Cover Page

Cite item

Full text / tables, figures


The article presents the analysis of the participation of foreign countries in solving the problems related to the management of domestic and foreign policy in Tuva in the ear-ly twentieth century.The problem of determining the legal and political status of Tuva and its territorial jurisdiction is traditionally bound in domestic and foreign historiography with the words “Uriankhaiissue”. The latter, as a rule, is considered in the context of rivalry be-tween Russia, China and Mongolia - the countries of the “Central Asian triangle”. The author pays attention to the interests of other countries, including Japan and the coun-tries of Western Europe, in this region. There has been conducted a generalized analysis of the information relating to the presence of Western industrial capital inTuva, shows the nature of the relations between the European entrepreneurs from Russia, China and Tuva authorities. The article provides the detailed facts of the presence of various groups of foreign citizens in the province in the period of the protectorate. In the context of the analysis of the general geo-political situation in Central Asia, the author describes the actions of the Russian authorities against foreign troops, including the methods and forms of work in that direction. The author comes to the conclusion that, despite the use of exclusively peaceful measure-sagainst foreign troops in Tuva, the local authorities sought to prevent any actions aimed at undermining the Russian positions in the region. For this reason, depending on the geopolitical situation in Tuva, the regime of stay of foreigners, issuance of permits softened or hardened. The author concludes the study with the description of the events of the 1920s, the time when there was a change of concept relations with foreign states due tothe Bolsheviks’ coming to power.

About the authors

Victoria A Vasilenko

Irkutsk State University

Author for correspondence.
Email: vasil-vic79@yandex.ru

Victoria A. Vasilenko, PhD in History, Associate Professor of Department of Applied Informatics and Documentation Department at Irkutsk State University (Irkutsk, Russia)

1 Karl Marx St., Irkutsk, 664003, Russia


  1. Shostakovich S.V. Politicheskiy stroy i mezhdunarodno-pravovoe polozhenie Tuvi v proshlom I nastoyaschem [Political order and international legal position in the past and present]. Irkutsk; 1929 (in Russian).
  2. Belov EA. Borba za Uryanhayskiy kray v 1915−1919 gg. [The struggle for the Uryanghai region in 1915−1919]. Otechestvennaya istoria. 2003; 1: 55−65 (in Russian).
  3. Kuzmin YuV. Mongoliya i «Mongolskiy vopros» v obschestvenno-politicheskoy myisli Rossii: (konets XIX – 30-e gg. ХХ v.) [Mongolia and the “Mongolian question” in the socio-political thought of Russia: (the late 19 th – 30 th of the 20 th century)]. Irkutsk; 1997 (in Russian).
  4. Mongush MV. Zarubezhnyie issledovateli Tuvyi (kratkiy obzor) [Foreign researchers of Tuva (short review)]. Novyie issledovaniya Tuvyi. 2010; (2). Available at: https://www. tuva.asia/journal/issue_6/1731-mongush.html (in Russian).
  5. Leonov N. Tanu-Tuva. Strana goluboy reki [The country of the blue river]. Moscow, 1927 (in Russian).
  6. Dulov VI. Sotsialno-ekonomicheskaya istoriya Tuvyi XIX – nachalo ХХ vv. [Social and economic history of Tuva of the XIX − early XX centuries]. Moscow; 1956 (in Russian).
  7. Karruters D. Nevedomaya Mongoliya [Unknown Mongolia. Part I. The Uryanhai Territory]. Uryanhay. Tyiva depter. Moscow; 2007; 1(4): 10−261 (in Russian).
  8. Fritters GM. Outer Mongolia and its international position. Hopkins; 1949.
  9. Qusted R. The expantion of Russia in East Asia 1857−1860. Singapure; 1968.
  10. Bawden Ch. The modern History of Mongolia. London – New-York; 1989.
  11. Lattimore E. The making of modern China. New-York; 1944.
  12. Bombuzhay AK-O. Rossiyai Tuva: problema stanovleniya svyazey v kontse XIX − nachale XX v.: dissertatcia na soiskanie uchenoy stepeni kandidata istoricheskih nauk: 07.00.02. [Russia and Tuva: the problem of the formation of ties in the late XIX − early XX centuries: PhD thesis]. Moscow; 1999 (in Russian).
  13. Vasilenko VA. Na puti k protektoratu (Otnosheniya pravitelstva imperskoy Rossii s Kitaem I Mongoliey po voprosampoliticheskogovliyaniya v Tuvevovtoroypolovine XIX – 1914g.) [Towards a Protectorate (Relations of the Government of Imperial Russia with China and Mongolia on Political Infl uence in Tuva in the Second Half of XIX − 1914)]. Irkutsk; 2014 (in Russian).
  14. Mintslov SR. Uryanhayskiy kray [Uryanhai region]. Eniseyskaya myisl. Krasnoyarsk; 1915; (2): 2 (in Russian).
  15. Mollerov NM. Istoriya sovetsko-tuvinskih otnosheniy (1917−1944) [The history of Soviet- Tuvan relations (1917−1944)]. Moscow; 2005 (in Russian).
  16. Datsyishen V.G. Sayanskiy uzel: Usinsko-Uryanhayskiy kray i rossiysko-tuvinskie otnosheniya v 1911−1921 gg. [Sayan knot: Usinsk-Uryanhai region and Russian-Tuvan relations in 1911−1921]. Kyizyil; 2003 (in Russian).

Copyright (c) 2017 Vasilenko V.A.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies