Vol 26, No 1 (2018)

Ecology
ASSESSMENT OF LEVEL OF WATER ECOSYSTEM AND ITS STATE ON THE BASIS OF ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURE OF PHYTOPLANKTON AND A MICROPHYTOBENTHOS
Bespalova E.V.
Abstract

The conducted researches of taxonomical structure of phytoplankton and microphytobenthos of neopleistocene and modern water ecosystems of the center of the East European Plain allowed to reveal regularities of its change when changing natural and natural and anthropogenic conditions and also parameters of its environmental standard. It is offered at a research of the modern water ecosystems by method of graphic comparison of taxonomical proportions of phytoplankton and a microphytobenthos to consider all groups of microalgas and a cyanobacterium, and not just diatomic. Researches showed prospects of use of this approach for assessment of a condition of water ecosystems and level of the loading rendered on them. The threshold sizes of indexes of a water ecosystem reflecting its transition from one state to another and also change of level of load of it are quantitatively determined.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(1):7-17
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Geoecology
PECULIARITIES OF FORMING NATURAL-TECHNICAL SYSTEMS OF OIL FIELDS IN PERM REGION
Isaev S.V.
Abstract

The formation of natural-technical systems under the influence of technological facilities at three oil fields of the Perm Krai was studied. Sampling of soil at different distances from the studied objects was carried out, after the content of oil products and chlorides was determined. Information is received on the geochemical transformation of the natural environment, expressed in halogenesis and bitumenization processes near technological facilities oil fields. The results were compared with the natural background concentrations of these pollutants, characteristic for each area of the study. Also a comparison is made in the context of types of technological objects and studied deposits. Based on the results of the work, the zone of technogenic influence oil field and chlorides of oilfield facilities on the natural environment was revealed. Specific features of the formation of various natural-technical systems on the territory of oil fields are determined.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(1):18-34
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ABOUT ENSURING OF ECOLOGICAL SAFETY IN MINE-EXTRACTIVE REGIONS ON THE BASE OF NEGATIVE KARST PROCESSES MINIMIZATION
Gayev A.Y., Kilin Y.A.
Abstract

Long investigations were fulfilled by authors in the region of Urals where ecological dangerous negative geodynamical karst processes are wide spread, because 40% of territory consists of limestone, dolomites, marls, gypsum, anhydride and stone salt. The solution of them by surfaceand underground water form the karst landscape with formation of surface and underground shapes - karst depressions, hollows, craters, ravines, caves, etc. This formation occurs lengthwise of neotectonical disturbances and relaxed zones of earth crust, which have been forming hereditary and with positive sign. They expose and hydrogeologicaly activate fissure and cave systems forming the zones of karst water accumulation which may be large water reservoirs and simultaneously the places of high ecological danger for population and engineering infrastructure. These dangerous processes retard social economical development of territories. For its minimization and out of dangerous work of even so complicated construction as transcontinental gas pipe we suggest the methods of investigations and forecast and minimization of consequences of dangerous processes including the systems of monitoring and operate following the transformation of blocks of karsting rocks and technique conditions of constructions and communications. It’s necessary to pay special attention on such neolandscape elements as troughs of settling-collapse which are the cause of the most ecologically dangerous negative geodynamical processes. All attention today is focused on depressional forms of karst which is supposed to be the main danger for crossing of them communications. On the boards of karst depressions near the watershed part of landscape profile the steep plots occur which is conditioned by disjunctive dislocations in connection with more energetic neotectonical raisings. The degree of danger is recommended to determine according the complex of methods including hydrogeochemical, using the parameter - relative module of underground chemical denudation in t/km2 on 1m. Technical monitoring was firstlycarried out in 1994-95 on karst dangerous plots, it consists of systematic measuring of tense condition of pipe metal. We established the regular intercommunication of deformations in rock massifs and in pipe metal. It contribute to timely realization of prophylactic measures for prevention of ecologically dangerous negative geodynamic processes.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(1):35-51
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USING RUSSIAN REMOTE SENSING DATA FOR STUDING THE DYNAMIC OF ECOLOGICAL AND RESOURSE POTENTIAL RECOVERY OF FORESTS AREA AFTER THE IMPACT OF FOREST FIRES
Grigorets E.A., Kapralova D.O., Permitina L.I.
Abstract

The use of remote sensing data for determining the fire situation is shown, as for the monitoring of fire situations and assessment of pyrogenic forest distraction. Studies were conducted on the use of long-term satellite observations to monitor and evaluate the dynamics of ecological and resource potential recovery of the areas affected by forest fires and are based on the assessment of the amount of lost biomass and the rate of vegetation recovery. The ability to monitor the dynamics of vegetation recovery on damaged fire areas are encouraged to implement on the basis of the use of vegetation indices based on spectral properties of vegetation. The proposed method makes it possible to assess the state and environmental and climatic characteristics of the vegetation biomass of the territory and its productivity. It shows the results of remote sensing data from Russian and foreign satellites, obtained in the periods from 2009 to 2013. There are given maps of vegetation index constructed for the studied forestry and the histogram index changes, which assesses the amount of biomass of forest areas.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(1):52-62
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PECULIARITIES OF DISPERSION OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE EMISSIONS BY THE ENERGY COMPLEX ENTERPRISES AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE POPULATION OF MEGAPOLISES
Silaeva P.Y., Silaev A.V.
Abstract

The article compares the impact of vehicles and stationary sources on the health of the population in large cities. The main features of megacities are considered, which significantly increase the degree of emissions influence from the heat power complex on human health. The question of underestimation of the pollutants’ influence from stationary sources in conditions of large cities is raised.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(1):63-72
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POLLUTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE FROM FIRES IN THE RESIDENTIAL SECTOR (BY EXAMPLE OF SIBERIAN FEDERAL DISTRICT)
Vashchalova T.V., Garmyshev V.V.
Abstract

On the basis of summarizing many years of statistics performed a quantitative evaluation of atmospheric pollution as a result of fires in the residential sector of the Siberian Federal district regions. Field observations established: a set of toxicants, and their average amounts, the total amount of pollution and loss of atmospheric oxygen at fire.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(1):73-81
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Biogeochemistry
LIPID PEROXIDATION IN PLANTS CELLS UNDER CONDITIONS OF THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT
Petukhov A.S., Khritokhin N.A., Petukhova G.A.
Abstract

Currently, the problem of environmental contamination is very urgent. Accumulation of heavy metals by plants leads to biochemical disorder in cells. The convenient parameter for estimation of cells membrane damage degree is the concentration of lipid peroxidation products. The aim of this research was to investigate the content of diene conjugates and Schiff bases in plants of various species under conditions of the urban environment. The investigation was conducted with meadow grass, red clover, wild vetch, chamomile, coltsfoot and cultivated oat. Plants were collected from highway area and from areas with metallurgical, motor building, oil refinery and accumulator factories. It was discovered that reaction of plants cells membrane damaging was species-specific: chamomile, wild vetch, meadow grass accumulated lipid peroxidation products. The concentration of diene conjugates and Schiff bases in cells of red clover and coltsfoot was lower than in control group. Metallurgical factory contamination influenced the lipid peroxidation in the first place, oil refinery, motor building and accumulator factories impacted lipid peroxidation in the second place.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(1):82-90
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Radioecology
SYSTEMATIZATION OF INFORMATION FOR RADIOBIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE CLINICAL STATUS OF FARM ANIMALS
Pavlova S.A.
Abstract

The data of radioecological monitoring should be systematized with the methods of system analysis. Radiobiological pathology is evaluated on the basis of the results of physiological parameters diagnostics that should also be processed on the basis of system analysis. Structural-logical modeling involves the development of structural conceptual modeling schemes, which will be filled with information. As a result of radioactive exposure to farm animals, they can be diagnosed with clinical pathology. It is important to identify it because. further agricultural use of animal products depends on its severity. The developed methods allow to identify radiation pathology on the basis of changes in physiological parameters.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(1):91-100
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Environmetal defence
CONTROL OF EFFICIENCY OF GAS-CLEANING SYSTEMS IN THE PRODUCTION OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS
Kaganova Y.A.
Abstract

The article contains an analysis of technical methods for removing dust from the workshop premises for the production of semidry and plastic shaping aluminosilicate products for the lining of steelmaking furnaces, cement, glass, chemical industries, as well as chamotte and ground materials. The main causes of air pollution during the production of refractory materials, in particular, aluminosilicate products, and the main decisions in the field of air protection for existing and projected enterprises were considered. As a result of the analysis of data for 2010-2017, it was suggested that the efficiency of the aspiration systems is independent from the year of putting in operation and the production area of the workshop. In this regard, the need to continuously control the operation of gas cleaning equipment has been established and proposals have been put forward to control the operation of the applied aspirating systems to ensure their proper functioning and to prevent excess emissions.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(1):101-112
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Human ecology
EVALUATION OF THE DEGREE OF INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS ON HEALTH OF THE POPULATION
Pisareva A.V., Myshkin A.I., Stepanova L.P., Yakovleva E.V.
Abstract

Human activity in ecosystems has become very significant. The article establishes a set of factors that pose a danger to the health of the population. The analysis of the incidence in the region was made. The conducted studies show that the medico-ecological situation in the Orel region remains tense.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(1):113-124
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Biological resources
DISTRIBUTION OF THE GENUS CEDRELA IN ECUADOR
Llerena S.A., Salinas N., Oliveira O.L., Jadán-Guerrero M., Segovia-Salcedo C.
Abstract
The genus Cedrela in Ecuador has four species: C. odorata, C. montana, C. fissilis and C. nebulosa. Cedrela was one of the economically most important timber in the past, due to its wood properties. The genus has a long history of overharvesting and selective logging; as a consequence a substantial genetic degradation have occurred in Ecuador. Currently, three species of Cedrela are included in the IUCN Red List. C. odorata and C. nebulosa are listed as vulnerable species and C. fissilis as endangered species. In spite of their conservation status and priority, few studies related to geographical distribution have been done. Then, the geographic distribution at local level had been carried out to provide a valuable tool to the conservation and management of these species. Field sampling and herbarium compilation showed C. montana is restricted to the Ecuadorian highlands in the western and eastern Andean montane region between 805 to 3200 masl (meters above sea level). Cedrela nebulosa is located in Andean region about 1400 to 2300 masl. C. odorata is the most widely distributed, occupying areas in the Amazon (200-1300 masl), Pacific (330-825 masl) and insular regions (350 masl). While, Cedrela fissilis is only found in the Amazon Region about 200 to 510 masl. This basic information about current distribution and abundance of cedar species is primordial to generate sufficient tools to formulate the strategies of management and conservation of these species in the country. The widespread distribution of C. odorata have been found in the Amazonian and Pacific regions, indicating that it is adapted to tropical rainforest and tropical monsoon climates. To prove if there are adaptations to both habitats morphological, ecological and phylogenetic studies must be carried out.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(1):125-133
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Environmental management
POSITION OF RUSSIA IN INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RATINGS
Alekseeva N.N., Arshinova M.A., Bancheva A.I.
Abstract

International environmental ratings have recently become an important tool for assessing the progress of countries in implementing environmental policies and sustainable development goals. Numerous international organizations and networks, universities, research teams and commercial companies are developing environmental ratings. Basing on the analysis of the compiled database the classification of integrated environmental ratings was elaborated and 8 thematic groups were identified. The international ratings were grouped into three categories, reflecting the position of our country. Russia occupies a leading position just in a few ratings based on the Environmental Efficiency index, the Notre Dame Global Adaptation Index, Environmental Democracy index. Russia occupies a satisfactory position in the ratings compiled on the basis of the index of Adjusted Net Savings, Pollution index, Grееndex (green index), Prosperity index, Water Stress, etc. Russia has low position in the ratings based on the Climate Change Performance index, Environmental Vulnerability index, Climate Risk. Russia lags behind many OECD and BRICS countries in the movement towards a “green” economy (as in the ratings of the Global Green Economy index, Low Carbon Economy index, Global Cleantech Innovation index, etc.). The analysis of the rank of Russia in the environmental ratings revealed a number of methodological factors that affect its position and, at the same time, do not always provide for the objective specification of the environmental situation. Basing on the assessment of Russia›s position in international ratings, the strengths and weaknesses of the environmental development of our country are summarized.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(1):134-152
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Environmental education
ON CRITERIA FOR SELECTING MATERIAL FOR TEACHING ESP TO ECOLOGICAL FACULTY STUDENTS
Kaderova R., Valeeva N., Merkushina N., Nigmatzyanova Y.
Abstract

The present research considers criteria for selecting study material for teaching English for Special Purposes (ESP) to advanced students of environmental faculties. Texts for study should meet the following basic criteria: · be focused on the students’ future specialty, informative, up-to-date; · have a polemical focus that encourages debate and discussion; · be authentic, rich in scientific terminology, with complicated grammatical constructions, coherent, logically arranged, and clear-cut. In this study, Mark Lynas’s book “The God Species” is evaluated as ESP teaching material. It is proved that this book can be used as teaching material since it meets all the criteria mentioned above. The results obtained are evaluated by the teachers.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(1):153-162
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