Comparative analysis of heavy metals accumulation in the soil - plant system by the geo-accumulation index and transpiration rate of Zea mays L

Cover Page

Cite item


The aim of work is the assessment of the effect of water deficiency in the soil, taking into account the characteristics of the migration of heavy metals in the soil - plant system using the example of mays ( Zea mays L . ). The samples studied grew in the coastal areas of the Debet, Shnogh and Araks rivers. The selection of plant material was carried out during the growing season at the test sites in clear dry weather. The analysis of the coastal soil and annual plant on the content of Mn, Cu, Co, Zn, Mo was performed using the “Thermo Scientific Niton XRF Portable Analyzer”. According of obtained results the coefficient of the geo-accumulation index was calculated, identifying the main migration characteristics of heavy metals in the soil - plant system. Drought tolerance was identified at the seedling stage by changing the growing conditions by changing of watering of the plot. Calculation of the intensity of transpiration revealed changes in the water balance in plants depending on the soil and climatic growing conditions. According to the obtained results, it is noted that with an increase in the geo-accumulation index of heavy metals in the soil, the plant shows a significant decrease in the intensity of transpiration. Thus, in the course of the experiments, it was established that samples of corn from the arid region of Hushakert had a low level of transpiration, compared with samples from the moderately humid region of Shnogh. Combining the results on the content of heavy metals in corn kernels with the intensity of transpiration made it possible to investigate the correlation between the cumulative ability of the studied chemical elements and the regulation of water balance in the plant in response to drought. Among the main factors contributing to the increase in the migration of heavy metals is the content of potassium and calcium in the plant sample.

About the authors

Astghik Rafikovna Sukiasyan

National Polytechnic University of Armenia

Author for correspondence.

Candidate of Biological Science, Assistant Professor of Faculty of Chemical Technology and Environmental Engineering

105 Teryan St., Yerevan, 0009, Republic of Armenia


  1. Ubwa ST, Atoo GH, Offem JO, Abah J, Asemave K. Effect of activities at the Gboko abattoir on some physical properties and heavy metals levels of surrounding soil. Int. J. Chem. 2013;5: 47–57.
  2. Sharma MC, Baxi S, Sharma KK, Singh M, Patel S. Heavy metal ions levels and related physicochemical parameters in soils in the vicinity of a paper industry location in Nahan area of Himachal Pradesh. Environ. Anal. Toxicol. 2014;4: 10.4172/2161– 0525.1000236.
  3. UNEP. The State of the Marine Environment: A regional assessment. Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities, United Nations Environment Programme. The Hague, The Netherlands; 2006.
  4. Seaward MRD. The use of lichens for environmental impact assessment. Symbiosis. 2004;37: 293–305.
  5. Wong SC, Li XD, Zhang G, Qi SH, Min YS. Heavy metals in agricultural soils of the Pearl River Delta, South China. Environ Pollution. 2002;119: 33–44.
  6. Vwioko DE, Nliefo GO, Fashemi SD. Metal concentration in plant tissues of Ricinus communis L. (Castor oil) grown in soil contaminated with spent lubricating soil. J. Applied Environ. Manage. 2006;10: 127–134.
  7. Barceló J, Poschenrieder CH. Plant water relations as affected by heavy metal stress: a review. J. Plant Nutr. 1990;13: 1–37.
  8. Titov AF, Talanova VV, Kaznina NM, Laydinen GF. Ustoychivost' rasteniy k tyazhelym metallam [Plant resistance to heavy metals]. Petrozavodsk: Karel'skiy nauchnyy tsentr RAN Publ.; 2007.
  9. Titov AF, Kaznina NM, Talanova VV. Tyazhelyye metally i rasteniya [Heavy metals and plants]. Petrozavodsk: Karel'skiy nauchnyy tsentr RAN Publ.; 2014.
  10. Sukiasyan AR. Antioxidant capacity of maize corn under drought stress from the different zones of growing. International Journal of Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering. 2016;10(8): 413–416.
  11. Unanyan SA. Agromonitoring ekosistemy tekhnogennykh zon Respubliki Armenii i razrabotka meropriyatiy po vosstanovleniyu plodorodiya pochv [Agromonitoring the ecosystem of technogenic zones of the Republic of Armenia and the development of measures to restore soil fertility] (Dissertation of Doctor of Agricultural Sciences). Yerevan; 2010.
  12. Förstner U, Müller G. Concentrations of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in river sediments: geochemical background, man's influence and environmental impact. GeoJournal. 1981;5(5): 417–432.
  13. Sukiasyan AR, Tadevosyan AV, Simonyan GS, Pirumyan GP. Vliyaniye abioticheskogo stressa na rost rasteniy [Impact of abiotic stress on growth of plant]. Uspekhi sovremennogo yestestvoznaniya. 2016;(7): 168–172.
  14. Shumova NA. Metodicheskiye podkhody k otsenke otnositel'noy ploshchadi list'yev rasteniy agrotsenozov [The methodical approaches to evaluation of the plants leaves’ cover relative area in agrocenoses]. Ekosistemy: ekologiya i dinamika. 2017;1(1): 74–92.
  15. Kirakosyan AA, Sukiasyan AR. Ispol'zovaniye yazyka MATLAB v kachestve ekspressmetoda otsenki eksperimental'nykh rezul'tatov [Using MATLAB as an express method for evaluating experimental results]. Informatsionnyye tekhnologii: Materialy Mezhdunarodnaya molodezhnaya konferentsiya (Yerevan, 23–25 iyunya, 2005) [Information technology: Proceeding of International Conference (Yerevan, 23–25 June 2005)]. Yerevan; 2005. p. 34–37.
  16. Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias KH. Mikroelementy v pochvakh i rasteniyakh [Trace elements in soils and plants]. Moscow: Mir; 1989.
  17. Tangahu BV, Abdullah SRS, Basri H, Idris M et al. A review on heavy metals (As, Pb, and Hg) uptake by plants through phytoremediation. International Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2011;2011: 1–32.
  18. Dogru A, Bayram NE. A study on drought stress tolerance in some maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars. Sakarya University Journal of Science. 2016;20(3): 509–519.
  19. Sukiasyan A, Kirakosyan A, Tadevosyan A, Aslikyan M, Gharajyan K. Peculiarities of accumulation of some heavy metals on the chain of water – soil – plant. International Journal of Advanced Engineering and Management Research. 2017;2(5): 1534–1541. Available from:
  20. Feleafel MN, Mirdad ZM, Hassan ASh. Effecte of NPK fertigation rate and starter fertilizer on the growth and yield of cucumber grown in greenhouse. Journal of Agricultural Science. 2014;6(9): 81–92.
  21. Seregin IV, Ivanov VB. Physiological aspects of cadmium and lead toxic effects on higher plants. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology. 2001;48(4): 523–544.
  22. Rucinska-Sobkowiak R. Water relations in plants subjected to heavy metal stresses. Acta Physiol Plant. 2016;38: 257–269. doi: 10.1007/s11738-016-2277-5
  23. Kaznina NM. Fiziologo-biokhimicheskiye i molekulyarno-geneticheskiye mekhanizmy ustoychivosti rasteniy semeystva Poaceae k tyazhelym metallam [Physiological, biochemical and molecular genetics mechanisms of tolerance of plants of the family Poaceae to heavy metal] (Dissertation of Doctor of Biological Sciences). Saint Petersburg; 2016.
  24. Titov AF, Talanova VV, Kaznina NM. Fiziologicheskiye osnovy ustoychivosti rasteniy k tyazhelym metallam: uchebnoye posobiye [Physiological basis of plant resistance to heavy metals: textbook]. Petrozavodsk: Karel'skiy nauchnyy tsentr RAN Publ.; 2011.

Copyright (c) 2019 Sukiasyan A.R.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies