Cover Page

Full text / tables, figures


This article presents a retrospective analysis of Libya’s domestic and foreign policy in the period starting from the government headed by Gaddafi in 1969 until the lifting of international sanctions against Libya in 2003. The author gives a generalized description of the development of Libya during the given period, analyzes some features of its relations with Arab countries, West European countries and the USA, as well as with the United Nations. Particular attention is paid to the assessment of the Libyan-Soviet/Russian relations, and in connection with the imposing of sanctions and their lifting. The author shows that the Russian-Libyan trade-economic and scientific-technological cooperation was reduced to almost zero since the sanctions were imposed. From then on, Russia could not supply to Libya aviation equipment (both military and civilian) and spare parts for military technology. There was stopped the training of the Libyan military and civilian personnel in the Russian Federation, there were withdrawn the Russian military and technical experts and advisers from Libya. Libya became insolvent. Russia pulled out of the regime of international sanctions in May 1999. The total lifting of sanctions against Libya took place 12 September 2003. It gave a new impetus to the development of the political dialogue between Libya and Russia, there were intensified meetings at various levels and there began the implementation of many contracts signed earlier.

About the authors

Fatuma MM Mamlouk

Embassy of Libya

Author for correspondence.
38 Mosphilmovskaya St., Moscow, Russia, 15127


  1. Zvereva AA. Osobennosti antiimperialisticheskoi bor’by SNLAD. Moscow; 1986 (in Russian).
  2. Shvedov A., Rumyantsev V. Sovetsko-liviiskie otnosheniya. Moscow: Progress, 1986 (in Russian).
  3. Egorin AZ. Istoriya Livii. XX vek. Moscow: Institut vostokovedeniya RAN, 1999 (in Russian).
  4. Bartenev VI. «Liviiskaya problema» v mezhdunarodnykh otnosheniyakh (1969−2008). Moscow: LENAND, 2009 (in Russian).
  5. Campbell J.C. Soviet Policy in Africa and the Middle East. Current history. 1977; 72(430).
  6. Bianco M. Gaddafi: Voice from the desert. London, 1975.
  7. Smirnova GI. Novye tendencii v social’no-jekonomicheskom razvitii Livii. Arabskii mir v konce XX veka: Materiali I konferetsii arabistov Instituta vostokovedeniya RAN. Moscow, 1996:257–270 (in Russian).
  8. Muammar Al’-Kaddafi. Zelenaya kniga. Moscow, 1989; 2 (in Russian).
  9. Votyakova AV. Ekonomicheskie sanktsii OON protiv Livii i ikh posledstviya. Sbornik materialov konferentsii «OON: istoriya i vyzovy sovremennosti (k 60-letiyu Organizatsii Ob’edinennykh Natsii)». Moscow: Izd-vo RUDN, 2005: 138–143 (in Russian).
  10. Geleskul E. Bomba dlia Kaddafi: istoriya odnoi igry. Indeks bezopasnosti. 2009; 15(1(88)): 143–152 (in Russian).
  11. Kevorkov LS. Ekonomicheskie sanktsii protiv Livii i ikh posledstviya. Blizhnii Vostok i sovremennost’: Sbornik statei. Moscow, 2000; 9: 60–69 (in Russian).
  12. Takeyh R. The rogue who come in from the cold. Foreign Affairs. 2001; 3 vol. 80:62–72.
  13. Egorin A. Liviya. Blokada. Aziya i Afrika segodnya. 1996; 9: 19–25 (in Russian).
  14. Rezchikov A., Fedoseev R. Vzglyad iz Tripoli v Sardiniyu. Delovaya gazeta. 17 April 2008 (in Russian).
  15. Helms J. What sanction epidemic? Foreign Affairs. 1999; 78(1): 2–8.
  16. Smirnov A. Perevospitanie Kaddafi, ili Sizifov trud. Kommersant. URL: Accessed: 14 March 2016 (in Russian).
  17. Amin Bazin. Rezolyucii SB OON No 731 v otnoshenii Livii i pozicija Rossii. Aktual’nie problemy i perspektivy izucheniya novoi i noveishei istorii zarubezhnyh stran: Materialy mezhdunar. nauchno-teoreticheskoi konferencii, posviashhennoi 75-letiyu obrazovaniya kafedry istorii Novogo i Noveishego vremeni. Minsk: Izd. centr BGU, 2012: 6–9 (in Russian).
  18. Yurchenko VP. O sniatii s Livii mezhdunarodnyh sankcii. Institut Blizhnego Vostoka. URL: Accessed: 03 April 2016) (in Russian).

Copyright (c) 2017 Мамлук Ф.М.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies