The Roles and Activities of Tatar Mullahs in Kazakhstan, 18th to Mid-21st Century

Cover Page

Cite item

Full text / tables, figures

Abstract

This article is devoted to the study of the functions by the Institute of Tatar mullahs in Kazakhstan at different historical periods. The author examines the activities of clergymen in the region, analyzes the internal policy of the Russian and later Soviet state, which regulated their activities by legislative acts, creating certain political contexts. Research interest is also caused by the internal policy of the state, which regulated Tatar mullah’s activities by legislative acts and it created certain political contexts. The sources for writing the work were materials of personal origin and office work, legislative and regulatory documents stored in the archives of Kazakhstan and Russia. In the initial period of the Kazakhstan's colonization the institute of Tatar mullahs was integrated into the management system of the newly-joined territory. In these conditions, the Tatar clergy had rather large powers in the Kazakh steppe. They conducted civil proceedings, document management, taught the Kazakhs literacy and agriculture, participated in government decisions, and carried out diplomatic missions. Their work gave legitimacy to the actions of the empire for the Kazakhs and promoted loyalty to the new government. In the middle of the 19th century, the attitude of the tsarist officials towards the mullahs changed dramatically. Activity of Tatar clergy was significantly limited by the Temporary Provision of 1868. Despite the prohibitions being undertaken, the political and religious influence of the ulama on the Kazakhs remained quite strong. In Soviet times, a significant part of the Tatar clergy was destroyed and completely removed from the legal field. However, although they were in an illegal situation, they continued to perform religious functions. After some religious relaxation during the Great Patriotic War, they made a significant contribution to the formation of Kazakhstani Kaziyat. The author considers that Tatar mullahs were the elite of the mobilized diaspora оn the basis of the analyzed material. Tatar ulemahs conspicuous influence was until the middle of the 19th century and occurred outside the religious sphere as well.

About the authors

Zufar A. Makhmutov

Institute of Pedagogy, Psychology and Social Problems

Author for correspondence.
Email: zufar@inbox.ru

Kandidat Istoricheskikh Nauk [PhD in history], Senior Researcher

12 Isaeva St., Kazan, 420039 Russia

References

  1. Armstrong, J. “Mobilized and Proletarian Diasporas.” The American Political Science Review, no. 2 (1976): 393–408.
  2. Galiyev, V.Z. “Sharif Gabdrakhimov – Akhun of the Middle Zhuz of Kazakhs.” Forums of Russian Muslims, no. 4 (2009): 165–168 (in Russian).
  3. Galiyev, V.Z. Kniga, razbudivshaya narod (Razyskaniya o Myrzhakipe Dulatove i yego sbornike «Prosnis', kazakh»!). Almaty: Mektep Publ., 2011 (in Russian).
  4. Ghilmani, S. Biographies of the Islamic Scholars of Our Time. Almaty: Өner, 2013.
  5. Gibadullina, E.M. “Vektory etnokonfessional'nykh svyazey tatar Povolzh'ya i kazakhov Zapadnogo Kazakhstana vo vtoroy polovine XVIII – XIX veke.” In Istoricheskiye sud'by narodov Povolzh'ya i Priural'ya: materialy Vserossiyskoy nauchnoy konferentsii «Istoricheskiy opyt etnokonfessional'nogo vzaimodeystviya v Srednem Povolzh'ye i Priural'ye (XVI – nachalo XX vv.), 117–123. Kazan': Institut istorii im. SH. Mardzhani AN RT Publ., 2011 (in Russian).
  6. Dyakin, V.S. Natsional'nyy vopros vo vnutrenney politike tsarizma (XIX – nachalo XX vv.). St. Petersburg: LISS Publ., 1998 (in Russian).
  7. Kappeler, A. “Two Traditions in the Attitude of Russia toward the Peoples of the Russian Empirе.” Russian History, no. 2 (2003): 129–136 (in Russian).
  8. Karimov, T.A. “Politika Rossiyskogo pravitel'stva i tatarskiye mully v severo-zapadnykh kazakhskikh zemlyakh (vtoraya polovina XVIII – nachalo XX vv.).” In Istochniki sushchestvovaniya musul'manskikh institutov v Rossiyskoy imperii, 144–162. Kazan': Institut istorii im. SH. Mardzhani AN RT Publ., 2009 (in Russian).
  9. Kemper, M. Sufii i uchenyye v Tatarstane i Bashkortostane: Islamskiy diskurs pod russkim gospodstvom. Kazan': Rossiyskiy islamskiy universitet Publ., 2008 (in Russian).
  10. Lysenko, Yu.A. “The position of officials of the Orenburg Department on the legal regulation of the spiritual life of the Kazakhs of the Ural and Turgay regions (40–80-ies of XIX century).” Nations and Religions of the Eurasia, no. 3 (2017): 128–138 (in Russian).
  11. Frank, A. “Tatarskiye mully sredi kazakhov i kirgizov XVIII–XIX vekakh.” In Kul'tura, iskusstvo tatarskogo naroda, 124–128. Kazan': Institut yazyka, literatury i istorii im. G. Ibragimova AN RT, 1993 (in Russian).
  12. Remnev, A.V. “Tatars in the Kazakh Steppe: Companions and Rivals of the Russian Empire.” Eurasia Bulletin, no. 4 (2006): 5–31 (in Russian).
  13. Saktaganova, Z.G. “Soviet model of the state religious policy in Kazakhstan and the religious daily life of the Kazakstanis in the second half of the XX century.” Everyday History, no. 3 (2017): 60–77 (in Russian).
  14. Shabley, P.S. “The social appearance of Muslim employees in the Kazakh steppe (late XVIII – mid-XX century).” Pax Islamic, no. 2 (2010): 91–107 (in Russian).
  15. Shabley, P.S. Orenburgskoye magometanskoye dukhovnoye sobraniye v obshchestvenno-politicheskoy i religioznoy zhizni naseleniya kazakhskikh stepnykh oblastey: (1788–1868 gg.). Chelyabinsk: ChelGU Publ., 2013 (in Russian).
  16. Shabley, P.S. Ocherk po istorii musul'manskikh obshchin Semipalatinska (konets XVIII – XIX vek). Chelyabinsk: ChelGU Publ., 2013 (in Russian).
  17. Sultangaliyeva, G.S. Zapadnyy Kazakhstan v sisteme etnokul'turnykh kontaktov (XVIII – nachalo XX vv.). Ufa: RIO RUNMTS Publ., 2002 (in Russian).
  18. Sultangaliyeva G.S. “Tatar” diaspora in confessional ties of the Kazakh steppe (XVIII–XX centuries).” Eurasia Bulletin, no. 4 (2000): 20–36 (in Russian).

Copyright (c) 2021 Makhmutov Z.A.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies