Valuation Сomponent of Metaphor UP vs. DOWN in German Political Cartoon

Cover Page

Cite item


In German political cartoon the metaphor UP vs. DOWN introduces oppositions GOOD vs. BAD, MORE vs. LESS, UNREALIZABLE vs. PRACTICABLE. The paper describes their valuation components accenting the positive or negative sign of oppositions and its base in lexicon of the German language personality. Complex nature of cartoons, which are polycode texts, and their appeal to the language personality allow application of cognitive linguistics and methods of traditional linguistics. The paper demonstrates that political cartoons different realizations of this metaphor are visualized by levels: earth surface, above it, and below it. Certain valuation signs are fixed in realizations that gravitate towards the metaphor GOOD IS UP - BAD IS DOWN based on the human idea of levels structure of the world, which is a specific cognitive model reflected in German phraseology, inner form of words, traditional word combinations. Deviation from this model takes place by realization of the opposition UNREALIZABLE IS UP - PRACTICABLE IS DOWN, which is based on everyday pragmatism fixed in German phraseology. In this case the cartoonist creates special supports for the addressee to achieve correct understanding of his message. Distribution of signs in the opposition MORE IS UP - LESS IS DOWN is determined by the employed valuation grade, used by the cartoonist in his play with valuation signs to influence addressee’s opinion. Forming valuation signs of oppositions, the cartoonist bases on ideas reflected in the lexicon of the German language personality. This feature characterizes all realizations of metaphor UP vs. DOWN in political cartoons.

About the authors

Galina L. Denisova

Togliatti State University

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4238-7587

Dr. of Philology, Associate Professor, Professor of the Chair of Theory and Methods of Teaching of Foreign Languages and Cultures

14, Belorusskaya Str., Togliatti, Russian Federation, 445020


  1. Vol’skaya, N.N. (2017). Assessment and its function in a creolized text cartoons. Mediascope, 1. URL: (accessed: 3 July 2017).
  2. Kovecses, Z. (2002). Metaphor: A Practical Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.
  3. Kerimov, R.D. (2015). Metaphorical anthropomorphism in social-political communication. Kemerovo: Kemerovskii gosudarstvennyi universitet. (In Russ.).
  4. Skorokhodova, E.Yu. & Borodyanskaya, E.A. (2020). Creolized text of the modern mass media as a means to form reader’s emotional-evaluative attitude. Philology. Theory & Practice, 13(3), 242—245. (In Russ.). DOI: 10/30853/filnauki.2020.3.50
  5. Kharchenko, V.K. (2007). Functions of Metaphor. Moscow: LKI. (In Russ.).
  6. Kipina, M.A., Plotnikova, M.V. & Tulaykina, S.S. (2018). Victim of Russian bear: Image of Ukraine in French political cartoons 2014—2018. Sopostavitel’naya lingvistica, 7, 26—33. (In French).
  7. Ivanova, E.A. (2018). The image of modern Europe in a political cartoon. Political Lunguistics, 4(70), 77—86. (In Russ.).
  8. Dekhnich, O.V. & Seredina, E.V. (2019) Metaphorization of visual component in modern American political cartoon. Bulletin of the South Ural State University. Ser. Linguistics, 16(1), 5—10. DOI: 10/14529/ling190101. (in Russ.).
  9. Lakoff, G. & Johnson, M. (2004). Metaphors We Live By. Moscow: Editorial URSS. (In Russ.).
  10. Shustrova, E.V. (2015). Up vs. down and forward vs. backwards oppositions in American political cartoon: The Great depression period. Political Linguistics, 3(53), 65—73. (In Russ.).
  11. Kloepfer, R. (1977). Komplementarität von Sprache und Bild. Am Beispiel von Comic, Karikatur und Reklame. In: Roland Posner (ed.) Zeichenprozesse: semiotische Forschung in den Einzelwissenschaften. Wiesbaden: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Athenaion. pp. 129—145.
  12. Sorokin, Yu.A. & Tarasov, E.F. (1990). Creolized texts and their communicative function. In Optimization of Speech Influence. Moscow: Nauka. pp. 180—196. (In Russ.).
  13. Anisimova, E.E. (2003). Text Linguistics and Intercultural Communication (on Basis of Creolized Texts). Moscow: Academiya. (In Russ.).
  14. Voroshilova, M.B. (2013). Political Creolized Text: Keys of Understanding. Ekaterinburg: Ural’skii gosudarstvennyi pedagogicheskii universitet Publ. (In Russ.).
  15. Dugalich, N.M. (2018). Political cartoon as a genre of political discourse. RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics, 9(1), 157—172. doi: 10.22363/2313-2299-2018-9-1-158-172
  16. Denisova, G.L. (2019). Text categories of messages in the form of a political cartoon. SHS Web of Conferences 69. 00031. URL: (accessed: 3 July 2017).
  17. Denisova, G.L. (2020). Appeal of the Great Patriotic War cartoons to the Russian language personality. Issues of Cognitive Linguistics 1, 78—86. (In Russ.). doi: 10.20916/1812-3228-2020-1-78-86
  18. Karaulov, Yu.N. (2010). Russian Language and Language Personality. Moscow: LKI Publ. (In Russ.).
  19. Popova, Z.D. & Sternin, I.A. (2007). Cognitive Linguistics. Moscow: AST: Vostok-Zapad (In Russ.).
  20. Vol’f, E.M. (2006). Functional Semantics of Valuation. Moscow: KomKniga. (In Russ.).
  21. Nagy, W. (1974). Figurative Patterns and Redundancy in the Lexicon [dissertation]. San Diego: University of California.
  22. Moskalskaja, O.I. (1997). Das große deutsch-russische Wörterbuch. Erster Band. Moskau: Russische Sprache.
  23. Leping, E.I. (1976). Russisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch. Moskau: Russische Sprache.
  24. Binowitsch, L.T. & Grischin, N.N. (1975). Deutsch-russisches phraseologisches Wörterbuch. Мoskau: Russische Sprache.
  25. Wierzbicka, A. (1992). Defining emotion concepts. Cognitive Science, 16, 539—581.
  26. Wiezbicka, A. (1992). Talking about emotions: Semantics, culture, and cognition. Cognition and Emotion, 6(3/4), 285—319.
  27. Zaliznyak, A.A. (2005). Happiness and enjoyment in Russian language picture of world. In: Key Ideas of Russian Language Picture of the World. Moscow: Yazuki slavyanskoi kul’tury. pp. 153—174. (In Russ.).
  28. Klappenbach, R. & Steinitz, W. (1981—1985). Wörterbuch der deutschen Gegenwartssprache: in 6 Bänden. Berlin: Akademie.
  29. Negreev, I.O. (2012). The old Scandinavian image of the world tree Yggdrasil: Functions and meaning. Evrasiya: duchovnye traditsii narodov, 2, 131—138. (In Russ.).
  30. Jäkel, O. (1997). Metaphern in abstrakten Diskurs-Domänen: Eine kognitiv-linguistische Untersuchung anhand der Bereicher Geistestätigkeit, Wirtschaft und Wissenschaft. Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, New York, Paris, Wien: Lang.
  31. The Bible. URL: https// (accessed: 3 July 2017). (In Russ.).
  32. Medyakov, A.S. (2018). From peasant to archangel: The image of the German Michael during the First World War. Dialogue with Time. Intellectual History Review, 63, 146—166. (In Russ.).
  33. Agricola, E. (1979). Wörter und Wendungen. Leipzig: Bibliographisches Institut.
  34. Kempcke, G. (1984). Handwörterbuch der deutschen Gegenwartssprache: in 2 Bänden. Berlin: Akademie.
  35. Graf, A.E. (1960). 6000 deutsche und russische Sprichwörter. Halle (Saale): VEB Max Niemeyer Verlag.
  36. Denisova, G.L. (2013). Cogninitive Mechanism of Comparison: Text Potential. Saarbrücken. (In Russ.).

Copyright (c) 2021 Denisova G.L.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies