal cliffs, reveals the features of coastal landscapes. In the landscape structure of the coastal cliffs of the Tuaphat massif, natural boundaries can be distinguished by: the nature of the apparent occurrence of geological layers; substates by the steepness of the slope; striae, which are characterized by more abundant growth of vegetation along cracks in the geological layer; facies usually coincide geographically with nanoand microforms of the relief and are usually represented by one type of vegetation (for example, a pillow rock form). The distribution of vegetation by striae on fine crushed stone of siltstone or mudstone, the absence of halophytes, but the predominance of salt-tolerant plant species with a wide ecological amplitude (petrophytes, cosmopolitans and ruderal) are typical.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2019;27(4):298-306
The influence of the abiotic factors on the Tilia cordata Juss., growing on the RUDN University campus
Mamadzhanov R.K., Khaustov A.P., Redina M.M., Umarov M.U.

The article presents the main abiotic factors, which influence could be affect the ecosystems components - plant community ( Tilia cordata Juss. ) growing in the RUDN University campus. The abiotic factors which as wet, temperature, the concentration of the CO, NO2, H2S and soot in the atmosphere and the topsoil, sounds value, radiation in the environment, the pH and Eh in the topsoil have been measured. The morphological parameters and the asymmetry indexes of leaves of the Tilia cordata Juss. have been revealed. Based on these data set the influences of the main abiotic factors has been identified. The distribution of the asymmetry indexes of leaves of Tilia cordata Juss . growing near Miklykho-Maklaya Street and Leninskii Prospekt Highway and far away from here has been described.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2019;27(4):307-324
Environmetal defence
Estimation of various factors impact on the area of oil patches in the Middle Volga region
Volkova N.I., Naumov V.S., Plastinin A.E., Zakharov V.N.

The paper estimates the impact of various factors on the oil pollution area for the purpose of solving the problems concerning forecasting during oil spills from the inland waterways vessels (on the example of the Middle Volga region). The following factors were considered: current velocity, air temperature, water temperature, volume and type of spilled oil product, wave height, river bank tortuosity, wind speed and wind direction, bank type, river width. A fractional two-level factorial plan of Box and Hunter has been developed aiming to test the significance of the studied factors. Mathematical modeling of a group of oil spill scenarios in the Middle Volga region has been carried out. It has been revealed that the volume of the spilled oil product, the wave height and the river bank tortuosity impact the oil patch area to a large extent. Based on the results obtained, the authors suggest the order for ranking factors into four groups according to the degree of impact on the oil patch area, depending on the specified effect quantity: extremely significant, especially significant, highly significant and moderately significant. The research results have been applied in the working out of more than 30 object plans for the prevention and elimination of oil spills of organizations engaged in oil transportation and handling, vessel bunkering in the Middle Volga region, as well as the plan for oil spill prevention and elimination in the Volga basin of inland waterways.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2019;27(4):325-336
Obtaining and using data of operational monitoring of atmospheric air
Kulakova E.S., Safarov A.M., Nasyrova L.A., Mizgirev D.S.

In order to control the chemical composition of atmospheric air in cities located in the zone of influence of petrochemical enterprises, automatic atmospheric air monitoring stations (ASKAV) are installed. For the effective use of experimental data, the authors of the article developed a data collection system with ASKAV, in which the air control in residential quarters and the gas mixture at the source of organized emissions are synchronized. The analysis of data on the concentration of pollutants in the atmospheric air of the Sterlitamak obtained from ASKAV, on the basis of which a list of marker substances for enterprises of the city was compiled. Priority sources of air pollution with marker substances during a different wind regime were identified. The authors developed models for changing the concentration of marker substances in the air using the method of factor regression. Based on the results of the cross-correlation function, the time of movement of the contaminated gas cloud from the source of emission to the residential area of the city is obtained. Conclusions are made about the effectiveness of the developed air monitoring system and the field of application of the acquired models.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2019;27(4):337-352

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