No 3 (2016)

Full Issue

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Articles
THE BASIC FUNCTIONS OF SOUND SIGNALS IN MAMMALS
Nikol’skii A.A.
Abstract
All the diversity of sound signals by mammals is subordinated two basic functions: function implementation of the populations of genotype and function realization of the ecological niche of species populations. The basic functions have resulted from some relatively independent trends in the evolution of sound signals as those developing the genetically determined structure and the ecologically determined functions. A relative independence of the above trends in the sound signal evolution supports variation.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(3):7-15
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CHEMICAL СOMPOSITION OF THE BIOLOGICAL SIGNAL FIELD OF STEPPE MARMOT (MARMOTA BOBAK)
Vanisova E.A., Goryainov S.V., Nikol’skii A.A., Niftullayev F.Y., Soroka O.V., Kalabin G.A.
Abstract
In the study we have first described the chemical composition of the volatile substances from the top soil layer by the example of the steppe marmot colony. Volatile components that could be stable elements of the biological signal field are contained in the greatest quantity (mkg/g) in the samples from the burrows. Their least content is in the samples from the background. The intermediate position is occupied by the sample collected from the pathways. We have identified the following classes of compounds: fatty acids, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, alcohols and nitriles.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(3):16-25
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ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANT COVER IN SAND PITS OF MOSCOW REGION
Dabbag A., Zhukova A.D., Ulanskaya Y.V.
Abstract
Sand mining is used to extract sand through an open pit. After completion of mining activities sand pits usually undergo rehabilitation: firstly they are graded and then planted with trees and shrubs, but very often sand pits are abandoned to regenerate themselves. The sand pit becomes a source of dust and a hardly healed wound on the earth’s surface. In order to provide an adequate revegetation on such substrates, it is necessary to study ecological peculiarities of growing plants in a very specific environment characterized by high stiffness of slopes and high mobility of the substrate. The vegetation of the sand pits is expected to have a xerophytic habitus and will be similar to desert plants, but that is not the case. The zonal component affects the habitus of the vegetation. However all plants of sand pits have characteristics of psammophytes directly or indirectly. The flora and vegetation of Zvenigorodsky and Dzerzhinsky sand pits on the slopes of southern and northern exposures were studied during this work. It was found that the projective cover constitutes 20-30%. Species diversity is determined by the successions occurring spontaneously after a rough anthropogenic intervention, under the influence of such environmental factors as lighting, texture, moisture and richness of soil. Exactly 98 species of plants were discovered, diversity on the southern slopes was more than twice as higher than on the northern ones. Mesophytes dominated among the plants with a high occurrence, but a lot of xeromesophytes were found as well. The dominance of therophytes in sand pits was not confirmed: the predominance of hemicryptophytes as in the Middle zone of Russia is identified. We can only note the predominance of hemicryptophytes on the northern slopes, as well as the migratio of phanerophytes to the southern slopes. According to the classification of life forms by I. G. Serebryakov, sand slopes are dominated by herbaceous perennial polycarpics, among which long- and short rhizome plants and tap rooted plants are in majority. A significant proportion of tap rooted plants is due to their high degree of adaptation to strong light conditions and resistance to drought. Dominant ecological-coenotic group is that of meadow plants. One should note the lack of affinity of sand pits species diversity with neighboring plant communities (coefficient of P. Jaccard is equal to zero). There are weed and wetland species that migrate on slopes from the bottom of the sand pits. The rate of adventive species is low.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(3):26-34
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ECOLOGICAL TYPES OF STRAY DOGS POPULATION IN THE AREA MOSRENTGEN, MOSCOW
Zhulenko A.S., Polynova G.V.
Abstract
The structure of population of stray dogs of the settlement of Mosrentgen consists of the intra population groups including from 4 to 8 individuals and a small number of single males. There is an insignificant flow of migrants across the territory. Three ecological types of homeless animals are formed on the combination of a stage of running wild and foraging (food procurement) strategy: community- owned dependant dogs-parasites, stray dogs and feral dogs, eating a waste. The number of groups and the size of the territory occupied by them depend on socialization for people, foraging strategy and type of the urban environment. The groups with high extent of socialization for people include more numbers of individuals and occupy the larger territories. Groups which collecting foraging strategy, as a rule, occupy the bigger territory. The territories of park and forest aren’t used by dogs as a constant habitat.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(3):35-44
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BIOINDICATIVE INDICATORS OF STABILITY OF POPULUS TREMULALEAF BLADES UNDER THE IMPACT OF TRAFFIC FLOW
Kuznetsova A.S., Sotnikova E.V.
Abstract
Reserched changes in stability of Populus tremula at different levels of exposure of vehicle emissions. Revealed morphometric differences of the leaf blades Populus tremula at different levels of anthropogenic impact.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(3):45-51
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ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL OF FOREST ECOSYSTEM
Aidarkhanova G.S., Kozhina Z.M., Khusainov M.B.
Abstract
The article presents the results of the soil survey of protected area, situated within the pine forest of the Semipalatinsk Irtysh. Soil assessment of index plot has been conducted on a number of chemical parameters, including humus content, pH of the aqueous extract, cation-anion composition, the total amount of water-soluble substances. According to the results of laboratory experiments, the soil of the State Forest Nature Reserve “Semey ormany” can be described as non-saline, non-toxic, neutral or slightly alkaline, with a low humus content.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(3):52-56
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IODINE DEFICIENCY IN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES OF THE BRYANSK REGION
Korobova E.M., Beryozkin V.U., Kolmykova L.I., Korsakova N.V., Krigman L.V.
Abstract
Bryansk region is one of the regions of Russia which is characterized by a deficiency of a number of elements in soils and biogeochemical food chain, including iodine. Environmental contamination of the areas with natural iodine deficit by radioiodine isotopes can cause additional risk of negative biological reaction of the thyroid gland. The study shows the results of the analysis ofthe iodine content in 156 potato samples and 208 soil samples of agricultural landscapes, from 113 settlements of the Bryansk region. There are first results of the influence of natural iodine deficiency in agricultural soils and potatoes on the risk of adverse biological reactions of the thyroid gland. One of the results is different contents of iodine in potatoes and soils of landscapes of the three classes of water migration due to differences in the type of parent rocks and by class of water migration of chemical elements in soils. It is confirmed, that in typical landscapes of the H+-Ca2+ class there are highest content of iodine in soil, water and potatoes.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(3):57-65
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ESTIMATION OFSPATIAL-TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF EXTREMWARM SEASON AIR TEMPERATURE VALUESIN THE NORTH-EAST PART OF LITTLE CAUCASUS (IN THE TERRITORY OF AZERBAIJAN REPUBLIC)
Suleymanov T.I., Safarov S.H., Ramazanov R.H.
Abstract
The estimation of spatio-temporal patterns of the distribution of the hot air temperature of the extrema in the warm season using of the north-eastern slope of the Lesser Caucasus within the Republic of Azerbaijan as a case study under the influence of global climate change has been conducted. For the first time the temporal distribution patterns of the indicators of such extreme temperature regimes of warm period, the indices of summer days and tropical nights and their trends over many years have been identified. The average number of days from the summer days from April to July increases, thereafterdecreases. The largest number of summer days was observed in plain areas in July (30,1- 30,3 days), while in mountainous areas in August (2,7-12,5 days). In general, the greatest number of summer days was observed in Ganja, the smallest - in the Gay-gel. The climatic conditions of tropical nights were observed only in the lowland areas. The number of days with tropical nights was in June 1,2-4,3 days in July 12,6-21,3 days 10,7-14,9 days in August, in September 0,7-2,8 days . In some years, the mountain stations also observed the tropical nights (in 2001 14 days).
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(3):66-74
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CONDITION OF MOUNTAIN ECOSYSTEMS OF THE TIAN-SHAN AND GEO-HAZARDS FORMATION
Orolbaeva L.E., Meleshko A.A.
Abstract
The article considers the analysis of mountain ecosystems condition of the Tian-Shan affected by antropogenic and climate changes contributing to natural hazards formation. Rugged orography, unstable geodynamic environment of the Tien-Shan, result in the occurrence of such natural processes as landslides, debris flows and floods. The frequency and severity of the natural processes are associated with the condition of forest ecosystems. One of the reasons of mountain ecosystems degradation is deforestation. Moreover, the forest shrinkage in the Inner Tien-Shan defines the mesoclimate and associated glaciation systems of the region.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(3):75-82
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OILSPILL RESPONSE ON THE WESTERN REGION OF GHANA: ENVIRONMENTAL MANEGEMENT PROBLEMS
Doris B., Kharlamova M.
Abstract
The research project attempted to investigate, examine, highlight, and understand if prevention of oil spill is better than cure (in management system terms with regards to two oil companies), to ascertain whether improving maintenance and control of facilities goes a long way to reduce the cost of managing oil and gas spillage while evaluating the post spill impacts on the western regional people of Ghana.This research study was a combination of both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Personal interviews, Observation and Report reviewing were the qualitative research methods that were employed in collecting data. In addition, Questionnaires were the primary quantitative instrument employed in collecting data from the forty five (45) subjects chosen by the researcher for the study.However, after analyzing and interpreting the collected information and literature, the researchers discovered that although the circumstances surrounding a spill incident are complex and unique, the primary cause of oil spillage in the western region is the failures of the oil companies. Corporate culture remains one that is embedded in risk-taking and cost-cutting. Perhaps there is no clear-cut “evidence” that someone in these companies or in the well- project makes a conscious decision to put costs before safety.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(3):83-92
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THE ANALYSIS OF AIR POLLUTION BY VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE ROADSIDE SPACE OF ASTANA CITY
Meiramkulova K.S., Chekusheva D.V.
Abstract
The main ecological problem in each city is the atmospheric pollution and traffic noise. Since 1998 the city, after the capital of Kazakhstan was moved from Almaty to Astana, begun to grow rapidly. New buildings, entertainment and cultural centers are being built; the number of vehicles increases. Exhaust gases accumulate in the surface layer of the atmosphere, representing risk to human health. Currently, studies of roadside pollution in Astana are limited to heavy metals. While the need to consider other pollutants, such as volatile organic compounds (about 150 priority pollutants), is becoming more popular. The aim of thesis is the identification and quantification of major volatile organic exhaust substances in the atmosphere of the city. Identification of contaminants in the air samples was carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Concentrations of substances increased in direct proportion to the intensity of vehicular traffic. The highest concentration of identified volatile organic compounds observed in central city areas. The received data analysis is the scientific basis for the practical recommendations in assortment of green spaces, resistant to exposure to toxic components of traffic fumes. Improvement of the capital air space will benefit the biomedical dimension of sustainable development.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(3):93-98
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MOOCS FOR TEACHING ESP TO ECOLOGICAL FACULTY STUDENTS
Valeeva N.G., Rudneva M.A.
Abstract
The development of Internet technology and the globalization of education have fostered massive open online courses (MOOCs) for sciences and humanities. Various MOOCs are based on different methodological approaches such as connectionism, active learning, cooperative learning, implying autonomy and intrinsic motivation of students in acquiring the skills and abilities that are important for a career. Control of the acquisition is carried out by means of self-evaluation and peer-review using tests with AutoCheck, nonlinear tests with specific evaluation criteria. This form of training involves a fundamental change in the teaching methodology and promotes paradigm shift in the education system, due to changing access to learning materials, their method of presentation, monitoring and evaluation process. Besides the obvious advantages in terms of professional training, MOOCs can also be considered as an additional tool in teaching ESP. Most of the courses provided in the public domain, are in English, and involve leading specialists of the world’s best universities. Participation of students in these courses is not limited to the perceptual component, interactive open structure allows students to participate in forums, discussions, peer-review in the target language. Second-year undergraduate students of the Environmental Studies Faculty were assigned to participate in one of four MOOCs to choose from. For each MOOC project teams were formed, working on a group project throughout the course. The work was organized in blended learning format - independent individual work of each student on the content part of the course, the discussion within the group, preparing presentations, presenting their ideas to students from other working groups, followed by discussion. English teacher was in charge of facilitating discussions as well as evaluating presentations from the content and language point of view. A few positive aspect of MOOC integration were the possibility of independent work of students; high quality of the material; professional vocabulary development; built-in control system. There were also some disputable aspects, such as temporary access to courses as well as very generic approach to the matters discussed. Students who participated in the program were surveyed in order to identify the main difficulties that they experienced while working with MOOCs. In this article we present the results of the survey and will offer the main ways to overcome the problems.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(3):99-105
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AGRO-ECOLOGICAL TERMS IN THE ASPECT OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATIONS
Avdonina M.Y., Byakhova V.M., Zhabo N.I., Likhacheva I.F.
Abstract
The present study reveals the interaction of language subsystems of Russian and English languages ​​ in intercultural communication of the scientific community, environmentalists and farmers in agricultural and environmental topics. Analysis in lexical semantics and functioning of terms to improve the professional communication has been performed. The peculiarities of word-formation process in the studied languages have been revealed, required stylistic coloring has been showed. Creation of new words in a language because of the innovative concepts generation inspires translators to find equivalents and variants which are evaluated.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(3):106-114
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RETsENZIYa:mediko-geograficheskiy atlas Rossii«Prirodnoochagovye bolezni» / pod red. S.M. Malkhazovoy.M.: Izd-vo MGU, 2015. 208 s
- -.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(3):115-117
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N.V. TIMOFEEV-RESOVSKY CONTRIBUTION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF RADIOECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOLOGICAL MONITORING METHODOLOGY
Manuylova E.G.
Abstract
The value of N.V. Timofeev-Resovsky’s works on radiation biogeocenology in environmental radiological monitoring evolution is considered in the article according to the results of historical and scientific analysis. Inspired with the ideas of V.I. Vernadsky’s theory of biosphere and V.N. Sukachev’s biogeocenology Timofeev-Resovsky formed his own unique biogeocenological experimental approach to studying of ionizing radiation impact to biogeocenoses and the biosphere. It is called as the radiation biogeocenology. Due to new methods and techniques it appears to be forerunner of modern radioecology. Timofeev-Resovsky’s observations, tests and experiments allowed him to make models of radionuclide migration in natural ecosystems and the biosphere. He was among the first to highlight the primary role of living organisms and the ecological and biological essence of environmental radiological monitoring.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(3):118-125
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