Participation of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation in Enhancing African Police Personnel Peacekeeping Capacity

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The peacekeeping became actual agenda of international relations due to increased number of internal conflicts with mass human rights violations in different regions of the world including Africa. The problems of ensuring peace and security have become priority for United Nations (UN) and regional organizations involved in constant search of conflict resolution best practices. Peacekeeping actors admitted the key role of law-enforcement agencies, and first of all the police, in ensuring security in conflict or post-conflict reconstruction. Therefore, the UN actively developing the strategy of police methods usage in peacekeeping operations. Because of this process, the number of member states contributing police contingents to the UN including formed police units increased. Joint activity of police officers from different countries with different education, professional experience and specialization requires high-quality training of candidates for peacekeeping operations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the needs of African police officers in professional development and the capabilities of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation in training of African police officers for the UN peacekeeping operations. The study is based on insights from non-participant observation, interviews and analyses of the UN official documents, policies and training materials. Actual Russian and foreign scientific publications were used. Results confirmed that Russian Federation has many years of experience in African policemen training for the UN peacekeeping operations. The promising areas of Russian Federation participation in the development of the peacekeeping potential of African police, along with the provision of standardized pre-deployment training based on the UN certified programs, can be training in the crime investigation methodology and the training of special police units of the UN member states.

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Many years of the United Nations (UN) peacekeeping experience proved importance of security and rule of law as solid basis for sustainable peace. This fact actualizes the problem of training personnel for the UN peacekeeping operations because need for qualified peacekeeping personnel can grow due to internal conflict dynamics. Thus “international cooperation in police training is becoming a new perspective direction of cooperation between member-states and their law enforcement agencies” (Alekseeva, 2003, p. 3).

It is clear that for work in a highly specialized area as the training of peacekeeping police personnel member-states have to have experience in providing national personnel to the UN peacekeeping operations and infrastructure for effective training. In this context, the Russian Federation has significant advantages among candidate states for the training of police personnel for the UN peacekeeping operations.

In 2022, the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation celebrated the 30th anniversary of active peacekeeping activities. In April 1992 the first group of eight Russian police officers was deployed to the UN Protection Force in Croatia. Since that time more than 700 representatives of Ministry of the Interior of Russia took part in more than 24 peacekeeping operations in different countries of the world.1

It is important to note, that Russian police have experience in the UN peacekeeping operations in Africa and are familiar with the specifics of this region. In the 21st century, due to the shift in the emphasis of the UN peacekeeping activities towards the African continent, Russian police participated in the UN missions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (since 2002), Liberia (since 2003), Sierra Leone (April 2003), as well as on the territories of Sudan (since 2005) and South Sudan (since 2011). In May 2000, the Peacekeeping Training Center (PTC) was created in the All-Russian Advanced Training Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia.2 The creation of the PTC made it possible to accumulate educational and methodological materials, to organize on a planned basis the training of police peacekeepers for the UN and regional security organizations operations.

Signing the order of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 1023-r,[3] made it possible to bring the work of the PTC to a new international level. Two training courses for peacekeepers from African law enforcement agencies were envisaged as the contribution of the Russian Federation to the implementation of the G8 leaders’ decisions in Sea Island (U.S.) and Gleneagles (UK) to strengthen the peacekeeping capacity of African states (Tishkov, 2011, pp. 133—134).

In 2008, the UN Secretariat certified the training curriculum implemented by the PTC. In 2012, 2016 and 2020, the PTC work was re-certified for compliance with the standards of the Integrated Training Service (ITS) of the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO).4

Every year the PTC is implementing two international training courses for police peacekeepers. Within their framework, law enforcement officers acquire the competencies necessary for a UN police officers to implement a professional and integrated approach to police tasks in peacekeeping operations, including knowledge of foreign languages, the ability to drive all-wheel vehicles, and possession of firearms and communications.

Each of the training courses can accommodate up to 40 candidates from African law enforcement agencies. Slots for training candidates are allocated in proportion to applications submitted by African countries. At the end of the course, participants are given the opportunity to pass the qualification exam to the UN expert commission.

It is important to note, that the leadership of the Ministry of the Interior of Russia responded to the UN call to encourage the active involvement of women to serve in police contingents of peacekeeping operations.

During the first summit of the heads of police departments of the UN member states, held on June 3, 2016 in New York, the Minister of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation V.A. Kolokoltsev announced readiness to increase the participation of Russian policeman in the UN peacekeeping. According to V.A. Kolokoltsev, the UN peacekeeping operations are an effective tool in providing assistance to states affected by internal crisis. The Minister stated that “The Russian Federation is ready to share its experience and knowledge with the world police community, including the practical use in UN peacekeeping missions, as well as support of the world community actions to expand the role of women police officers in peacekeeping activities.”5

In 2017, the PTC held the first specialized training course for female peacekeepers.6 Law enforcement officers from the Central African Republic (CAR), Benin, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Zambia, Kenya, the Republic of Congo, Sudan were trained along with representatives of the Russian police. The course was Russia’s practical contribution to the implementation of the UN “Women, Peace and Security” agenda.

Taking into account the positive results of this specialized gender course, it was decided that in the selection of candidates for training for one annual training course, the advantage will be given to female employees, but not excluding male candidates.7

Thus, already at the pre-deployment training stage, candidates have the opportunity to discuss the UN approaches in the context of the implementation of gender peacekeeping policy8 and methods of working with vulnerable groups, including women, children and persons with disabilities (Holmes, 2019).

Since 2000, over two thousand employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation and 800 African specialists have been trained at the PTC, many of whom later served in peacekeeping missions in Europe, Africa and Latin America.9

The leadership of the Ministry of the Interior of Russia supports this work and expresses its readiness for a dialogue on participation in specialized UN police missions. This was stated by the Minister of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation V.A. Kolokoltsev at a summit of heads of police departments of the UN member states on June 21, 2018. The Minister proposed to exchange experience of the peacekeeping training and to discuss cooperation in the implementation of tasks related to maintenance of peace and security.10

An important point of training of police officers from African countries is the involvement of participants of the UN peacekeeping operations, including on the territory of the African continent, as co-trainers along with the PTC staff.

Knowledge of the culture and traditions of the countries of this region, the specifics of the UN operations in Africa allows instructors to erase the boundaries between national and international approaches to training, establish contact with educators, and solve other problems (Neubauer, 2022, p. 533). At the same time, the creation of favorable and stimulating conditions for training and the application by instructors of their personal approaches to training using available resources fully corresponds to modern approaches to the organization of police personnel training (Kleygrewe et al., 2021).

A cultural program is being implemented during the training process. This allows candidates from abroad to learn the history of our country. In the current geopolitical environment, the formation of a multicultural environment based on respect for traditions and national customs contributes to the strengthening of trust and respect between people and states. Thus, development of international cooperation in the training of peacekeeping personnel creates conditions for the use of the educational component of the “soft power” policy in the context of the implementation of the foreign policy goals of the Russian Federation in Africa (Ogneva, 2016, p. 22).

In the context of politicization of police activity and large-scale sanctions pressure from the West, the training of candidates for peacekeeping operations is one of the important elements of joint work of international organizations to increase the potential of African law enforcement agencies. The Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation continues this course, including through the conclusion of bilateral agreements.11

To the Question of Africa’s Needs for External Peacekeeping Intervention

Due to participation in training of African peacekeepers we got an opportunity to evaluate some of the approaches of candidates for peacekeeping operations in Africa.

107 candidates for peacekeeping operations were surveyed in 2016—2021 (Figure 1). 60 English-speaking respondents took part in the survey (Zambia — 23, Ghana — 8, Sudan — 6, Zimbabwe and Namibia — 5 each, Egypt, Tanzania, Uganda — 2 each)12 as well as 47 French-speaking respondents (Republic of Congo — 17, Cameroon — 8, Gabon — 6, CAR — 4, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Senegal — 1 each).13 Such statistic makes it possible to recognize this sample as representative.

Of some interest is the opinion of the respondents on the possibility of participation of collective actors as the UN and the African Union (AU), as well as leading countries in peacekeeping actions in Africa.


Figure 1. Respondents’ Opinion about Type of Peacekeeping Operation Most Appropriative for Africa, 2016—2021, %
Source: compiled by the authors.

Despite the existing efficiency problems in the UN peacekeeping associated with the bureaucratic procedures and inertia during new operations deployment, only 8 respondents, which is 7.47% of the total number of respondents (seven French speakers and one English speaker) noted that the African region does not need the UN assistance in conflict resolution, and 5 respondents, which is 4.62% of the total number of respondents (all French speakers) replied that there was no need for the AU participation.

Thus, the majority of the interviewed candidates for peacekeeping operations allow external interference in the settlement of conflicts in Africa with the insignificant advantage for the AU participation. This may be a confirmation of the concept of finding “African solutions for African problems” supported by many countries in the region, as well as the tendency to expand the role of the AU in resolving conflicts on its continent.

Since May 2003, the Office of the Special Adviser on Africa has been operating in the UN structure. This Office was established in pursuance of the UN General Assembly resolution A/RES/57/7 (2002).14 On April 19, 2017, during the first UN — AU Annual Conference, the UN Secretary-General and Chairperson of the AU Commission signed the Joint UN — AU Framework for Enhanced Partnership in Peace and Security. This decision was a continuation of the course towards strengthening the capacity of the AU, proclaimed in 2006.15

We also consider it possible to note the work of the UN Department of Political and Peacebuilding Affairs (DPPA) and the UN Office of the African Union (UNOAU), which aims to coordinate the UN and the AU peace and security activities, provide coherent and consistent advice on both long-term capacity-building and short-term operational support to improve the effectiveness of their efforts in Africa.16

An example of joint work could be Somalia case, where the UN provided technical and operational recommendations for the deployment of the regional AU mission (African Union Mission in Somalia, AMISOM), carried out logistical support (Shagalov, 2011, p. 212), as well as planning of transition from this mission to a new form of presence in the country — the AU Transition Mission in Somalia (ATMIS). Recognizing certain successes of AMISOM in forceful opposition to Al-Shabaab groups in Somalia, leading actors supported the reorganization of the AU mission by a joint decision of the UN Security Council and the AU Peace and Security Council.17

An integrated approach to building the basis for peace and stability with the focus on the interests of the people of Somalia is an important feature in the establishment of this mission. The vast majority of the new mission tasks (8 out of 10. — Author’s note) are related to the Rule of Law, Justice and the activities of the country’s law enforcement system: from combating corruption and preventing organized crime to efforts to counter terrorism and violent extremism.

According to the UN Security Council Resolution 2628 (2022), the total strength of the police component of ATMIS is 1040 people, including five formed police units (FPU).18 The countries providing FPU for deployment in five operational sectors are Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Uganda, and Zambia.19 The objectives of the police component are to develop the capacity of the Somali police service to perform essential functions throughout all country and to assist local partners in countering violent extremism and social unrest through the development of community-based policing and other crime prevention strategies.

Confirmation of the fact that at present the AU is the main partner of the UN in Africa is the answers of respondents to the question about the peacekeeping operation form acceptable for this continent.

The vast majority of respondents (64.8%) selected joint UN — AU mission as most appropriated form of peacekeeping operation in Africa. This point of view was confirmed by 70% of English-speaking respondents and 59.5% of French-speaking respondents.

We consider it possible to assume that this trend is based on the relative success of the UN support to the AU peacekeepers in Sudanese Darfur. In 2004—2006, the effectiveness of African peacekeepers was relatively low, which did not allow protecting the civilian population from attacks of illegal groups. In this regard, on January 12, 2006, it was decided to reform the AU Mission in Sudan (AMIS) and transform it to the AU — UN Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID).20

Based on analysis of the AU and the UN peacekeepers activities, A.S. Shagalov and L.I. Romadan conclude that “The mixed UN and AU peacekeeping operation has become a key tool in stabilizing the situation in Darfur” (Romadan & Shagalov, 2015, p. 177). Despite the fact that the UNAMID mandate expired on December 31, 2020,21 the UN did not close its presence in the country. Currently, support for the political transitional processes in Sudan is provided by the UN political mission (UNITAMS).22

The second most important organizational form, according to 55.1% of respondents, is the UN peacekeeping operation, which was noted by 56.6% of English speakers and 53.1% of French-speaking respondents. The AU missions were reasonably selected as the third most important form of operation (confirmed by 23.1% of respondents).

It is interesting to note that only 11.1 and 8.3% of respondents support the feasibility of peacekeeping assistance from European Union (EU) countries or conducting the EU missions in Africa, respectively. Mainly, representatives of francophone states cast their votes for these forms of operations alternative to the UN peacekeeping.

In the context of participation of member states or the ad hoc coalition led by the leader state, it may be assumed that this position is largely formed by France’s active role in African internal conflicts (for example, in Mali and CAR). We consider it possible to support the point of view that, using its leading positions in the DPKO, France received the support of the world community for its actions to “manage conflicts and the opportunity to control the UN peacekeeping missions in the zone of its traditional interests — in French-speaking Africa” (Amara, Degterev & Egamov, 2022, p. 85). For example, due to its strategic position, Mali played the important role for French influence in West Africa and was a significant part of the mineral transportation route (Davidchuk, Degterev & Sidibe, 2021, p. 51).

In his speech during the international scientific seminar “Dilemmas of Modern Peacemaking in West Africa,” organized by the Department of Theory and History of International Relations of the RUDN University on June 16, 2021, a Malian politician, Prime Minister of Mali from April 5, 2014 to January 8, 2015 Musa Mara noted that “Colonial states acted in Africa without taking into account the interests of the local population.”23 Participation of France often had an interventionist orientation associated with the change of ruling regimes and, as a result, led to a negative effect. For example, in 2013—2016 France conducted a military operation Sangaris to stabilize the situation in the CAR. This operation can be considered as another military action of the French armed forces in the CAR since the country gained independence in 1960. To stabilize the situation, in addition to the French units, military contingents of the African-led International Support Mission to the CAR (MISCA) were sent to the country, as well as the EU forces that received a UN mandate later.24 In April 2014, the UN Security Council established a peacekeeping mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSСA). The main backbone of his mission was the international forces already deployed in the country.25

The French peacekeeping contingent activities in the CAR often provoked criticism of the local population, stating that “The former metropolis does not hide its desire to again seize control of the valuable resources of the former colony... and Paris is preparing to destabilize the situation in the republic and uses the UN contingent for this.”26

The alternative to the French approaches as a vivid example of the “Western approach” is Russian participation in resolving the conflict confrontation in the CAR. D. Solonnikov, Director of the Institute of Modern State Development, expert at the Center for Applied Research and Programs, stated that “France does not demonstrate real success either in military power, as in Mali, or in economic development. From a power point of view, Paris loses to Moscow, from an economic point of view to China. At the same time, the appeal of the CAR to Russia makes it possible for both.”27

After the signing of an agreement on military cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Central African Republic in 2018,28 the Russian military department supplies the CAR with weapons and military specialists who train the local police and army, but cannot use weapons, i.e. openly intervene in the conflict.

Cooperation of CAR with Russia proved to be effective and “allowed to modernize and train the army of the Republic, which contributed to the victory over illegal armed groups in 2020—2021. As a result, the legitimate CAR government was able to take control of a significant part of the country, including territories rich in minerals” (Karlov & Karlov, 2022, pp. 174—175).

At the same time, the Russian assistance to the CAR in strengthening the potential in the field of security allows to implement a “pragmatic approach” in the foreign policy, combining the impact on the development of the dynamics of internal conflict, taking into account the interests of Russia with the protection of the fundamental “universal values” guaranteed by the UN Charter and international law (Shamarov, 2021, p. 14).

Possible Spheres of African Police Officer’s Personal Capacity Development

Taking into account possible increased participation of Africans in peacekeeping there is some interest in information on the areas of training of police officers need for improvement for African law enforcement agencies.

During the survey a few main spheres of law enforcement activities29 were presented to respondents for selection of spheres requiring personal capacity development (Table 1).

Table 1. Respondents’ Opinion on Areas of Police Activity in Which There Is a Need for Personal Capacity Development, % 

Police activities




Cybercrimes investigation




Human rights




Gender and child protection




Special operations (SWAT, etc.)




Protection of civilians




Forensic science/techniques




Operational activities (planning, etc.)




Homicide investigation




Administrative activities (personnel, internal audit, etc.)




Financial pillar




Source: compiled by the authors.

As a result of the survey, respondents selected the following areas:

  • cybercrimes investigation;
  • human rights;
  • gender and child protection;
  • special operations (SWAT, etc.);
  • protection of civilians.

We consider it important to note that the UN strategic documents have repeatedly emphasized the protection of human rights as a priority of the UN police activity. The report of the High-level Group on UN Peace Operations (Brahimi Report30) proclaimed the need to expand the role of the UN police in the broader context of activities to ensure the rule of law and the full integration of the rule of law and human rights in its activities. This was confirmed by a number of the UN strategic documents.

For example, the “United Nations Police in Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions”31 Strategy reaffirms that police officers and law enforcement officials have a duty to respect and protect human rights, including the right to life, liberty and security of person, as guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Training in respect of human rights in peacekeeping operations (including the protection of women and children in armed conflict; Code of Conduct and Discipline, actions to prevent sexual exploitation and abuse) are an important part of the Core Learning Materials block during training of individual police officers for the UN peacekeeping missions.

Given that mandates aimed at protection are declared one of the priorities of the UN peacekeeping operations,32 the ITS DPKO implements a number of training programs, such as the civilian protection program (operational and tactical levels), the program to combat sexual and gender-based violence and has developed “Training Materials on Child Protection for UN Police.”33

The UN police, in accordance with the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000), pledged to prioritize the recruitment, deployment and retention of female police officers in peacekeeping operations at all levels. The United Nations Police Gender Toolkit34 was developed as a set of training materials on best practices for integrating gender into police operations in peacekeeping missions.

We would like to highlight that selection of this topic by African police candidates reflects the trend towards the integration of the UN norms in respect for human rights and freedoms into the legal framework of African states in order to ensure the protection of civilians (Oksamytna & Wilén, 2022).

In our opinion, the training of police peacekeepers should not be completed at the pre-mission stage. Additional training of the UN police officers during their work in the mission on “relevant areas of policing as ensuring human rights, reforming and restructuring of the local police, preventing sexual crimes and working with vulnerable groups of the population” plays an important role in improving the professional capacity of the UN peacekeeping participants (Tishkov, 2016, pp. 171—172). Training curriculum development for peacekeepers arrived in a specific operation to assist in the Rule of Law, have to take into account the peculiarities of the legal system of the host country, its traditions and legal institutions; the nature and causes of the conflict; the dynamics of human rights violations and the situation of vulnerable groups; as well as the content of the provisions of peace agreements in the field of Rule of Law.

Along with the basic areas for police training mentioned above, the need to train special police units is well founded. It is the FPU that can become an alternative to the use of the UN military units to protect civilians in their places of temporary residence, the UN facilities and infrastructure.

Separate training standards have been developed for the preparation of the FPU, which provide candidates with knowledge of basic human rights, especially in cases of arrest or detention, rules of use of force, advanced knowledge and skills in the field of public order, as well as the protection of the UN personnel and facilities.35

It is important to mention that in May-July 2009, a mobile group of the UN instructors conducted training on the basis of the PTC for employees of the UN special units. After receiving training, 36 police officers from 32 countries were deployed to missions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Haiti, East Timor and Sudan.36

We believe that the expansion of the range of tasks implemented through the training of the command staff of the FPU of African countries for the UN will increase the international status of the PTC. This work can be organized both with the involvement of the UN instructors and after certification of Russian instructors.

At the same time, it should be borne in mind that the logistic and technical support of FPU training can become a problem point. Training of these units “must be carried out using special means and equipment that will subsequently enter their service” (Tishkov, 2017, p. 114). Therefore, it is advisable to consider this issue together with the possibility of organizing the supply of Russian special equipment and weapons to units of the special police of African countries (Ogneva & Tishkov, 2011, p. 327).

However, in the context of expanding the range of peacekeeping tasks, the UN police must also have the capacity to investigate crimes of various types in order to fulfill law enforcement mandates or train local police officers. Thus, when analyzing the needs for training candidates for peacekeeping missions, A.I. Tambovtsev quite reasonably notes the expediency of “organizing training for the UN police personnel on the basics of preventing, disclosing and investigating not only sexual crimes, but also crimes of a common nature, as well as crimes most characteristic of a specific region of the peacekeeping operation” (Tambovtsev, 2014, p. 10).

Therefore, along with the fairly traditional areas of training of peacekeepers described above, the answers of respondents to the need for training of police officers in such a relatively new industry for law enforcement agencies as the investigation of computer crimes are of particular interest. In our opinion, these answers show the growing attention of candidates for peacekeeping operations from among law enforcement officers of various states to counter the use of information and telecommunication technologies in criminal activities.

Digital technologies are beginning to play a prominent and increasingly complex role in the 21st century conflict arena, creating or transforming conditions for conflict, as well as generating new risks for peacekeeping. Therefore, high-quality training of employees in the method of investigating this type of crimes can further help in the development of the personal and competent potential of candidates for the UN peacekeepers and law enforcement officers of countries hosting peacekeeping operations.

It should be noted that the Russian Federation is actively participating in international measures to counter the use of information and communication technologies for criminal purposes — for example, as part of the implementation of the “Plan of Interaction of the SCO Member States on Ensuring International Information Security for 2022—2023.”37 The Minister of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation V.A. Kolokoltsev notes the importance of creating an effective legal framework for cooperation between law enforcement agencies, and above all — within the UN: “Russia was the first to raise the issue of creating a practical mechanism focused on combating IT-crimes on this main negotiating platform and is comprehensive in content.”38

It must be emphasized that educational organizations of the Ministry of the Interior of Russia have specialists and a methodological base for organizing training in the method of investigating computer crimes, which can be used to train African colleagues.

At the same time, the criminal situation in the context of various UN peacekeeping operations may differ significantly in accordance with the level of economy and infrastructure development of the host state. Often, the UN police officers work in territories not covered by the Internet, with a high level of common crimes. Therefore, candidates for peacekeeping operations must necessarily have basic knowledge of the methodology for investigating crimes of various types.

We consider it important to note that during the research, 25 respondents provided additional comments, 11 of which (10.2% of the total number of respondents) noted the need to develop the capacity of the African police in various areas, including specialized training for police officers (six comments), partnership development in local police capacity development (two comments), reform of the local police (one comment), additional study of peacekeeping mandates (one comment), which confirms the relevant issue.

Summing up the research, we emphasize that its results provide a general idea of the possible ways to develop the personal capacity of African police officers in the field of Rule of Law and justice and can be used for further scientific research.


Professional training of African policemen for the UN peacekeeping operations is becoming a new promising area of international police cooperation. In recent decades, the Russian Federation has become increasingly involved in this process, organizing training for African police officers on the basis of the PTC of the All-Russian Advanced Training Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation.

A selective survey of candidates from among the police personnel of African countries for the UN peacekeeping operations shows that the majority of those surveyed allow external peacekeeping intervention in internal conflicts on the African continent, usually under the UN flag.

Candidates for peacekeepers from African countries consider joint operations of the AU and the UN as the main form of peacekeeping operation. The implementation of this approach will allow combining the advantages of the UN peacekeeping participation generally recognized political legitimacy and finances, with the efficiency of the deployment of regional AU forces and their readiness for possible robust actions in favor of peace.

At the same time, the participation of member states bilaterally in internal conflicts settlement can be an alternative or addition to the UN actions in Africa. The realization of the potential of the Russian Federation in this direction allows combining its political influence in the countries of the African continent and military presence with humanitarian tasks.

Promising areas of Russian participation in the development of the peacekeeping potential of African police, along with the provision of standardized pre-mission training on unified UN programs, may be the training of the special police units of the UN member states and the training of candidates for peacekeeping operations in investigating crimes of various types (including IT crimes).

The expansion of the range of educational programs provided for candidates for peacekeeping operations will not only increase the contribution of the Russian Federation to solving the UN-relevant problem of training peacekeeping personnel, but also lay the foundations for new “non-Western” approaches to peacekeeping.


1 International Day of UN Peacekeepers 29 May // MVD-Media. May 29, 2022. (In Russian). URL: (accessed: 01.12.2022).

2 In the Name of Peace // MVD-Media. May 6, 2022. (In Russian). URL: (accessed: 03.01.2023).

3 Order of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 1023-r dated July 17, 2006. On the organization of training and maintenance of peacekeepers from African countries at the All-Russian Institute for Advanced Training of Employees of the Ministry of the Interior of Russia and on the dispatch of specialists from the Ministry of the Interior of Russia to conduct classes at peacekeeper training centers in Accra (Republic of Ghana) and Vicenza (Italian Republic) // Garant. (In Russian). URL: (accessed: 15.10.2022).

4 In the Name of Peace // MVD-Media. May 6, 2022. (In Russian). URL: (accessed: 03.01.2023).

5 Speech by the Minister of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Police General of the Russian Federation V.A. Kolokoltsev at the II Summit of Heads of Police Departments of the UN Member States // The Ministry of the Interior of Russia. June 21, 2018. URL: https://xn--b1aew.xn--p1ai/document/13617208 (accessed: 15.10.2022).

6 In the Name of Peace // MVD-Media. May 6, 2022. (In Russian). URL: (accessed: 03.01.2023).

7 Information on the Advanced Training Course for Law Enforcement Officers from African States “United Nations Police Peacekeeping Activities” and the International Qualification Exam SAAT Passing // All-Russian Advanced Training Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. (In Russian). URL: https://xn--b1amgt.xn--b1aew.xn--p1ai/document/31409598 (accessed: 03.01.2023).

8 The Next International Training Course For Police Peacekeepers Has Ended at the VIPK of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia // All-Russian Advanced Training Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. October 21, 2022. (In Russian). URL: https://xn--b1amgt.xn--b1aew.xn--p1ai/Press-sluzhba/Novosti/item/33287835/ (accessed: 03.01.2023).

9 In the Name of Peace // MVD-Media. May 6, 2022. (In Russian). URL: (accessed: 03.01.2023).

10 MIA of Russia Is Ready to Participate in Special UN Missions // Krasnaja Vesna. June 21, 2018. (In Russian). URL: (accessed: 03.01.2023).

11 For example, on November 14, 2022, State Secretary — Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation I. Zubov and Minister of Security and Civil Defense of the Republic of Mali D. A. Mohammedin Signed a Cooperation Agreement between the Ministry of the Interior of Russia and the Ministry of Security and Civil Defense of the Republic of Mali. See: Igor Zubov Signed an Agreement on Cooperation between the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia and the Ministry of Security and Civil Defense of the Republic of Mali // Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation. November 14, 2022. (In Russian). URL: https://xn--b1aew.xn--p1ai/news/item/33749298/ (accessed: 03.01.2023).

12 7 English-speaking responders don’t disclose their country (Author’s note).

13 9 French-speaking responders don’t disclose their country (Author’s note).

14 The Office of the Special Adviser on Africa // The United Nations. (In Russian). URL: (accessed: 03.01.2023).

15 Letter dated 11 December 2006 from the Secretary-General Addressed to the President of the General Assembly // The United Nations. December 12, 2006. URL: (accessed: 13.12.2022).

16 Working Together for a Peaceful Africa: AU — UN Partnership // Political and Peacebuilding Affairs. (In Russian). URL: (accessed: 13.12.2022).

17 See: Resolution 2628 (2022) Adopted by the Security Council at its 9009th Meeting, on 31 March 2022 // The United Nations. URL: (accessed: 13.12.2022); Communiqué Rev.1, Adopted by the Peace and Security Council (PSC) of the African Union (AU) at its 1068th Meeting Held on 8 March, 2022, on the Reconfiguration of the AU Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) // The African Union. March 8, 2022. URL: (accessed: 13.12.2022).

18 Resolution 2628 (2022) Adopted by the Security Council at its 9009th Meeting, on 31 March 2022 // The United Nations. URL: (accessed: 13.12.2022).

19 Police Component // ATMIS. URL: (accessed: 13.12.2022).

20 Communiqué PSC/PR/Comm.(XLV) // AU Peace and Security Council. January 12, 2006. URL: (accessed: 13.12.2022).

21 Security Council Terminates Mandate of African Union — United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur, Unanimously Adopting Resolution 2559 (2020) // The United Nations. December 22, 2020. URL: (accessed: 13.12.2022).

22 Mandate // UNITAMS. URL: (accessed: 13.12.2022).

23 Scientific Seminar “Dilemmas of Contemporary Peacekeeping in West Africa” // Center for Applied Analysis of International Transformations. June 16, 2021. URL: (accessed: 13.12.2022).

24 Resolution 2127 (2013) Adopted by the Security Council at its 7072nd Meeting, on 5 December 2013 // The United Nations. URL: (accessed: 13.12.2022).

25 France Halts Military Operation Sangaris in CAR // ТАSS. October 31, 2016. (In Russian). URL: (accessed: 13.12.2022).

26 Citizens of the CAR Accused UN Peacekeepers and France of Preparing a Coup // Realist. November 29, 2021. (In Russian). URL: (accessed: 13.12.2022).

27 Dzerzhinsky S. The Driving Force of the Region: Political Analyst Solonnikov Assessed the Success of the CAR Over the Past Year // RIA FAN. December 1, 2021. (In Russian). URL: (accessed: 13.12.2022).

28 Russia Will Train Specialists from the Central African Republic in Its Military Universities // Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. August 21, 2018. (In Russian). URL: (accessed: 13.12.2022).

29 This list was drafted by the authors taking into account the priority areas of the UN police in monitoring the of the local police activities or the implementation of reform and restructuring of the host states police during UN peacekeeping operations.

30 Report of the Panel on UN Peace Operations (Brahimi Report) // The United Nations. August 21, 2000. URL: (accessed: 13.12.2022).

31 Policy on United Nations Police in Peace Operations and Special Political Missions // United Nations Police. 2014. URL: (accessed: 13.12.2022).

32 Report of the Secretary-General on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict // The United Nations. May 10, 2017. URL: (accessed: 13.12.2022).

33 New Training on Child Protection Available for the United Nations Police // United Nations Police. May 3, 2022. URL: (accessed: 13.12.2022).

34 United Nations Police Gender Toolkit // United Nations Police. 2015. URL: (accessed: 13.12.2022).

35 United Nations Police Temporary Training Standards for Formed Police Units // United Nations Police. URL: (accessed: 13.12.2022).

36 Report of A.Y. Kazeev, Head of the PTC, at the Meeting of the Academic Council of the All-Russian Advanced Training Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation. June 2011. (Unpublished). (In Russian).

37 Statement at the Opening Ceremony of the XVI Forum “Partnership of the State, Business and Civil Society in Ensuring International Information Security” // The Shanghai Cooperation Organization. September 19, 2022. (In Russian). URL: (accessed: 13.12.2022).

38 Svetlova S. Taking into Account Geopolitical Realities // Politsiya Rossii. 2022. No. 9. P. 4. (In Russian).


About the authors

Sergey A. Tishkov

Orel Law Institute of the Ministry of the Interior of the Russian Federation named after V.V. Lukyanov

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0406-0900

PhD (Political Sciences), Assistant Professor, Deputy Head, Chair of Criminalistics and Preliminary Investigation in the Departments of Internal Affairs

Orel, Russian Federation

Daria S. Tishkova

Moscow University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation named after V.Y. Kikot

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1549-0124

Attendee, International Law Faculty

Moscow, Russian Federation


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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
1. Figure 1. Respondents’ Opinion about Type of Peacekeeping Operation Most Appropriative for Africa, 2016—2021, %

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