Vol 26, No 3 (2018)

Ecology
Comparative ecological analysis of the avifauna of the city parks of Minsk
Svistun E.K.
Abstract

The paper presents data on the environmental features of the avifauna of the parks in Minsk. Ecological groups and ecological status of birds are revealed. The greatest variety is characterized by a group of Passerine. The dominant species are forest birds. It is established that the majority of birds are nesting settled. The most favorable place for birds is the territory of the Drozdy Park.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(3):285-298
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A study on Moscow region sand pits’ plants properties for the restoration of sand pits vegetation
Dabbagh A.
Abstract

Processes of plant regeneration and restoration of destroyed ecosystems, naturally occurring, in such areas are very slow. Considering sand pits as a man-made form of relief necessitates a comprehensive study of the features of sand pits vegetation, which helps stop the movement of sandy slopes, stabilize sands, and land reclamation. We have studied the slopes of the northern and southern exposition in some sand quarries (Zvenigorodsky, Dzerzhinsky, Ramensky (GOK), Lytkarinsky, Lyzlovo). Geobotanical descriptions, performed according to a standard method on the experimental areas of 5×5 square meters, are the basis of our work. The article shows that all the 93 species which we have found in the surveyed area were species of vascular plants. In this case the number of species is not only determined by the smooth running development of the landscape (taking into account the fact that the interference was rude and had a man-made factors), but by other factors such as steep slopes, light, moisture, and richness of the soil. The projective cover of sand pits constitutes 20-30 % which, in general, is a typical characteristic of sandy terrain [3]. Plants overwhelming majority in the spectrum of life forms according to K. Raunkiaer, are Hemicryptophytes, which is typical for the phytocoenosis of the Central Russia. It can be noted that the Chamaephytes are absent in most quarries, except for Dzerzhinsky. According to the classification of life forms by I.G. Serebryakov, sand slopes are dominated by herbaceous perennial polycarpics, among which long and short rhizome plants and tap rooted plants are in majority. Meadow plants are dominant in ecological-coenotic group. This group consists of fully developed plants, only, under conditions of good lighting. The rate of adventive species is low.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(3):299-308
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Information-Analytical Center for Natural Specially Protected Areas Support
Prokhorov I.S., Korneevets K.V., Bychkov S.A.
Abstract

In 2017, which was held in the Russian Federation under the aegis of the Year of Ecology, its 100th anniversary marked the first Barguzin State Natural Biosphere Reserve. Currently, there are 302 specially protected natural areas (PAs) of federal significance in the Russian Federation. There are 105 nature reserves, 55 national parks, 58 sanctuaries and 17 natural monuments and 67 dendrology parks and botanic gardens with a total area of more than 70 million hectares. In 2018, 2 more national parks in Dagestan Republic and Chelyabinsk region and 6 PAs will be created on the territory of the Republic of Crimea. Within the framework of the Concept for the Development of the System of Naturally Specially Protected Areas of Federal Significance for the Period to 2020 the Scientific and Methodological Center (FSBI “Information-Analytical Center for Specially Protected Natural Areas Support” of Ministry for Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation) at once two projects in the field of environmental education “Letters to animals” and in the field of development of ecological tourism and biodiversity conservation “Wild Nature of Russia: to Preserve and to Watch”, protection of areas “Immediate Response Unit”, development of scientific researches “European Chronicle of Nature” and “Educational Centre”.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(3):309-314
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Effect of drought on the antioxidant activity of corn from various soil and climatic regions
Sukiasyan A.R.
Abstract

The antioxidant activity of an annual plant Maize Zea of the Armenian population, which grew in various soil-climatic regions of Armenia, was studied. Antioxidant activity by four biochemical parameters was evaluated, the quantitative changes of which under conditions of simulated drought (mild and severe) were determined. Maize Zea of the inbred line B73 was used as the biological control in the experiments. During the experiments, it was found that the Hushakert plant samples have an increased concentration of malonic dialdehyde and flavonoids. In the biological material of corn from Teghut, high concentration values for the restoration of iron and polyphenols by antioxidants are established. The increase in drought from a moderate to the severe biological control of B73 as well as from Armenian maize samples caused the activation of an antioxidant protection system in all four indices was established. This makes it possible to expand the use of maize as a plant indicator, and can be considered as functional foods, as they are a good source of natural antioxidants.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(3):315-325
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Geoecology
Destruction of herbicide atrazine by solar radiation in photo-Fenton system
Zagibalova C.M., Matafonova G.G., Batoev V.B.
Abstract

The efficiency of solar-induced destruction of herbicide atrazine in natural water and aqueous extract from agrogenic and unbroken soil by using photo-Fenton system was studied in this work. 80-90 % atrazine was removed in all water matrices. Using xenon lamp as a solar simulator, the rate of atrazine destruction was found to be higher in aqueous soil extracts than that observed in natural water. However, no significant difference was found between the destruction dynamics in natural water and soil extracts, exposed to natural solar light. This could be attributed to the higher hydroxyl radical exposure under the higher UV irradiance of the Sun.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(3):326-334
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Plant life assessment by the total fluctuating asymmetry index in the RUDN University campus
Mamadzhanov R.K.
Abstract

The article proposes a new method of plant life assessment by the total fluctuating asymmetry index that includes seven asymmetry parameters of leaves growing in three experimental areas near the Leninsky Prospekt and Miklukho-Maklaya highways. The data on 18 morphological parameters of leaves of the tree species growing in these experimental areas has been presented. The potential impact of the Leninsky Prospekt and Miklukho-Malkaya highways on the morphological parameters of leaves has been estimated.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(3):335-345
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Geoecological aspects of civil engineering on the sands
Averkina T.I.
Abstract

Civil structures are often built on sands, which are widespread in the upper part of the geological section. These soils usually serve as a reliable basis for engineering structures, but under certain conditions can cause large complications and even endanger the life safety. Analysis and generalization of the construction experience allows us educe three groups of problems that need to be identified and addressed timely. Most of the problems are related to water-bearing sands. Water flows, breakthrough of pressure water and quicksand are very common phenomena that complicate the excavation of construction pits and the device of underground structures. To protect against groundwater is often used dewatering, which can disrupt the stability of the surrounding buildings in high-density urban development. The second group of problems is related to the process of suffusion. The most dangerous of its manifestations are suffusion failures, leading to emergency situations and sometimes to the destruction of structures. The third group of problems is caused by specific reaction of sands to dynamic impacts, in particular, by liquefaction of water-saturated sandy soils. The consequences of such a reaction can be very serious: the immersion of the structure in the ground, the uplift of piles or bridge supports, the float up of underground tanks, the uplift of liquefied soils from under the foundation until the formation of a building tilt or overturning of the structure.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(3):346-353
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Environmetal defence
Forecasting the environmental effects of air pollution with landfill gas in residential areas
Sauts A.V.
Abstract

In the article the prediction of ecological consequences of contamination of components of the landfill gas air to a residential building, located on the territory close to the landfill. A method for calculating the dispersion of landfill gas taking into account the influence of the building, based on the numerical solution of differential equations, heat transfer, Reynolds, exponential distribution, supplemented by corresponding models of turbulence, initial and boundary conditions. The technique allows to take into account the spatial heterogeneity of landfills and rolling pins as the source of the pollutant, as well as the process of penetration of polluted air into the interference. Performed software implementation and verification of the method on the example of the range “Novoselki” (Saint Petersburg) and the adjacent warehouse buildings and residential complex for the most unfavourable wind conditions taking into account the averaging over time. The ecological and toxicological analysis of landfill gas taking into account its main components, and also the analysis of carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risk at chronic influence on the abstract person living in the room in which the air polluted by landfill gas penetrates is carried out. The results can be used to determine the amount of maximum permissible emissions of landfill gas components, the scale moat sanitary protection zones of landfills and dumps, detecting the identification of the most polluted places on the street and indoors, the health risk assessment of residents as a result of chronic action of toxic substances, the syndrome of “sick building” caused by penetration of contaminated air into the room through openings in the walling, the solution of applied problems of ecological safety of construction, housing and communal services and public health.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(3):354-366
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Short announcements
Groundwater Management Protection Program for Nigeria
Kalu N.N.
Abstract

This article looks into groundwater pollution in Nigeria; groundwater uses and suggests how to go about protection of Nigeria’s underground water. There were case studies of wells at different regions; content analysis indicated physical, chemical and organic factors with parameters that surpassed upper boundaries established by World Health Organization. The public full understanding of economic and social importance of underground water will help in Full integration of Comprehensive Regional Groundwater Protection Program for Nigeria.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(3):367-378
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Dynamics of landscapes of the spit Dolgaya
Aleinikova A.M., Krylenko V.V.
Abstract

This paper is devoted to the analysis of the landscape dynamics of the Dolgaya Spit, Taganrog Bay of the Sea of Azov. The analysis of the dynamics of the lithological composition, topography, soil, vegetation, anthropogenic impact. The formation of new shafts of beach-forming material from sand and shell occurs continuously on the western side of the spit. The maximum height is reached by the newly formed ramparts on the western part of the spit, as the height of the shafts decreases to the east.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(3):379-385
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