Are All Socialists Anti-religious? Anti-religiosity and the Socialist Left in 21 Western European Countries (1990-2008)

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The political situation in the Soviet Union during the twentieth century has led some to suggest that socialism is some kind of secular religion as opposed to ‘normal’ religion. In modern Europe, however, there have been vibrant Christian socialist movements. This article looks into the different attitudes of socialists towards religion and answers the question whether it is pressure of religious activity or pressure of religious identity that makes socialists resist religion. The results from a multilevel analysis of three waves of the European Values Study (1990-2008) in 21 Western European countries specifically point to an increase in anti-religiosity by socialists in countries marked by Catholic and Orthodox religious identities.

About the authors

Egbert Ribberink

University of Leuven

Author for correspondence.
Parkstraat 45, box 3601, 3000 Leuven, Belgium

P Achterberg

Tilburg University

90153, 5000 LE, Tilburg, The Netherlands

Dick Houtman

University of Leuven

Parkstraat 45, box 3601, 3000 Leuven, Belgium


Copyright (c) 2016 Рибберинк Э., Ахтерберг П., Хаутман Д.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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