Vol 16, No 1 (2016): "Soft Power" in International Relations. The Image of Russia


BRICS: Evolution and Convergence of Powers

Yagya V.S., Chukov R.S., Parfenenok N.L.


Conducting of foreign policy solely by means of classical diplomacy today seems inefficient. States are supposed to use additional set of tools that have traditionally been at the confluence of soft and hard powers. Convergence of these concepts launched the emergence of such strategies, as smart power and hybrid power that we analyze as a system in relation to such a phenomenon, as BRICS. In the first part of paper we contemplate the concept of power and further expand it to the theoretical ground of each of these strategies along with the existing experience and prospects of their implementation in the BRICS countries. Systematic analysis is taken as the basis of the methodology of this paper, which allowed us to explore this theme separately for each of the BRICS countries and collectively as a system. Feasibility of a number of our provisions is confirmed by relevant case studies and analyses of the most relevant Russian and foreign literature, which results in our main conclusions. Current trends indicate that the BRICS countries are actively expanding its presence in all the key sectors of the global economy and politics. BRICS is at an early stage of implementation of own formats and tools of smart and hybrid powers, the role of which will steadily increase in the international activities of the group, adding value to its arsenal of traditional diplomacy. The potential capacity of soft, smart and hybrid powers of BRICS aims at helping countries to achieve a new level of integration and attractiveness in the eyes of the international community, and will also allow countries to strengthen their positions.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(1):7-16
pages 7-16 views

The Beauty Trap: Chinese Theories of “Soft Power”

Zhuravleva E.V.


Currently there are a lot of definitions and conceptions of “soft power” in the world’s scientific literature. The English-language works mainly adopted the term “soft power”, terminology is also varied in Chinese historiography: “ruan shili”, “ruan liliang” and “ruan quanli” (软实力, 软力量and 软权力). A variety of terms is reflected in the variety of interpretations of the system or mechanismof “soft power”, that allows us to conclude that at the moment there is noformed unified vision and approach to its study. The subject of this study is the Russian and foreign theories of “soft power” in relation to China's foreign policy. The author raised a number of tasks, among which are: to determine the place a policy of “soft power” in the foreign policy of China, to analyze the existing interpretation of the concept of “soft power with Chinese characteristics”, as well as trace the development of theories of “soft power”. As a result of the research the author comes to the conclusion that despite the difference in interpretations, there are a lot of common aspects, including the idea of the majority of researchers that the concept is directly related to the influence of the subject to the object, and that the main instruments of “soft power” are humanitarian cooperation, investment, dialogue at the highest level, and others. But the combination of numerous non-military elements within the same term “soft power” doesn’t form a unified, approved concept. Different countries have their own unique system of soft power, and its instruments, key elements and basic principles are not the same. For example, talking about “attractiveness” applied to Chinese soft power, we can conclude, that it is only the tip of the iceberg. This study allows not only to form an idea of the “soft power” through the prism of various scientific researches, but also to identify the key elements of the system, as well as alternative ways of applying the policy of “soft power” and options for its increase.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(1):17-31
pages 17-31 views

International Youth Organizations in Europe: Some Aspects of Participation in Promotion of “Soft Power”

Asadov B.o., Kostrikin A.V.


The article is an attempt to describe the role of the Institute of International Youth Organizations European space as a component of “soft power”. Examples of promoting a policy of “soft power” in the history of the international youth movement identified some problematic aspects and the main vectors of its development within the framework of the European Youth Forum, which is both international umbrella youth organization and actively supports the conduction of Western values, especially political and humanitarian. As the institutional framework of interaction and mutual influence of pan-European organizational youth milieu, these actors are actively going beyond the traditional forms of activity and unaccounted humanitarian potential in the field of international relations cannot be neglected by specialists. This expansion of the capacity of the activities of international youth actors fits into the overall logic of extending the boundaries of foreign cultural policy of the European Union, the Council of Europe and other regional and sub-regional international organizations. This logic of pan-European practices of Institute of International youth organizations, as a resource of “soft power”, is updated by the problems of studying the international participation of Russian youth actors in the environment and requires to focus on the identification of the creative role of international organizations and on the study of situations where the institution does not act as constructive subject of international humanitarian cooperation.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(1):32-45
pages 32-45 views

Creation and Promotion of Brand-Image of Russia

Glinskaya I.Y.


In the conditions of growing competition between the countries the struggle has moved into a brand and image space. International ratings show that Russia has rather low positions. This fact suggests that the problem of formation of image of Russia is of great importance in the context of information pressure from a number of leading countries of the world. The article is devoted to the mechanisms of formation and promotion of the brand image of Russia. The author gives several proposals on developing the strategy of formation and promotion of brand image of Russia and recommends creating the Institute of image policy, which may include representatives of state, business elite and public institutions.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(1):46-53
pages 46-53 views

Joint Educational Projects as an Innovative Form of Cooperation between Russia and China in the XXI century

Medyanik E.I.


The article describes the Russian-Chinese joint projects in the field of higher education as an innovative form of cooperation between the two countries in the new millennium. The author stresses that, in general, these projects are educational, while still not sufficiently developed research, innovation, investment and combined educational projects. But, despite this, there has been clear progress in relations between the two countries in this field. However, the author shows the growing role of international educational projects as an important and effective instruments of «soft power». At the same time, the research also showed that Sino-Russian educational projects are divided not only into bilateral but also into multilateral projects. That, in turn, allows Russia to promote their own culture and educational services in the different geopolitical regions that are the region of SCO and BRICS. Accordingly, increasing the attractiveness of culture and education will promote a positive image of Russia in the international arena. The author defines the Russian interests, problems and perspectives in the field of Russian-Chinese joint projects in the field of higher education.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(1):54-64
pages 54-64 views

International and Russian Experience in Forming and Promoting Innovation Clusters

Sayapina K.V.


The article is devoted to analysis of peculiarities in forming and promoting Russian and international innovation clusters. Cluster's orientation to innovation is its significant feature: cluster approach is fully realized in many countries all over the world, because it is the cluster frames which increase opportunity of creating a unique innovation idea, together with speed and effectiveness of commercialization process. Innovation potential, sufficiency of productional and distributional facilities, long-term management strategy, optimization of external and internal cluster connections are key features to provide competitive advantages of the innovation cluster. In the article key principals of innovation cluster formation in the leading states are considered: the core of cluster is predominantly a scientific research center or higher institution, with large and small industrial companies as the cluster participants, with significant governmental support. In the article the main tendencies of innovation cluster international development are underlined: companies' efforts to increase competitiveness on basis of vertical integration; horizontal integration as an attempt to decrease production costs through specialization improvement; conglomerate consolidation to take down risks through diversification; growth of transnational innovation clusters of the largest industrial companies to gain point on the global market. Measures of forming efforts to effective promotion of innovation clusters on international markets are interaction of companies with specialized technological platforms, participation in federal and regional events to stimulate research and development activity; realization of permanent comparative analysis with leading foreign practices under key factors of development, and formation of innovation ecosystem, including business-incubators, accelerators, venture funds, personnel education and technological enterpreneurship in frames of cluster.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(1):65-74
pages 65-74 views

EAEU in Russian Foreign Policy Strategy

Kurylev K.P., Naryshkin V.S., Ozinkowskaya E., Rakhimov K.H.


The article examines the role and the place of EAEU in the Russian foreign policy strategy. The Authors study features of development of integration in the space of the CIS, argue its special importance for Russia. In this study the economic and political interests of the Russian state in EAEU have been revealed. It is noted that Russia is seeking, through the deepening of integration processes, to ensure the opportunity for her and the partners to be competitive in today's turbulent world. The analysis of the importance of Ukrainian factor for the development of integration processes in the CIS was carried out. It is shown that for successful functioning of EAEU participation of Ukraine in this integration formation is a necessary condition, considering the potentials, which Ukraine possesses.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(1):75-86
pages 75-86 views

Geographical and Political Factors in Transportation of Caspian Oil and Gas from Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan

Huseynova S.


This article overviews the role of energy resources as a foreign policy tool in Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan cases. These countries are the key energy players in the region. The article tries to analyze and show the inside of the oil policy of Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan in the Caspian region and the related problems. The article shows that Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan face several limitations to using their energy potential to have independent foreign policies. The article explains the main assumptions of the theoretical approaches on oil politics with a particular emphasis on the Caspian region. In this regard, the article deals with different ways of policy. Finally, it intends to apply theoretical models to explain the role of hydrocarbons in Azeri and Kazakh foreign policies.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(1):87-94
pages 87-94 views

The Formation of the New Global "Rules of the Game": the Role of Russia

Kalamanov V.A.


The given article presents analysis of contemporary geopolitical situation in the world. The author proves that the growth of international tensions caused by disappearance of the balance of power in world politics as well as the strategy of hegemonic power of the U.S. actualizes the necessity of activation of political role of the Russian Federation in the world. The author argues the common understanding that the status of the “superpower” on the world stage is primarily determined by economic parameters. With the decrease of international powers of the United States, the illusion of “American exceptionalism” vanishes that leads to transformations of geopolitical and geostrategic configurations. In this regard, Russian military operation in Syria clearly demonstrates the return by Russia of its superpower status in world politics and the elimination of the imaginary monopoly of NATO on “precision war”. Thus, Russian Federation demonstrates a fundamentally different foreign policy model based on respect for international law, the principles of national sovereignty and multilateral cooperation. The return of Russia's superpower status is determined by its ability to openly oppose the US on issues of fundamental importance and requires the consolidation of Russian society, formation of state ideology and the intensification of efforts to build foreign alliances and participate in integration associations.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(1):95-113
pages 95-113 views

The Activities of UN Specialized Agencies in the Area of Disaster Relief of Population and Territories against Disasters in the beginning of the XXI century

Kuvshinov A.V.


The article deals with the analysis of the structure and main directions of the activities of UN specialized agencies as well as other international organizations and entities such as ICDO aimed at the organization of the measures for disaster relief and civil defence. The urgency of the article is in the fact that it is for the first time in Russian academic literature devoted to this topic with the specific examples of conducting of such measures. The main conclusions of the article stresses that the specialized U.N. agencies and other international and national entities have already demonstrated the urgent nature and efficiency of providing disaster relief to affected countries and population in the beginning of the XXI century but they should upgrade their potential in that regard in the coming years.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(1):114-123
pages 114-123 views

Armenian Studies of the French Think-tanks and the Decision-making process

Khachaturyan D.A.


This article is devoted to the research of the Armenian issues in research activity of Franch think tanks. The article analyzes the interrelation between Armenian studies in the main foreign policy and international affairs think tanks in France and the decision-making process, and also the Armenian diaspora's influence on this process. The main part of researchers and experts dealing with the Armenian themes in the think tanks of France, is of Armenian descent, and first of all they are interested in the political issues of the country of their origin. Think tanks have different methods of bringing their intellectual product to the decision-makers. Think tanks can influence decision-makers through the public opinion, disseminating the results of their research and ideas through the media or through the publication of political journals. Speech of the researchers as experts during hearing in the Parliament is also one of the methods for an influence on politics. In the article particular attention is given to the quantitative analysis of the impact of the researchers and think tanks on the political process.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(1):124-132
pages 124-132 views

Development of the Relations between New Zealand and the European Union at the turn of the XXI century

Kolmakova A.V.


This article introduces the emergence and development of political and economic relations between New Zealand and the EU since the mid XX century till present. The progressive strengthening of the mutual cooperation has the positive effect on the market liberalization in YUTR and allows New Zealand to focus not only on the Asian market, but also become a reliable field for investment for Western partners. Today, relations between New Zealand and the European Union (EU) are based on the principles set in the Joint Declaration on the development of relations and cooperation, signed in Lisbon on 21 September 2007 in addition to the Joint Declaration of 1999 and the Plan of joint actions in 2004 entitled “Priorities for future cooperation”. Political contacts at the highest level between the EU and New Zealand, as well as practical steps taken by the European Union, such as enlargement of the Permanent Mission in New Zealand in 2014 and the strengthening of trade and economic relations, may testify in favor of the further intensification of relations between them in the foreseeable future. However, the result of this convergence will largely depend on the situation within the European Union, which currently faces serious problems related to a number of factors, including admission of new members with weak economies, the systemic crisis of the EU economies, the issue of debt of Greece, the lack of a common political approach of the participants to the important international issues, regulation of the market of agricultural products etc.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(1):133-140
pages 133-140 views

Dissemination of Cultural Norms and Values: Agent-Based Modeling

Degterev D.A.


This article shows how agent-based modeling allows us to explore the mechanisms of the dissemination of cultural norms and values both within one country and in the whole world. In recent years, this type of simulation is particularly prevalent in the analysis of international relations, becoming more popular than the system dynamics and discrete event simulation. The use of agent-based modeling in the analysis of international relations is connected with the agent-structure problem in international relations. Structure and agents act as interdependent and dynamically changing in the process of interaction between entities. Agent-structure interaction could be modeled by means of the theory of complex adaptive systems with the use of agent-based modeling techniques. One of the first examples of the use of agent-based modeling in political science is a model of racial segregation T. Shellinga. On the basis of this model, the author shows how the change in behavioral patterns at micro-level impacts on the macro-level. Patterns are changing due to the dynamics of cultural norms and values, formed by mass-media and other social institutes. The author shows the main areas of modern application of agent-based modeling in international studies including the analysis of ethnic conflicts, the formation of international coalitions. Particular attention is paid to Robert Axelrod approach based on the use of genetic algorithms to the spread of cultural norms and values. Agent-based modeling shows how to how to create such conditions that the norms that originally are not shared by a significant part of the population, eventually spread everywhere. Practical application of these algorithms is shown by the author of the article on the example of the situation in Ukraine in 2015-2016. The article also reveals the mechanisms of international spread of cultural norms and values. The main think-tanks using agent-based modeling in international studies are mentioned as well as the most frequently used software. It has been shown that a significant part of the research on this issue is of great practical importance.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(1):141-152
pages 141-152 views

Unilateral US Withdrawal from the ABM Treaty of 1972 and its Global Consequences

Butorov A.S.


The author analyzes the origins and reasons for the termination of the US operations of the Soviet-American ABM Treaty in 1972 based on a study in the Archives of the Russian Federation's foreign policy documents, as well as the US Congress materials, traced the evolutionary path of unilateral withdrawal from the American side agreements. The article notes that for three decades was carried out in relation to the Soviet-American agreements on limiting missile defense systems in 1972 a policy of double standards. Declaring in words their commitment to the fundamental principles of the treaty, in practice, the United States all these years set the stage for a unilateral withdrawal from the contract. Particularly emphasized that the denunciation of Washington in 2001 ABM Treaty is the cornerstone of strategic stability and security in the world, it became the starting point for the deployment of the US global missile defense system.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(1):153-164
pages 153-164 views

The Russian-French Agreement on Mutual Qualifications Cecognition - an Important Stage of International Educational Cooperation

Tkach G.F., Kovalenko S.A.


The article considers the historical background, organizational and legal circumstances of the development and signing of the Russian-French agreement on mutual recognition of education and (or) qualifications and degrees. The authors reveal fundamental importance of the uniform approach by comparison the basic levels of education between the two countries and the relevant qualifications. Analysis of the main substantive provisions of the joint document is provided. It is the first such full-scale agreement signed by the Russian Federation with one of the developed countries. A brief overview of the evolution of “qualifications recognition”, its concept, essence, targets and terminology are given in the initial part of the paper. The article analyzes the definitions of terms used both in the Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications concerning Higher Education in the European region and in the modern practice of the recognition of the Russian Federation. Distinction of the purpose and possibilities of conventions application and bilateral agreements on the recognition of qualifications are shown. The authors describe the sequence and content of the basic stages of development of the draft Agreement. The article displays mismatch of the two countries on the possibility of professional recognition along with academic recognition. In conclusion, the authors express confidence that the signing of the Russian-French agreement on the recognition of qualifications will promote academic exchanges and deepen cooperation between Russia and France, and will have a stimulating effect on all aspects of international educational co-operation between Russia and other countries.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(1):165-175
pages 165-175 views

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