Protest in Russia 2017-2021: Technologies and Patterns

Cover Page

Abstract


The article analyzes the patterns and technologies of organizing political protest in Russia in the period 2017-2021. The author concludes that the start of the protests in March 2017 was aimed at influencing the presidential elections in March 2018, in addition, the “protests of schoolchildren” were to launch the pattern of “chain reaction” in rising of protest actions. The author states that in this new wave of protests, there is a change of “face of protest”: that is an attempt to remove one of the main problems of Russian political protest - a large number of opinion leaders, each of whom has an extremely low rating, and the absence of single ideological orientation of the protest. Protest organization technologies share patterns with the radical mass forms of social protest known as the “color revolutions” and events of the Arab Spring. Political protests of 2017-2021 again showed the operability of simple slogans, but the impossibility of a long-term alliance in the ranks of protesters. The lack of a strong ideology makes these protests swift: explosive and rapidly fading, unable to mobilize new supporters.


About the authors

Eduard E. Shults

Moscow State Linguistic University

Author for correspondence.
Email: nuap1@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9067-6228
38/1 Ostozhenka str., Moscow, Russian Federation, 119034

PhD in History, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Communication Technologies

References

  1. Gorshkov M.K. “There Is such a Profession – to Study Society”. Selected articles, interviews, biographical revelations. Moscow: Publishing house “All World”; 2020. (In Russ.).
  2. Protest Potential. VTSIOM. 2017. URL: https://wciom.ru/news/ratings/protestnyj_potencial/. Accessed: 30.03.2017. (In Russ.).
  3. Mamina A. VTsIOM: Ratings of United Russia and Putin Reached a Maximum. Izvestia. 02.03.2017. URL: http://izvestia.ru/news/668152. Accessed: 30.03.2017. (In Russ.).
  4. “High School Students Danced and Laughed among Police Cordons”. Foreign Media – about Anti-corruption Rallies in Russia. Kommersant. 27.03.2017. URL: https://www.kommersant.ru/doc/3254291. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  5. Kremlin at a Fork: What Are the Consequences of Protests Across Russia. RBC. 26.03.2017. URL: https://www.rbc.ru/politics/26/03/2017/58d7c6f39a7947448a1a3f45? from=subject. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  6. October 7: Protest Card. Where and how many People Turned out, how many Were Detained by the Joint Project “Medusa” and “OVD-Info”. Medusa. 10.10.2017. URL: https://meduza.io/feature/2017/10/10/7-oktyabrya-protestnaya-karta-gde-i-skolko-lyudeyvyshlo-skolko-zaderzhali. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  7. Filipov D. Russian Police Arrest Anti-Corruption Leader Navalny, Hundreds more in Nationwide Rallies. The Washington Post. 26.03.2017. URL: https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/russianpolice-arrest-protesters-at-nationwide-anti-corruption-rallies/2017/03/26/11208e46-10a1-11e7aa57-2ca1b05c41b8_story.html. Accessed: 02.05.2021.
  8. Parfitt T. Mass Arrests as Anti-Putin Protests Sweep Russia. The Sunday Times. 27.03.2017. URL: https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/mass-arrests-as-anti-putin-protests-sweep-across-russiaj38sxj58j?region=global&--xx-meta=denied_for_visit%3D0%26visit_number%3D0%26visit_ remaining%3D0%26visit_used%3D0&--xx-mvt-opted-out=false&--xx-uuid=22d20e61ecbd171 fb79483c8044140ef&ni-statuscode=acsaz-307. Accessed: 02.05.2021.
  9. Pinchuk D., Shurmina N. Russian Police Detain Opposition Leader, Hundreds of Protesters. Reuters. 26.03.2017. URL: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-russia-protestsidUSKBN16X0G8. Accessed: 02.05.2021.
  10. The Ministry of Internal Affairs Reported the Detention in Moscow and St. Petersburg of 650 People. RBC. 12.06.2017. URL: https://www.rbc.ru/politics/12/06/2017/593ebc8d 9a79474463e84f1d. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  11. Protest Rally of Navalny’s Supporters in Moscow. RBC. 07.10.2017. URL: https://www.rbc.ru/ photoreport/07/10/2017/59d8cf639a7947ca64e43db0. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  12. “Voter strike” in the Russian Federation: More than 250 Detentions and Silence of Federal Channels. Deutsche Welle. 28.01.2021. URL: https://www.dw.com/ru/забастовка-избирателей-в-рф-более-250-задержаний-и-молчание-федеральных-каналов/a-42344946. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  13. Kozlov P., Fokht E., Goryashko S. Navalny’s Action: Success or Failure? BBC Russia. 29.01.2018. URL: https://www.bbc.com/russian/news-42819565. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  14. Yunanov B. Navalny Raised 100 Cities. New Times. 29.01.2018. URL: https://newtimes.ru/articles/detail/143494. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  15. OVD-Info: More than 1300 People Were Detained at Protests in Russia. Kommersant. 05.05.2018. URL: https://www.kommersant.ru/doc/3622304. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  16. Actions “He Is Not Our Tsar”: About 1,600 People Were Detained. “Medusa” Followed the Protests in Moscow and the Regions. Medusa. 05.05.2018. URL: https://meduza.io/ live/2018/05/05/aktsii-on-nam-ne-tsar-po-vsey-rossii-hronika. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  17. Korostelev A. Navalny’s Supporters Blocked Strastnaya Boulevard. Rain. 05.05.2018. URL: https://tvrain.ru/teleshow/here_and_now/storonniki_navalnogo_vyshli-463136/. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  18. Mukhametshina E., Nikolsky A. Cossacks First Entered the Confrontation with Navalny’s Supporters. Vedomosti. 06.05.2018. URL: https://www.vedomosti.ru/politics/articles/ 2018/05/06/768712-navalnogo-kazaki. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  19. Protesters in St. Petersburg Blocked Nevsky Prospekt. Kommersant. 05.05.2018. URL: https://www.kommersant.ru/doc/3622298. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  20. The European Union and the United States Condemned the Mass Detentions of Protesters in Russia. Currenttime. 06.05.2018. URL: https://www.currenttime.tv/a/29211215.html. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  21. Statement by the Spokesman on the Reaction of the Russian Authorities to Peaceful Demonstrations in the Russian Federation. Eeas.europa.eu. 05.05.2018. URL: https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-homepage/44081/node/44081_ru. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  22. Moscow Mayor’s Office Agreed on a Rally in Support of Opposition Candidates. Radio Liberty. 15.07.2019. URL: https://www.svoboda.org/a/30056835.html. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  23. Pozdnyakova N. Protests in Moscow on August 10: What the German Media Drew Attention to. Deutsche Welle. 12.08.2018. URL: https://www.dw.com/ru/протесты-вмоскве-10-августа-на-что-обратили-внимание-немецкие-сми/a-49995552. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  24. Pyatyn A. Meeting on Sakharov Became the Largest in Terms of the Number of Participants. Forbes. 10.08.2019. URL: https://www.forbes.ru/obshchestvo/381623-miting-na-saharovastal-krupneyshim-po-chislu-uchastnikov. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  25. Fokht E., Zotova N. “This is Our City!” How Was the Rally for Free Elections to the Moscow City Duma. BBC Russian Service. 20.07.2019. URL: https://www.bbc.com/ russian/features-49058804. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  26. Zakharov A., Arkhipova A. How the Protest has Changed. Vedomosti. 30.09.2019. URL: https://www.vedomosti.ru/opinion/articles/2019/09/30/812372-kak-izmenilsya-protest. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  27. Twenty-five Years of Social Transformations in the Assessments and Judgments of Russians. Ed. by M.K. Gorshkov and V.V. Petukhov. Moscow: Ves’ Mir, 2018. (In Russ.).
  28. January Protests. Levada Center. 10.02.2021. URL: https://www.levada.ru/2021/02/10/ yanvarskie-protesty/. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  29. Protest Activity in the Country. Levada Center. 13.12.2012. URL: https://www.levada.ru/ 2012/12/13/protestnaya-aktivnost-rossiyan-3/. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  30. Results of the Election of the President of the Russian Federation. CEC of the Russian Federation. URL: http://www.cikrf.ru/analog/prezidentskiye-vybory-2018/itogi-golosovaniya/. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  31. Zotova N., Golubev A. “Levada”: A Record Number of Russians Learned about the January Protests, but Most Disapprove of Them. BBC. 10.02.2021. URL: https://www.bbc.com/ russian/news-56008950. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  32. The Return of Alexei Navalny. Levada Center. 02.05.2021. URL: https://www.levada.ru/ 2021/02/05/vozvrashhenie-alekseya-navalnogo/. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  33. Indicators. Levada Center. URL: https://www.levada.ru/indikatory/. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  34. At least 110 Thousand People Took Part in the Actions “Free Navalny” throughout Russia. Mbk-news. 23.01.2021. URL: https://mbk-news.appspot.com/news/100k-vishli-na-ulici/. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  35. Varum R. Shares on January 31 Were Comparable to the First Wave of Rallies. In many Cities, even more People Came out. Open media. 31.01.2021. URL: https://openmedia.io/ news/n3/akcii-31-yanvarya-okazalis-sravnimymi-s-pervoj-volnoj-mitingov-v-nekotoryxgorodax-vyshlo-eshhe-bolshe-lyudej/. Accessed: 25.04.2021. (In Russ.).
  36. Shares on April 21 Came from 51.3 Thousand to 120 Thousand People. Mbk-news. 22.01.2021. URL: https://mbk-news.appspot.com/news/naakcii/. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  37. Protests on January 23rd. Main. Kommersant. 23.01.2021. URL: https://www.kommersant.ru/ doc/4661089. Accessed: 25.04.2021. (In Russ.).
  38. Navalny’s Headquarters Counted the Protesters on January 23 – up to 300 Thousand. NewsRu. 24.01.2021. URL: https://www.newsru.com/russia/24jan2021/250k.html. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  39. Shubin M. “Freedom to Navalny!” Results of the All-Russian Protest on January 23. Ovdinfo.org. 23.01.2021. URL: https://ovdinfo.org/articles/2021/01/23/svobodu-navalnomuitogi-vserossiyskoy-akcii-protesta-23-yanvarya. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  40. Shubin M. The Second All-Russian Protest Rally “Freedom to Navalny”. Results of January 31. Ovdinfo.org. 31.01.2021. URL: https://ovdinfo.org/articles/2021/01/31/ vtoraya-vserossiyskaya-akciya-protesta-svobodu-navalnomu-itogi-31-yanvarya. Accessed: 02.05.2021. (In Russ.).
  41. Yakovlev V., Varum R., Mishina V. On January 23, more than 250 Thousand People Went to Rallies for Navalny – the Head of the Network of Headquarters Leonid Volkov. Openmedia. 24.01.2021. URL: https://openmedia.io/news/n2/na-mitingi-za-navalnogo-23yanvarya-vyshli-bolshe-250-tysyach-chelovek-glava-seti-shtabov-leonid-volkov/. Accessed: 25.04.2021. (In Russ.).
  42. Anisimova N. Ministry of Internal Affairs Estimated the Number of Participants in Actions in Support of Navalny in Russia. RBC. 21.04.2021. URL: https://rbc-ru.turbopages.org/ rbc.ru/s/politics/21/04/2021/608062439a79474862fbe269?utm_source=yxnews&utm_me dium=mobile. Accessed: 24.04.2021. (In Russ.).
  43. A Protest Rally Began in Simferopol. About 200 People Came to an Unauthorized Rally. Sev.tv. 23.01.2021. URL: https://sev.tv/news/v_simferopole_nachalas_akcija_protesta/ 34704.html. Accessed: 25.04.2021. (In Russ.).
  44. The Largest Rally of Navalny’s Supporters in the Caucasus Was Held in Stavropol. Fedpress.ru. 23.01.2021. URL: https://fedpress.ru/news/26/policy/2662476. Accessed: 24.04.2021. (In Russ.).
  45. The Calmest Action in Support of Navalny in Chernozemye Was Held in Tambov. Kommersant. 23.01.2021. URL: https://www.kommersant.ru/doc/4661112. Accessed: 24.04.2021. (In Russ.).
  46. The Ministry of Internal Affairs Estimated the Number of Participants in Actions in Support of Navalny. Kommersant.ru. 21.04.2021. URL: https://kommersant-ru.turbopages.org/ kommersant.ru/s/doc/4782917?utm_source=yxnews&utm_medium=mobile. Accessed: 24.04.2021. (In Russ.).
  47. Savin A. “Epic failure. Check and Mate” – mass Protests of the Navalnists Did Not Happen. REGNUM. 23.04.2021. URL: https://regnum.ru/news/polit/3251000.html. Accessed: 24.04.2021. (In Russ.).
  48. Shults E.E. Technologies for Managing Radical Mass Forms of Social Protest in Political Struggles. Мoscow: LENAND; 2018. (In Russ.).
  49. Bikbov A. Methodology for the Study of “Sudden” Street Activism (Russian Rallies and Street Camps, December 2011 – June 2012). Laboratorium. 2012;2:130–163. (In Russ.).
  50. Zakharov A., Arkhipova A. Who Came to Sakharov Avenue. Vedomosti. 11.08.2019. URL: https://www.vedomosti.ru/opinion/articles/2019/08/11/808586-prishel-saharova. Accessed: 24.04.2021. (In Russ.).
  51. Sociologists Outlined a Short Portrait of Protesters in Moscow. 23.01.2021. URL: https://yandex.ru/turbo/business-gazeta.ru/s/news/496622. Accessed: 20.02.2021. (In Russ.).
  52. Anti-war Protesters March through Moscow. DW.com. 21.09.2014. URL: https://www.dw.com/en/anti-war-protesters-march-through-moscow/a-17938261. Accessed: 24.04.2021.
  53. Every Third Video Is about Putin’s Palace. How TikTok Was Overwhelmed by a Protest Wave. BBC Russian Service. 21.01.2021. URL: https://www.bbc.com/russian/features55757215. Accessed: 24.04.2021. (In Russ.).
  54. RCN Demanded that TikTok Stop Calling Children to Protest Actions. Interfax. 20.01.2021. URL: https://www.interfax.ru/russia/746090. Accessed: 24.04.2021. (In Russ.).
  55. Roskomnadzor Demanded that TikTok Removes Calls for the Participation of Minors in Protests. ТАSS. 20.01.2021. URL: https://tass.ru/obschestvo/10508603. Accessed: 24.04.2021. (In Russ.).
  56. Russian Protest Leaves the Internet on the Street. Deutsche Welle. 25.01.2021. URL: https://www.dw.com/ru/kommentarij-rossijskij-protest-vyhodit-iz-interneta-na-ulicu/a56334388. Accessed: 25.04.2021. (In Russ.).
  57. Alexey Navalny and His Potential Supporters. Levada Center. 01.03.2021. URL: https://www.levada.ru/2021/03/01/aleksej-navalnyj-i-ego-potentsialnye-storonniki/. Accessed: 24.04.2021. (In Russ.).
  58. Protest Movement in Russia at the end of 2011-2012: Origins, Dynamics, Results. Levada Center. 10.02.2012. URL: https://www.levada.ru/2012/10/02/protestnoe-dvizhenie-vrossii-v-kontse-2011-2012-gg/. Accessed: 24.04.2021. (In Russ.).
  59. Protest Activity in the Country. Levada Center. 13.12.2012. URL: https://www.levada.ru/ 2012/12/13/protestnaya-aktivnost-rossiyan-3/. Accessed: 24.04.2021. (In Russ.).
  60. Shults E.E. Riot Technologies (Technologies of Management of Radical Forms of Social Protest in Political Context). Moscow: PFOP; 2014. (In Russ.).
  61. Shults E.E. Technologies of Riot: “Color Revolutions” and “The Arab Spring”. National Interests: Priorities and Safety. 2014;19(256):47–48. (In Russ.).
  62. TikTok in Russia: Out of almost 23 Million Active Users, 64% Have Middle and Above Average Income. Cossa.ru. 16.10.2020. URL: https://www.cossa.ru/news/276021/. Accessed: 24.04.2021. (In Russ.).

Statistics

Views

Abstract - 79

PDF (Russian) - 53

Cited-By


PlumX

Dimensions


Copyright (c) 2021 Shults E.E.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies