Vol 17, No 4 (2021)

Analysis and design of building structures

Justification of the development and application of express assessment programs for road bridges when heavy vehicles pass through them

Lugovtsev E.A.


The theoretical prerequisites for justifying the development of two rapid assessment programs for road bridges to quickly determine the possibility of passing heavy vehicles on road bridge structures of a split and non-split system, made of wood, metal, steel-reinforced concrete, reinforced concrete with stressed and non-stressed reinforcement, according to the measured angle of rotation of their support sections, taking into account their actual operational condition, are presented. The programs implemented an experimental and analytical method for assessing the technical condition of road bridges for reliability. The features, conditions of application, positive and negative aspects of each version of the program are revealed. The creation of two variants of programs is due to, on the one hand, the need to ensure the safety of the driver of the vehicle and the bridge structure, and on the other hand, the need to guarantee the possibility of safe passage of heavy vehicles, both under the conditions of the load-bearing capacity of superstructures and the load-bearing capacity of road bridge supports, taking into account their actual operational condition. Both developed calculation programs were implemented by using a personal computer and certificates of state registration of computer programs were obtained. The developed programs will be used as part of the modernized IR-AM measuring complex.

Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings. 2021;17(4):315-323
pages 315-323 views

Stress-strain state of reinforced concrete structures of the LN-1 and LN-2 retaining walls of Zagorskaya PSPP taking into account the opening of interblock joints and the formation of secondary cracks

Khanov N.V., Pashchenko F.A.


Relevance. The lower retaining walls of the water intake of the Zagorskaya PSPP perform the important function of protecting the pressure water conduits from the collapse of the soil massif. Two of them (LN-2 and LN-3) were reinforced with anchor rods. Considering the long period of operation (more than 25 years), certain deviations in the work during examinations and field observations were revealed. So, on the front face of the walls, extended horizontal cracks were recorded (opening of horizontal interblock joints and the emergence of secondary oblique cracks on the front surface of the walls). To carry out computational studies of the stress-strain state of the downstream retaining walls was required. The purpose of the work was to determine the stress-strain state of the lower retaining walls of the water intake of the Zagorskaya PSPP taking into account the opening of interblock joints and the formation of secondary oblique cracks. Methods. Computational studies of the stress-strain state of retaining walls were carried out within the framework of the method of numerical modeling of reinforced concrete structures of hydraulic structures based on finite element models. In finite element models, structural features of retaining walls were reproduced, including anchor rods, horizontal interblock joints, actual reinforcement, secondary oblique cracks. Results. The stress-strain state of the retaining walls was obtained. The stresses in the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement were determined, including when the structure was changed due to anchor rods. In horizontally transverse reinforcement, tensile stresses exceeding the yield point are recorded. It took the development of measures to strengthen the lower retaining walls.

Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings. 2021;17(4):324-334
pages 324-334 views

Analytical and numerical methods of analysis of structures

Research of stress-deformed state of the rammed monolithic reinforced concrete cone-shaped piles with side and bottom forms from crushed stones

Kuzhakhmetova E.R.


Relevance. In the construction of buildings and structures, driven piles with a square cross section are most widely used. To install them in the working position, the percussion method is used. However, in cramped conditions, shock loads can lead to dangerous conditions and destruction of structures of nearby buildings. In such a situation, it is necessary to use rammed piles, since technological solutions for their construction are not associated with shock effects on the soil. One such solution is the new rammed cone-shaped pile design, which is installed without excavation. The aim of the study is to analyze the influence of the geometric parameters of the pile on its bearing capacity under the action of external loads, in particular, the angle of its taper. Methods. The results of a numerical analysis of the stress-strain state of a pile operating in a soil massif were obtained by the finite element method. Results. In the computational study, a comparative analysis of the state of piles of different lengths and geometries under the action of external loads was carried out. The influence of the angle of inclination of the lateral surface of the pile on its bearing capacity is considered. Rationalization of the pile design was carried out taking into account the total costs of building materials. Variants of geometric and design solutions for piles with a length L from 1 to 10 m are proposed. In subsequent articles, it is proposed to consider the effect on the bearing capacity of the pile of the geometric parameters of the crushed stone shell and the lower crushed stone spherical expansion, as well as to carry out a comparative analysis of the numerical results with experimental data obtained in laboratory and field conditions.

Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings. 2021;17(4):335-356
pages 335-356 views

Numerical analysis of the behavior of a three-layer honeycomb panel with interlayer defects under action of dynamic load

Medvedskiy A.L., Martirosov M.I., Khomchenko A.V., Dedova D.V.


The aim of the work is to study the effect of interlayer defects of the bundle type on the behavior of a rectangular flat three-layer panel with a honeycomb filler under the influence of a dynamic impact load. Methods. The problem was solved numerically using the finite element method in the Simcenter Femap and LS-DYNA (Livermore Software Technology Corp.) software complexes. For this purpose, a geometric model of a panel with a honeycomb placeholder was developed. Based on the geometric model, a finite element model of the panel was created using three-dimensional finite elements. In the software complexes, the finite element model was calculated under specified boundary conditions, then the stress fields and fracture indices in the panel were determined, taking into account and without taking into account damage. Results. The stress fields in the panel are numerically determined with and without defects. The fields of the failure indices of the panel layers under the impact load are investigated using various failure criteria (Puck, Hashin, LaRC03 (Langley Research Center)) of polymer composite materials. The analysis of the influence of a defect on the behavior of a honeycomb panel under the impact load is carried out.

Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings. 2021;17(4):357-365
pages 357-365 views

Study on overstrength and ductility of reinforced concrete building with different infill through nonlinear analysis

Chaulagain H., Giri R.


The building structure with infill wall shows higher global stiffness along with the uncertain behaviour during 2015 Gorkha earthquake. It significantly increased the collapse rate of structures during earthquakes. The response of buildings with different infills during seismic excitations is not completely accounted by current seismic codes in the region. On the other hand, due to the different geological region, availability of infill materials for reinforced concrete building also differs on region to region. In most of the situations the burnt clay brick, concrete blocks and stone block are used as infill materials during building construction. In this scenario, this study explores the importance of selection of right infill material for better seismic performance during earthquakes. For this, building constructed at Pokhara Metropolitan City is considered for case study. The structural model is prepared with and without considering infills. The solid, hollow concrete block and clay brick masonry are taken as infill material during analysis. The structural behaviour during earthquakes is studied with non-linear static pushover. The result shows that the hollow concrete block masonry infill (INHB) shows better structural performance compared to other infill types.

Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings. 2021;17(4):366-378
pages 366-378 views

Seismic resistence

Influence of the concrete strength and the type of supports on the stress-strain state of a hyperbolic paraboloid shell footbridge structure

Cajamarca-Zuniga D., Luna S.


Relevance. This work is the first in a series of publications on the selection of a suitable analytical surface for implementation as a self-supporting structure for a thin shell footbridge. The study on the influence of concrete strength, live load position and support types on the stress-strain state of a hyperbolic paraboloid (hypar) shell is presented. Objective - to define the initial design parameters such as the appropriate concrete strength and the support type that generates the best structural behaviour to perform the subsequent structural design of a thin shell footbridge. Methods. The static finite element analysis was performed for 4 compressive strengths of concrete (28, 40, 80, 120 MPa) which correspond normal, high and ultra-high resistance concrete, 5 different live load arrangements and 3 different support conditions. Results. The shell model with pinned (two-hinged) supports shows the same vertical displacements as the model with fixed supports (hingeless). For the studied shell thickness, in terms of stress behaviour, the model with pinned ends is more efficient. The combination of two-hinged supports with 80 MPa concrete strength shows a better structural performance.

Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings. 2021;17(4):379-390
pages 379-390 views

Evaluation of seismic forces under modified structural schemes in the process of vibrations

Chernov Y.T., Qbaily J.


The aim of the work - development of one of the possible methods for seismic analysis that considers the inelastic behavior of structures under seismic loads. This requires the development of seismic analysis methods that take into account the change (decrease) in the bearing capacity or the destruction of individual elements until the final loss of the bearing capacity of the structure. Methods. The dependences and algorithms include determining seismic forces using the method of normal forms, which until now is the main one in solving problems of the seismic resistance theory in seismic regions, calculation formulas to calculate seismic forces at each time step are presented in the form of expansions into natural vibration modes, which regard the changes in the design scheme. The calculation is repeated at each time step as a static calculation for the action of seismic forces determined at the previous stage, before the building collapses. Results. The developed dependencies and algorithms allow to consider changes in the design scheme during vibrations at each time step, changes in the dynamic properties of the building and, as a result, the values of seismic forces. The value of the coefficient of inelastic work of structures K 1, which are given in regulatory documents, do not give fully correspond to the actual behavior of the structure under seismic influences. The proposed calculation method allows to determine the estimated values of seismic forces and their distribution taking into account the influence of damage of elements and the appearance of inelastic zones in the design process of fluctuations at each time step and to assess the dynamic behavior of the building.

Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings. 2021;17(4):391-403
pages 391-403 views

Geometrical investigations of middle surfaces of shells

Epihypocurves and epihypocyclic surfaces with arbitrary base curve

Ivanov V.N.


If a circle rolls around another motionless circle then a point bind with the rolling circle forms a curve. It is called epicycloid, if a circle is rolling outside the motionless circle; it is called hypocycloid if the circle is rolling inside the motionless circle. The point bind to the rolling circle forms a space curve if the rolling circle has the constant incline to the plane of the motionless circle. The cycloid curve is formed when the circle is rolling along a straight line. The geometry of the curves formed by the point bind to the circle rolling along some base curve is investigated at this study. The geometry of the surfaces formed when the circle there is rolling along some curve and rotates around the tangent to the curve is considered as well. Since when the circle rotates in the normal plane of the base curve, a point rigidly connected to the rotating circle arises the circle, then an epihypocycloidal cyclic surface is formed. The vector equations of the epihypocycloid curve and epihypocycloid cycle surfaces with any base curve are established. The figures of the epihypocycloids with base curves of ellipse and sinus are got on the base of the equations obtained. These figures demonstrate the opportunities of form finding of the surfaces arised by the cycle rolling along different base curves. Unlike epihypocycloidal curves and surfaces with a base circle, the shape of epihypocycloidal curves and surfaces with a base curve other than a circle depends on the initial rolling point of the circle on the base curve.

Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings. 2021;17(4):404-413
pages 404-413 views

Analysis of thin elastic shells

Trial design of umbrella type shell structures

Tupikova E.M., Ershov M.E.


To create aesthetically expressive and functional small architectural forms, it is advisable to use reinforced concrete umbrella type shells in the shape of surfaces that can be specified in an analytical form. Hard landscaping is a suitable field of application for insufficiently studied and tested structures, in contrast to large structures of high importance class. The paper gives an example of a trial variant design of a small garden and park structure in the form of an umbrella type shell, during which different types of umbrella surfaces were analyzed and three variants were selected. Among the studied forms are the following surfaces: a paraboloid of rotation, an umbrella-type surface with a sinusoidal generator, an umbrella-type surface with radial waves based on cubic parabolas (with central flat point). The calculation of stress-strain state of three shells under their own weight was carried out using the finite element method and the peculiarities of working under load of each type of structures were revealed, recommendations are given when designing similar structures.

Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings. 2021;17(4):414-424
pages 414-424 views

Dynamics of structures and buildings

The impact of heavy object on an underground structure when falling onto the ground surface

Mkrtychev O.V., Novozhilov Y.V., Savenkov A.Y.


At the objects of space infrastructure and at nuclear power facilities there are industrial structures, the main task of which is to protect a person, equipment or machinery from emergencies such as, for example, explosions, falling of various objects, fragments. In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Law “On the Protection of the Population and Territories from Natural and Technogenic Emergencies”, when calculating such structures, all types of loads corresponding to their functional purpose must be taken into account. So, for structures located in the area of a possible accident and the fall of space rockets, it is necessary to calculate for the fall of the destroyed parts of the rocket engine. For nuclear power plant facilities, such accidents occur when containers and other heavy objects fall on the ground, affecting underground structures located in the ground, and for civil defense protective structures built into the basement floors of buildings, it is necessary to consider situations in which the overlying floors of a building collapse when exposed to there is an air shock wave on them. Therefore, this problem is relevant, and in this study, a finite-element method for calculating an underground structure in a non-linear dynamic setting has been developed when a large overall object collides with the ground.

Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings. 2021;17(4):425-438
pages 425-438 views

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