Regulations for trade between Cossacks and highlanders in the first half of the 19th century

Cover Page

Cite item

Full text / tables, figures


The resettlement of Kuban Cossacks and the exploration of new territories in the late 18th and early 19th centuries were fraught with difficulties. While the Cossacks’ main function was the establishment of a cordon line and the protection of the Russian Empire’s borders, they were also given the opportunity to build new and mutually beneficial trade relations with the population groups of the near-by Caucasus. The establishment of exchange trade yards on the border required regulations and documentation. The article discusses the functioning of the exchange trade yards in the Kuban region in the 19th century, as well as the main measures taken by the government of the Russian Empire and the administration of the Black Sea Cossack Host for developing trade between the Cossacks and the Caucasian population. The author analyzes the history of the trade yards from their foundation in the early 19th century to their abolition in the 1850s; equally discussed are the problems which the Cossacks and Caucasians faced in the process of exchanging goods, and the measures taken by officials to solve these problems. The focus is on a number of archival documents which regulated the process of trading, in particular tariffs on basic goods and rules for bartering with highlanders.

About the authors

Kseniya Y Sukhomlinova

Academy of marketing and socially-information technologies

Author for correspondence.


5, Zipovskaya St., Krasnodar, 350010, Russia


  1. Barett, T. M. “Crossing Bondaries: The Trading Frontiers of the Terek Cossacks.” In Russia’s Orient: imperial borderlands and peoples, 1700−1917, 227−249. N.p.: Indiana University Press, 1997.
  2. Bashqawi, Adel. Circassia: Born to Be Free. N.p.: Xlibris Corporation, 2017.
  3. Basieva, Z.M. “By N.N. Raevski as Chief of the Black Sea Coastline (1839–1841).” Vestnik Severo-Osetinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta im. K.L. Khetagurova. Obshchestvennye nauki, no. 3 (2012): 26–31 (in Russian).
  4. Berzhe, A.P., ed. Akti, sobrannye Kavkazskoi arheografi cheskoi komissiei. Archiv glavnogo upravleniya namestnika Kavkazskogo [Acts collected by the Caucasian Archeographic Commission. Archives of the main department of the governor of the Caucasus]. Vol. 1. Tifl is: Glavnogo Upravleniya Namestnika Kavkazskogo Press, 1866 (in Russian).
  5. Berzhe, A.P., Akti, sobrannye Kavkazskoi arheografi cheskoi komissiei. Archiv glavnogo upravleniya namestnika Kavkazskogo [Acts collected by the Caucasian Archeographic Commission. Archives of the main department of the governor of the Caucasus]. Vol. 10. Tifl is: Glavnogo Upravleniya Namestnika Kavkazskogo Press, 1885 (in Russian).
  6. Bliev, M.M. Rossiya i gortsy Bol’shogo Kavkaza. Na puti k tsivilizatsii [Russia and the Highlanders of the Greater Caucasus. On the road to civilization]. Moscow: Mysl’ Publ., 2004 (in Russian).
  7. Cherkasov, A.A., Smigel, M., Bratanovskii, S., and Valleau, A. The Circassian Aristocracy in the late XVIII – the fi rst half of XIX centuries: the Social Structure of Society. Bylye Gody 47, no. 1 (2018): 88−96 (in Russian).
  8. Clarke, E.D. Travels in Various Countries of Europe, Asia and Africa: Russia, Tartary, and Turkey. N.p.: T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1817.
  9. Fedoseeva, L.D. “Menovaya torgovlya s gorskim naseleniem na Vostochnom beregu chernogo morya v pervoipolovine XIX v.” [Barter trade with highlanders on the Eastern Black Sea Coastline in the fi rst half of the XIX century] Vestnik of the Adygeya State University, no 3 (2005): 40−43 (in Russian).
  10. Grankin, Y.Y. “The Trans-Caucasian trade inthe system of political and economic priorities of the Russian authorities in the region (the fi rst half of the 19thcentury).” Vestnik Severo-Osetinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. K.L. Khetagurova. Obshchestvennye nauki, no. 2 (2017): 13–18 (in Russian).
  11. Herman, R.E. “Barter Central Caucasia at the end of XVIII – early XIX centuries in the system of measures for «pacification of the Caucasus.” Vestnik of Stavropol state pedagogical institute16 (2016): 234–241 (in Russian).
  12. Ivantsov, V. G., Makarov, Y. N., Zimovets, L.G., and Shevchenko, N.A. The Policy of the Tsarist Authorities to Involve Mingrelia in the Political and Legal Space of the Russian Empire (1774–1857). Bylye Gody 49, no. 3 (2018): 1019−1027 (in Russian).
  13. Kidirniyazov, D.S. “Razvitie torgovli u Severokavkazskikh narodov v 30–50-e gg. XIX v.” [The development of trade among the north Caucasian peoples in the 30–50-ies XIX century] The Caspian Region: Politics, Economics, Culture, no. 2 (2016): 19–25 (in Russian).
  14. Klychnikov, Y.Y. and Vinogradov, V.B. ed. Rossijskaya politika na Severnom Kavkaze (1827–1840) [Russian Policy in the North Caucasus (1827−1840)]. Pyatigorsk: PGLU Publ., 2002 (in Russian).
  15. Narochnitskii, A.L. Istoriya narodov Severnogo Kavkaza (konets XVIII v. – 1917 g.) [The history of the peoples of the Northern Caucasus late 18 century – 1917]. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1988 (in Russian).
  16. Pokrovsky, M.V. Izistorii adygov v kontse XVIII – pervoi polovine XIX veka: sotsialnoekonomicheskie ocherki [From the history of the Circassians in the late 18th − fi rst half of 19th century: Social and economic essays]. Krasnodar: Krasnodar book house Publ., 1989 (in Russian).
  17. Popko, I.D. Chernomorskie kazaki v ih grazhdanskom i voennom bytu: ocherki kraya, obshchestva, vooruzhonnoy sily i sluzhby [Black Sea Cossacks in their civil and military life: essays on region, society, armed forces and service]. Krasnodar: Sovetskaya Kuban Publ., [1858] 1998 (in Russian).
  18. Shamray, V.S. “Kratkiy ozherk menovyh (torgovyh) snoshenii po Chernomorskoy kordonnoy i beregovoy linii s Zakubanskimi gorskimi narodami. S 1792 po 1864 g. (Na osnovanii dokumentov, izvlechennyh iz del Kubanskogo voiskovogo i Vladikavkazskgo central’nogo arkhivov.” [A brief outline of barter (trade) relations in the black sea cordon and coastline from the Circassians. From 1792 to 1864 (On the basis of documents extracted from the Kuban military Affairs and the Vladikavkaz Central archives)] In Kuban collection, 353−522. Vol. 8. Ekaterinodar: [S.n.], 1902 (in Russian).
  19. Shcherbina, F.A. Istoriya kraya [The history of the region]. Vol. 1. of Istoriya Kubanskogo Kazachiego Voyska [History of The Kuban Cossack Army]. N.p.: Soviet Kuban Publ, 1910 (in Russian).
  20. Shcherbina, F.A. Istoriya voiny kazakov s zakubanskimi gortsami [The history of war between Cossacks and Circassians: military-historical map of the Kuban region in the period from 1800 to 1860]. Vol. 2. of Istoriya Kubanskogo Kazachiego Voyska [History of The Kuban Cossack Army]. Soviet Kuban Publ, [1913] 1992 (in Russian).
  21. Shigabutdinov, D.M. “Torgovaya politika Rossii na severo-vostochnom Kavkaze v period Kavkazskoy voiny.” [Trade policy of Russia in the North-Eastern Caucasus during the Caucasian war] Fundamental research, no. 4 (2013): 494–498 (in Russian).
  22. Sobrieski, A.S. “Torgovoe obshchestvo kazakov v Chernomorskom (Kubanskom) kazach’em voyske. 1897. (spisok chlenov obshchestva v 1843−1862 gg.” [Trading Cossacks company in the black sea (Kuban) Cossackshost. 1897 (lists of members of the society in 1843−1862] In Kuban collection, 3−116. Vol. 4. Ekaterinodar: [S.n.], 1898 (in Russian).
  23. Trekhbratov, B.A. Istoriya i kultura narodov Prikubaniya s drevneyshih vremen do nachala XX veka [History and culture of peoples of the Kuban from ancient times to the early 20thcentury]. Krasnodar: Tradition Publ., 2011 (in Russian).
  24. Trius, L.I. “O sovremennykh podkhodakh k izucheniyu voprosov mezhkul’turnogo vzaimodeystviya na Severnom Kavkaze.” [On modern approaches in studying intercultural interactions in the North Caucasus] Izvestiya of Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, no. 77 (2008): 186−192 (in Russian).
  25. Velikaya, E.V. “Russian government actions for trade development within north-eastern caucasus in the fi rst half of the XIXth century.” Historical, philosophical, political and law Sciences, Culturology and study of art. Issues of theory and practice, no. 9 (2012): 47−50 (in Russian).
  26. Gosudarstvennyi arkhiv Krasnodarskogo kraya [State archive of Krasnodar region] (therafter − GAKK), f. 250, op. 2, d. 710.
  27. GAKK, f. 249, op. 1, d. 1651.
  28. GAKK, f. 249, op. 1, d. 1710.
  29. GAKK, f. 261, op. 1, d. 817.
  30. GAKK, f. 687, op. 1, d. 1.
  31. GAKK, f. 687, op. 1, d. 21. GAKK, f. 687, op. 1, d. 25.
  32. Gosudarstvennyi arkhiv Stavropolskogo kraya [State archive of Stavropol region], f. 20, op. 1, d. 12.

Copyright (c) 2018 Sukhomlinova K.Y.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies