Syntactics, Cognition and Compositional Semantics

Cover Page

Abstract


The object of the article is word semantics and its realization in the immediate context. The goal and the innovative component of the study is the analysis of the problem in the light of cognitive linguistics. We proceed from the assumption that the lexical meaning of a word contains a component responsible for its entry into the text. This component involves searching for lexical partners of the word in the syntagmatic chain. The semes participating in this process are actualized - they must get into the bright field of con-sciousness. The classical manifestation of this connection is the soalled semantic agreement ( собака лает ‘a dog barks’, бурый медведь ‘a brown bear’, волосы дыбом ‘hair (stands) on end’, etc.). We use examples from Russian literature to demonstrate that when a non-typical (non-standard) word combination is formed, the concepts get intersected (mixed). The examples, such as самопишущий костюм ‘a self-writing suit’ or жаркая робость ‘hot timidity’, expand a person’s cognitive horizons making the individual accustomed to a different (virtual) reality. The background and guarantor of this combinatorial process is the so-called “common sense” based on the native speaker’s previous experience. The result of the study is the presentation of five special situations manifesting the relationship between the word and its text partners: polysemantic words, phraseological units, introduced (embedded) meanings, additional connotations and a surprise effect. The author provides examples of the pressure (influence) of text memory on the speaker when selecting a necessary word and considers the idea of the predicative nature of the compatibility of lexemes. The article justifies the emergence of compositional semantics as a special direction in modern linguistics and demonstrates some of its results (based on the Russian language).


About the authors

Boris Ju. Norman

Belarusian State University; Ural Federal University

Author for correspondence.
Email: boris.norman@gmail.com
31, Karl Marks str., 220050 Minsk, Belarus; 51, Lenin av., 620000 Ekaterinburg, Russia

Doctor of Philology, Professor of the Department of Theoretical and Slavic Linguistics of Belarusian State University (Minsk). Research interests: grammar and lexics of Slavic languages, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, cognitive linguistics, linguodidactics. Major (recent) publications: “Basics of Psycholinguistics” (Minsk, 2011), “Cognitive Syntax of the Russian Lan- guage” (Moscow, 2013), “New Amusing Russian Language Assignments” (Minsk, 2014), “Life of a Word Form” (Moscow, 2016), “Pragmatic Potential of Russian Lexics and Grammar” (Moscow - Yekaterinburg, 2017).

References

  1. Бирвиш М. Семантика // Новое в зарубежной лингвистике. Х. М.: Прогресс. С. 177-199. [Birvish, M. (1981). Semantika. Novoe v zarubezhnoi lingvistike. X. (Semantics). Moscow: Progress, 177-199 (In Russ.)]
  2. Влавацкая М.В. Окказиональная синтагматика в функционально-семантическом рассмотрении // Филологические науки. Вопросы теории и практики. Тамбов: Грамота, № 2 (32), Часть 1. С. 39-47. [Vlavatskaya, M.V. (2014). Okkazional'naya sintagmatika v funktsional'no-semanticheskom rassmotrenii. Filologicheskie nauki. Voprosy teorii i praktiki. (The occasional syntagmatics in the functional-semantic consideration). Tambov: Gramota, № 2 (32). Chast' 1, 39-47 (In Russ.)]
  3. Выготский Л.С. Мышление и речь // Выготский Л.С. Собрание сочинений. Т. 2: Проблемы общей психологии. М.: Педагогика. С. 5-361. [Vygotskii, L.S. (1982). Myshlenie i rech'. In Vygotskii L.S. Sobranie sochinenij. T. 2: Problemy obshchei psikhologii. (Thinking and speech). Moscow: Pedagogika, 5-361 (In Russ.)]
  4. Гак В.Г. К проблеме семантической синтагматики // Проблемы структурной лингвистики 1971. М.: Наука. С. 367-395. [Gak, V.G. (1972). K probleme semanticheskoi sintagmatiki. In Problemy strukturnoi lingvistiki 1971. (On the problem of semantic syntagmatics). Moscow: Nauka, 367-395 (In Russ.)]
  5. Гаспаров Б.М. Язык, память, образ. Лингвистика языкового существования. М.: Новое Литературное Обозрение. [Gasparov, B.M. (1966). Yazyk, pamyat', obraz. Lingvistika yazykovogo sushchestvovaniya. (Language, memory, image. Linguistics of language being). Moscow: Novoe Literaturnoe Obozrenie (In Russ.)]
  6. Караулов Ю.Н. Активная грамматика и ассоциативно-вербальная сеть. М.: ИРЯ РАН [Karaulov, Yu.N. (1999). Aktivnaya grammatika i assotsiativno-verbal'naya set'. (Active grammar, and associative-verbal network). Moscow: IRYa RAN (In Russ.)]
  7. Кечкеш И. Слово, контекст и коммуникативное значение. Вестник РУДН. Серия: Лингвистика. 2014. № 1. С. 7-18 [Kechkesh, I. (2014). Slovo, kontekst i kommunikativnoe znachenie (Word, Context and Communicative Meaning). Russian Journal of Linguistics, 7-18 (In Russ.)]
  8. Милославский И.Г. Вопросы словообразовательного синтеза. М.: Издательство Московского университета [Miloslavskii, I.G. (1980). Voprosy slovoobrazovatel'nogo sinteza. (Problems of word-formation synthesis). Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Moskovskogo universiteta (In Russ.)]
  9. Моррис Ч.У. Основания теории знаков // Семиотика. Сост. и ред. Ю.С. Степанова. М.: Радуга. С. 37-89. [Morris, Ch.U. (1983). Osnovaniya teorii znakov. In: Semiotika. Sost. i red. Yu.S. Stepanova. (The foundation of the theory of signs.). Moscow: Raduga, 37- 89 (In Russ.)]
  10. Никифорова Е.Б. Изменение сочетаемости лексем как показатель динамики семантической структуры слова // Слово - сознание - культура. Сб. научн. трудов. Сост. Л.Г. Золотых. М.: Флинта - Наука. С. 115-122. [Nikiforova, E.B. (2006). Izmenenie sochetaemosti leksem kak pokazatel' dinamiki semanticheskoi struktury slova. In Slovo - soznanie - kul'tura. Sb. nauchn. trudov. Sost. L. G. Zolotykh. (Changes in the compatibility of lexemes as an indicator of the dynamics of the semantic structure of the word). Moscow: Flinta - Nauka, 115-122 (In Russ.)]
  11. Норман Б.Ю. Когнитивный синтаксис русского языка. М.: Флинта - Наука [Norman, B.Yu. (2013). Kognitivnyi sintaksis russkogo yazyka. (The cognitive syntax of the Russian language). Moscow: Flinta - Nauka (In Russ.)]
  12. Рахилина Е.В. Когнитивный анализ предметных имен: семантика и сочетаемость. М.: Русские словари [Rakhilina, E.V. (2000). Kognitivnyi analiz predmetnykh imen: semantika i sochetaemost'. (Cognitive analysis of subject names: semantics and compatibility). Moscow: Russkie slovari (In Russ.)]
  13. Сепир Э. Язык. Введение в изучение речи // Сепир Э. Избранные труды по языкознанию и культурологии. М.: Прогресс - Универс. С. 26-203. [Sepir, E. (1993). Yazyk. Vvedenie v izuchenie rechi. In Sepir E. Izbrannye trudy po yazykoznaniyu i kul'turologii. (Language. An introduction to the study of speech). Moscow: Progress - Univers, 26-203 (In Russ.)]
  14. Стернин И.А. Лексическое значение слова в речи. Воронеж: Издательство Воронежского университета, 1985. [Sternin, I.A. (1985). Leksicheskoe znachenie slova v rechi. (Lexical meaning of the word in speech). Voronezh: Izdatel'stvo Voronezhskogo universiteta (In Russ.)]
  15. Харитончик З.А. В поисках сущности имен. Сб. научн. ст. Минск: МГЛУ, 2015. [Kharitonchik, Z.A. (2015). V poiskakh sushchnosti imen. Sb. nauchn. st. (Searching for names entity). Minsk: MGLU (In Russ.)]
  16. Aarts, Jan M.G., Calbert, Joseph P. (1979). Metaphor and Non-Metaphor. The Semantics of Adjective Noun Combination. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.
  17. Allerton, D.J. (1990). Linguistically Strange Word Combinations. On Strangeness. Ed. by M. Bridges (Swiss Papers in English Language and Literature. 5). Tübingen: Günter Narr Verlag, 25-38.
  18. Asher, Nicholas (2011). Lexical Meaning in Context. A Web of Words. Cambridge University Press.
  19. Gadamer, Hans-Georg (1975). Warheit und Methode. Grundzüge einer philosophischen Methode. (Truth and Method. Basic motions of philosophical method). Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr. (In Germ.).
  20. Jacobson, Pauline (2014). Compositional Semantics. An Introduction to the Syntax/Semantics. Oxford University Press.
  21. Jones, Steven, Paradis, Carita, Lynne Murphy, M., Willners, Caroline (2007). Googling for ʻopposites’: a web-based study of antonym canonicity. Corpora. Corpus-based Language Learning, Language Processing and Linguistics, 2 (2), 129-155.
  22. Pustejovsky, James (1996). The Generative Lexicon. 2th printing. Massachusetts: MIT Press.
  23. Sweetser, Eve (1999). Compositionality and blending: semantic composition in a cognitively realistic framework. Cognitive Linguistics: Foundations, Scope and Methodology. Ed. by T. Janssen, G. Redeker. Berlin - New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 129-162.
  24. Turula, Anna (2007). Modyfikujące innowacje frazeologiczne jako amalgamaty znaczeń w świetle modelu dynamicznego opartego na uzusie językowym. Frazeologia a językowe obrazy świata przełomu wieków. Red. naukowy W. Chlebda. Opole: Uniwersytet Opolski. 503-510. Словари и интернет-ресурсы / Dictionaries and Internet Resources
  25. БТСРЯ (1998): Большой толковый словарь русского языка. Глав. ред. С.А. Кузнецов. Санкт-Петербург: Норинт. [BTSRYa: Bol'shoi tolkovyi slovar' russkogo yazyka. Glav. red. S.A. Kuznetsov. (Large Explanatory Russian Dictionary). Saint-Petersburg: Norint (In Russ.)]
  26. Даль В.И. Толковый словарь живого великорусского языка. Т. I-IV. Изд. 4-е. Санкт-Петербург - Москва: Т-во Вольф. [Dal' V.I. (1912). Tolkovyi slovar' zhivogo velikorusskogo yazyka. T. I-IV. Izd. 4-e. (Explanatory dictionary of the living great Russian language). Saint-Petersburg - Moscow: T-vo Vol'f (In Russ.)].
  27. НКРЯ: Национальный корпус русского языка. URL: www.ruscorpora.ru [NKRYa: Natsional'nyi korpus russkogo yazyka (National corpus of the Russian language)]
  28. Словарь сочетаемости слов русского языка (1983) Под ред. П.Н. Денисова, В.В. Морковкина. Москва: Русский язык [Slovar' sochetaemosti slov russkogo yazyka. Pod red. P.N. Denisova, V.V. Morkovkina. (Dictionary of Russian words compatibility). Moscow: Russkii yazyk (In Russ.)]
  29. Современный русский язык. Социальная и функциональная дифференциация / отв. ред. Л.П. Крысин. М.: ЯСК, 2003. [Sovremennyi russkii yazyk. Sotsial'naya i funktsional'naya differentsiatsiya. Otv. red. L.P. Krysin. (Modern Russian language. Social and functional differentiation). Moscow: YaSK (In Russ.)]

Statistics

Views

Abstract - 314

PDF (Russian) - 280

Cited-By


PlumX

Dimensions


Copyright (c) 2019 Norman B.J.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies