Gender Perspective in UN Police Peacekeeping

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Despite the upsurge in conflicts at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries and the increase in peacekeeping activities, women’s participation in peacekeeping operations has been the exception to the rule rather than the standard practice. However, the UN has focused on the negative and disproportional impact of internal armed conflicts on women and children. For the past two decades, the UN has been working to incorporate a gender perspective into the peacekeeping architecture. The starting point was UN Security Council Resolution 1325, adopted in 2000, which fully recognized the importance of the gender perspective in peace and security. The UN’s further systematic actions in this direction have changed the simplistic view of women as victims of internal armed conflicts and have recognized them as active contributors to peace and security. The purpose of the article is to comprehensively examine the current state of the international community’s commitment to women, peace and security in order to fill the existing theoretical gaps and find further ways to enhance the role of women in peace and security activities. The study is based on interdisciplinary, historical and structural-functional approaches, and uses content analysis of official UN documents and data, analytical reports of international organizations, relevant scientific materials and publications. The authors conclude that UNSCR 1325 (2000) initiated a major shift in UN peacekeeping in the context of a large-scale “Women, Peace and Security” agenda and has led to new approaches to women’s participation in all stages of peace processes. Women’s active and equal participation in peace negotiations and the implementation of political decisions has become an important factor in strengthening peace and security. Moreover, the UN’s current activities are not limited to women’s participation in peacekeeping. In addition to changes in the planning and staffing of peacekeeping operations, the UN has also taken steps to address less visible behavioral issues, including the prevention of sexual and gender-based violence, as well as the professional skills of peacekeeping personnel. At the same time, the increase in the number of women in the military and police components of UN missions has raised some international concerns about the potential masculinization of female peacekeepers.

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In October 2020, the international community celebrated the 20th anniversary of the adoption of the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000),1 which provided an impetus for rethinking and progressively changing the role of women in peace processes. For the first time, this resolution recognized the particular impact of wars and internal armed conflicts on females, and the lack of attention to the contribution of women to armed conflict resolution and post-conflict peacebuilding. This resolution became the basis for the implementation of practical steps to enhance the role of women in UN activities in general and in peacekeeping in particular.2

Gender aspects of peacekeeping have  been repeatedly discussed at high-ranking international forums, and have become the topic of several key UN documents and the subject of foreign scientific research.3 An analysis of scientific publications on this topic, done in  the post-Soviet countries, shows that gender aspects of UN peacekeeping have not received due attention from the academic community. Some gender issues of peacekeeping became the subject of research within various scientific specialties (Arzieva, 2014; Arystanbekova & Nurelbaeva, 2017; Zhigaleva, 2017; Zverev, 2017a; 2017b; Bondar & Shurukhnova, 2019). But no comprehensive political science analysis covering the entire period of UNSCR 1325 (2000) has been conducted.

Women, Peace and Security

In 21st century, the UN adopted a course towards updating its activities by introducing gender perspective at all functional levels including peacekeeping operations. The UN Security Council thematic Resolution 1325 (2000) became the starting point for this process, while highlighting the importance of women’s participation in armed conflict resolution, peace negotiations and post-conflict reconstruction.

Non-governmental and feminist organizations, led by the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), worked on this draft (Otto & Heathcote, 2014, p. 2). The adoption of the resolution was preceded by a statement of the President of the UNSC, Ambassador Anwarul K. Chowdhury (Bangladesh) on behalf of the UN Security Council, in honor of International Women’s Day 2000, which noted the inextricable link between sustainable peace and equality between women and men.4

This resolution formed the basis for a conceptual shift in the consideration of gender dimensions of peacekeeping, linking general peace and security issues with the social aspects of security in the format of long-term development and “human security” theory (Khudaykulova, 2010, p. 175). In the context of increasing securitization of gender issues,  we fully endorse the view of a number of Russian authors that the “human security” can become a bridge uniting the individual, national, regional and global security levels (Vinogradova & Rushchin, 2015, pp. 172, 175; Bokeriya, 2017, p. 312).

Therefore, the provisions of the UNSCR 1325 (2000) subsequently became the basis for a large-scale “Women, Peace and Security” agenda, which focused on gender aspects of peacekeeping.5 This agenda was not only about increasing women’s participation in all stages of peace processes, but also about sexual and gender-based violence in internal armed conflicts, as well as about violations committed by UN peacekeepers.

The new agenda suggested the following principles and commitments for UN peacekeeping operations:

  • increasing women’s participation at all decision-making levels in the resolution of armed conflict;
  • accounting of the gender component in peace negotiations and post-conflict rehabilitation;
  • integration of gender perspective in field operations;
  • training of peacekeeping personnel on the protection of women and girls in view of their specific rights and needs;
  • considering the special needs of female refugees;
  • respect for international law and the needs to protect of women and girls from sexual and gender-based violence in armed conflict;
  • considering the different needs of former female and male combatants during disarmament, demobilization and reintegration.

Following the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000), cross-cutting concerns are regularly included in the mandates of UN peacekeeping operations.

According to Yu.E. Zhigaleva, “The emergence of the ‘women’s issue’ on the international agenda is the merit of the feminist school of international relations, which has developed since the 1980s. International feminists proposed to refute the patriarchal dichotomy “defender/protected person,” according to which wars are an exclusively masculine cause, waged for the fair purpose of protecting women and other vulnerable groups” (Zhigaleva, 2017, p. 106).

Several authors rightly suggest that “The starting point of the large-scale UN campaign to include women on an equal basis with men in all spheres of activity, including peace, security and development, was the Fourth UN World Conference on Women, held in Beijing  in September 1995” (Bondar & Shurukhnova, 2019, p. 46).

In our opinion, this phenomenon is related to the international community’s growing awareness of the changing security architecture and the shift in the vector of armed conflicts at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries.

Peacekeeping theorists and practitioners have acknowledged that “Civilian population, especially women and kids are the most vulnerable groups during armed conflict. At the same time women bear the greatest burden of armed conflict, and this poses a threat to humanitarian security due to the diversity of their social roles” (Bondar & Shurukhnova, 2019, p. 47). Along with the direct impact of armed conflict, women often face the loss of family and relatives, housing or property, and in some cases are forced to join military units of the conflict parties in search of protection.

Therefore, the needs of women should be more actively addressed in peace processes related to the settlement of internal armed conflicts. Recognizing the experiences women gain in a war or internal armed conflict can help to convey the problems of the affected civilian population to politicians, and, finally, build dialogue on peace in a different way.6

Western experts confirm that peace dialogue is more likely to lead to lasting peace if women can participate in negotiations  and form the basis for post-conflict  stabilization (Krause, Krause & Bränfors,  2018, pp. 987—988). For example, a study supported and coordinated by the UN Women found that “women’s participation in peace negotiations increases by 20% the likelihood that a peace agreement will be respected  for at least two years and by 35% the likelihood of compliance with a peace agreement  for a period of at least 15 years.”7

That is why women’s participation in peace negotiations related to the settlement of internal armed conflicts is well justified. It allows for a new institutionalization and sustainability of dialogue, from community-based work to national and international politics. We agree with S.-D. Alexeiciuc, who emphasizes that “Gender analysis is important for a deeper understanding of the causes of wars, patterns of violence, the effectiveness of peace processes and the consequences in the post-conflict period” (Alexeiciuc, 2020, p. 58).

In Colombia, for example, the women’s movement played an important role in drafting the historic peace agreement between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia — People’s Army. Despite the risk of killings of human rights defenders, Colombian women leaders continue to push for agreement implementation, especially its gender provisions.8 Under the slogan “More Lives, Less Guns,” women advocated for a civil security policy aimed at guaranteed observance of the rights of all citizens. They brought attention of state authorities to the need to strictly control the carrying and holding of small arms and light weapons for the prevention of armed violence targeting civilians.9

Peacekeeping practice shows that women’s participation in peace operations has become an important argument for increasing the legitimacy of the UN-flagged international presence. We agree with A.K. Arzieva that  “The presence of female peacekeepers may  also help mitigate conflict and confrontation, improve access and support opportunities  for local women, serve as a role model  for women in communities, increase the  sense of security of the local people, including women and children, expand the range of skills within the peacekeeping mission” (Arzieva, 2014, p. 142). Female peacekeepers play an important positive role in supporting women affected by conflict, especially victims of sexual violence, as well as demobilized from government armed forces or illegal armed groups.

This aspect of peacekeeping focuses on the need for a special approach, responsibility and commitment to strengthening women’s participation, protection and rights across the conflict spectrum. Therefore, the UN Security Council resolution 1325 (2000) called for peacekeeping activities in new areas: preventing violence against women; strengthening the protection of the rights of women and girls in conflict, with special attention to cases of sexual and gender-based violence; and introducing a gender perspective as a new tool in all mechanisms to prevent and resolve internal armed conflicts and build lasting peace. The provisions of “Women, Peace and Security” agenda were supported along with seven subsequent thematic UN Security Council resolutions,10 that stress the importance of women’s equal participation and full involvement in the prevention and resolution of internal armed conflicts, the need to ensure their protection through a broader gender perspective in peacekeeping, the usefulness of extensive engagement with civil society and the active promotion of efforts to link the root causes of conflicts with measures to prevent and protect civilians. This agenda has also been elaborated in UN Security Council resolutions on children in armed conflicts[11] and protection of civilians in armed conflicts.[12]

Implementing the priorities of the “Women, Peace and Security” agenda is a political commitment, enshrined in the UN Secretary-General’s “Action for Peace” initiative. This initiative reaffirms that “Full, equal and constructive participation of women in peace processes and political decision-making is essential for effective peacekeeping activities.”13

Representation  and Active Participation  of Women in Peace Processes

Since 2001, the Department of Peacekeeping Operations14 has launched a global campaign to mainstream gender into peacekeeping.

UN experience over the years has shown that women peacekeepers demonstrate the high level of professionalism, discipline and teamwork required of peacekeeping personnel. Therefore, women’s participation is critical for the operational efficiency of the entire range of UN peacekeeping activities. The high-level UN decision makers must understand that participation of women should not be simplified to presence in the conflict zone to improve discipline among UN peacekeeping troops (Bridges & Horsfall, 2009). For example, “Female soldiers provide an invaluable perspective in planning operations and in making key decisions, especially those affecting civilians, particularly women and girls. This is an operational imperative for a mission as it provides a holistic approach to meet its mandate in today’s complex and evolving peacekeeping environment.”15

The gender mainstreaming strategy contributes to the development of a holistic and broad approach for UN peacekeeping operations mandates implementation. This strategy provides for the analysis and inclusion of gender perspectives in the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of all political processes and programs implemented to ensure equality between women and men. And one of the main targets  of gender mainstreaming is to implement  the principle of gender non-discrimination  in all policy documents. This principle  need to be implemented at all functional  levels from UN headquarters to field  operations. In line with this goal,  gender advisers were deployed to all multi-dimensional peacekeeping missions, gender units have been established to all multidimensional peacekeeping missions, and gender focal point have been appointed at the regional and station levels. These peacekeeping officials are responsible for ensuring the dissemination of relevant information on gender-sensitive issues, peace initiatives  and programs that address the needs of women and girls, including their political participation and protection from sexual and gender-based violence.

For example, “Since the establishment of the Gender Advisory Unit of The African  Union — United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID), this unit has worked to actively integrate women into all stages of peace processes from strategy development, planning, operational support and documentation” (Tishkov, 2017, p. 85). As a result, there were formed specialized committees to monitor the implementation by the local government of its commitment in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000). “In United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINSUMA), the Gender Unit supported women’s participation in the drafting and dissemination of the Malian national reconciliation Charter.”16

The United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) supported the second peace conference between the Ngok Dinka and Misseriya in Aweil on February 22—25, 2021 in order to implement confidence-building measures between Sudan and South Sudan at the local level. The conference has attracted over 60 participants, bringing to the negotiation table representatives of different segments of people previously excluded in peace processes and negotiations. Two women from the Misseria community and three from Ngok Dinka participated in this conference, while only one Misseria woman participated in the previous conference on February 1—4, 2021. Despite the existing differences between communities, all five participants took a united position, condemning the conflict and declaring their readiness to support men in finding ways for peaceful conflict resolution.17 This confirmed that promotion of gender aspects in mutual efforts at all levels lead to the success of a particular peacekeeping operation and the implementation of the declared mandates. Finally, we can speak about the success of peacekeeping efforts of entire UN, confirming the timeliness and correctness of the agenda declared by the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000).

Statistics on UN uniformed peacekeeping personnel show that certain positive results were achieved in increasing the participation of women in UN peacekeeping contingents. In 2010, female peacekeepers made up 4.14% of military experts on mission, 2.42% of UN military force and 8.7% of UN police personnel.18 As of October 21, 2021 4,158 females served in the UN military force (6.2%) and 1,436 females — in police component (18.6%).19

Thus, the UN police component is the most active in realizing the potential for women’s participation in peacemaking and post-conflict peacebuilding. The availability of scientific materials, analytical data, and positive practices from the field allows us to focus our research on the implementation of UN Security Council resolution 1325 (2000) with a special focus on police component.

Women’s Role  in the UN Police Component

In the 21st century, UN police priorities are closely tied to increasing the number of female officers, eliminating gender discrimination, and ensuring adequate participation of women and ethnic minorities in host-state police operations.

Following the strategic direction adopted, the UN launched the “Global Effort” and has since worked with Member States and national police services to recruit more female police officers into UN police operations.20

The UNSCR 2185 (2014)21 on policing in peacekeeping emphasized the promotion of gender equality as part of a comprehensive approach to conflict prevention and sustainable peace. The UN Security Council has called on troop- and police-contributing countries to increase the number of female police officers, including senior officers for leadership positions in the police components of peacekeeping operations.

We consider it necessary to note the active policy of the UN Secretariat on this issue. “One of the conditions for the deployment of  police contingents by Member States to peacekeeping missions is the presence  of at least 20% of women in the total  number of deployed personnel. That is why in case of equal qualification of candidates’ preference is given to female ones. Additionally, the UN Secretariat reserves the right to reduce the size of the police contingent of a member state if it does not provide female candidates, in favor of women from police contingent of another state” (Bondar & Shurukhnova, 2019, p. 47).

This initiative is an important contribution to efforts to ensure the equal participation of men and women in peace operations. In our view, enhancing the role of female peacekeepers is related to the development  of clear criteria and indicators of their contribution to the achievement of the stated goals, rather than with the deployment of more female police officers under UN leadership. Peacekeeping theorists and practitioners  need to apply statistical data to determine effectiveness of “Women, Peace and  Security” agenda in a balanced manner. It is obvious that developing of an objective assessment system to monitor the implementation of gender initiatives in UN peacekeeping is much more difficult than comparing statistics. Therefore, analyzing the female contribution is more applicable if consider the results of all activities and initiatives to achieve gender parity in all areas of peacekeeping, as proposed in the UNSCR 2185 (2014).22

It should be noted that gender statistics do not always reflect the real scale of female’s participation in UN peacekeeping. This thesis can be clearly illustrated on the example  of the relatively small-scale United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) with a significant proportion of female peacekeepers. As of January 31, 2020, 26 women made up 42% of the police component and 95 women formed up 12% of UN military personnel in Cyprus. In comparison, 241 women serving in police component and 253 women in military component of UNAMID made percentage of only 11.3% and 5.8% of the components mentioned.23

The next important trend is the use of innovative practices that can serve as the basis for a renewed UN police response to the needs of women in armed conflict and post-conflict settings.

For example, in Darfur, victims of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), especially in rural areas, remain reluctant to report assaults to government police officers due to very low numbers of female government police, cultural barriers, and procedural issues. Therefore, UNAMID police have not only set a goal of recruiting up to 20% women in their ranks,  but have also supported the development  of women and child protection centers,  focusing on infrastructure development by funding quick impact projects (Caparini et al., 2015, pp. 29, 31).

The recruitment of female police officers in Formed Police Units (FPUs) can be considered as a good sample of gender focused approach.24 In January 2007, for the first time in the history of UN peacekeeping, an all-female FPU arrived in UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) from India. This Unit consisted of 103 women performing operational tasks and 22 men responsible for logistics work.25 In 2011 three all-female FPUs of up to 140 people operated in UN field missions. Two units were deployed by Bangladesh to Haiti and Democratic Republic of Congo, and Indian FPU continued its work in UNMIL. Those units were responsible for security arrangements, especially in internally displaced people camps, with special focus on vulnerable people.26 In 2016, UNMIL chief  F. Zarif emphasized the heroism of the Indian female blue berets during the Ebola outbreak, as well as their support for the Liberia National Police (LNP) and positive influence on the role model of local women.27 Thus, stereotypes about the composition of the FPUs, in which the percentage of women, as a rule, was much lower than among Individual Police Officers, were destroyed.

In 2016, based on this practice, the “Policy on Formed Police Units in UN Peacekeeping Operations” affirmed that mixed-gender units, in which at least one platoon (32 officers)  is composed of female officers, have more operational impact and should therefore be a priority for deployment.28 Female police officers are indispensable during high visibility patrols and cordon and search operations, particularly pat-down searches of women. In some societies, only female police officers are allowed to interact with female members of the community.

An important indicator of the female officer’s potential in peacekeeping is their representation in key positions at UN headquarters and field missions. For example, Ann-Marie Orler of Sweden served as police adviser to the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations in 2010—2013,29 and her countrywoman Maria Appelblom was the Director of UN Standing Police Capacity in 2014—2017, providing expert assistance to UN peacekeeping and political missions.30 In March 2016, for the first time in the UN peacekeeping history the police component of the field mission was led by a woman — Priscilla Makotose of Zimbabwe was appointed as a UNAMID Police Commissioner.31

It should be noted that 18 to 20% of UNAMID individual police officers during  this period were female. Women hold  12 key positions in the mission, of which  four are professional positions that include  the Police Commissioner, Special Assistant  to the Police Commissioner, a Sector Commander and a Deputy Sector Commander. Eight female police officers hold positions such as Team Site Commanders, Unit Heads and Team Leaders.32

Female police officers hold leadership positions in the UN police components of field operations. In May 2018, Unaisi Bolatolu-Vuniwaqa of Fiji was appointed police commissioner of the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS).33 New UNMISS police commissioner encourages other female officers to join her in protecting civilians and building peace in South Sudan. Unaisi Bolatolu-Vuniwaqa stated that role of female police officers to bridge the gap with the local communities is very, very important because they are engaging with mostly the vulnerable people that are protected within the Protection of Civilians sites.34 Her appointment to the top policing job in UNMISS has been welcomed by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Head of the Mission, David Shearer. David Shearer stated that “Unaisi has the expertise and experience to lead a large team of police officers in a very challenging and complex environment. She is also a fierce advocate for empowering women whether it is within the UN system or more broadly encouraging women to aspire to leadership positions and achieve their full potential.”35

Thus, over the past 10 years, the increased participation of female police officers in peacekeeping has strengthened their role in peace processes, including in senior positions in UN peacekeeping operations. And gender-responsive approaches are being adopted in all areas of UN peacekeeping.

At the same time, the implementation of a gender-oriented approach is related to the certain problem potential. Scientific researchers on this topic show that the tasks assigned to women peacekeepers are based on simplistic stereotypes about the gender roles of men and women. And the participation of female peacekeepers, more often is needed for peacekeeping operations deployed in conflict areas with high level of sexual violence (Kreft, 2017, pp. 148—151).

The trend to increase the number of female peacekeepers in the military and police components and in security sector activities is of some concern to representatives of international women’s movements. For example, Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) Secretary General Madeleine Rees has reminded that the post-conflict rehabilitation is not related to mass deployment of women into peacekeeping operations, because it can lead to militarisation of women instead of demilitarisation of men (involved in armed conflict. — Authors’ note).36

Therefore, we believe it is possible to propose additional research on the role of women in UN peacekeeping operations and the potential masculinization of women peacekeepers.


The adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) changed the security concepts and added the issue of the rights and role of women into this space. It created the basis for a large-scale “Women, Peace and Security” agenda. In recent decades, the gender dimension of UN peacekeeping operations has become a focus of international attention. A number of thematic UN Security Council resolutions have been adopted to implement gender-oriented initiatives. UN strategic documents have been adopted, as well as a framework for peacekeeping operations.

The UN conducts an active program to increase the participation of women in peace processes from high-level decision-making to participation in all areas of UN peacekeeping operations. UN efforts have led to a significant increase of women military and police personnel in its field missions ensuring more effective implementation of peacekeeping mandates. Peacekeeping practice has confirmed that women’s participation in peacekeeping operations has increased the ability to engage local women and the level of protection of civilians from SGBV. At the same time, a gender-oriented approach can be associated with the possible masculinization of female UN military and police peacekeepers.


1 Resolution 1325 (2000) Adopted by the Security Council at its 4213th meeting, on 31 October 2000 // United Nations. URL: (aссessed: 09.03.2021).

2 On January 1, 2020 UN Secretary-General  A. Guterres stated that gender parity among senior officials at the level of deputies and assistants to the UN Secretary-General that was achieved for the first time in the history of the Organization. António Guterres promised to undertake gender parity efforts at all levels of the UN system. See: Gender inequality is a blatant injustice // United Nations. June 06, 2020. (In Russian). URL: (accessed: 09.03.2021).

3 Caparini M. Gender training for police peacekeepers: Approaching two decades of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 // SIPRI. October 31, 2019. URL: (accessed: 15.04.2021). See also: (Bridges & Horsfall, 2009; Karim & Beardsley, 2013; Otto & Heathcote, 2014; Kreft, 2017; Alchin, Gouws & Heinecken, 2018; Tidblad-Lundholm, 2020).

4 Chowdhury A. K. Women Are Essential for Sustainable Peace // Universal Peace Federation. October 31, 2010. URL: (accessed: 10.03.2021).

5 Women, Peace and Security // United Nations.  (In Russian). URL: (accessed: 10.03.2021).

6 Hutchinson С. The resilience of Resolution 1325 // NATO Review. November 9, 2018. URL: (accessed: 10.03.2021).

7 A Global Study on the Implementation of United Nations Security Council resolution 1325: General Guidelines and Recommendations // UN Women Bulletin. P. 2. (In Russian). URL: (accessed: 06.03.2021).

8 18th Anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325: Women, Peace and Security  week // PeaceWomen. October 2018. URL: (accessed: 06.03.2021).

9 Press Release: More Life Less Arms // Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom. February 27, 2018. URL: (accessed: 06.04.2021).

10 See: Resolution 1820 (2008) Adopted by the Security Council at its 5916th meeting, on 19 June 2008 // UN docs. 2008. URL: (aссessed: 13.03.2021); Resolution 1888 (2009) Adopted by the Security Council at its 6195th meeting, on 30 September 2009 // UN docs. 2009. URL: (aссessed: 13.03.2021); Resolution 1889 (2009) Adopted by the Security Council at its 6196th meeting, on 5 October 2009 // United Nations. URL: (aссessed: 13.03.2021); Resolution 1960 (2010) Adopted by the Security Council at its 6453rd meeting, on 16 December 2010 // UN Security Council. December 16, 2010. URL: (aссessed: 13.03.2021); Resolution 2106 (2013) Adopted by the Security Council at its 6984th meeting, on 24 June 2013 // UN Security Council. June 24, 2013. URL: (aссessed: 13.03.2021); Resolution 2122 (2013) Adopted by the Security Council at its 7044th meeting, on 18 October 2013 // United Nations. URL: (aссessed: 13.03.2021); Resolution 2242 (2015) Adopted by the Security Council at its 7533rd meeting, on 13 October 2015 // United Nations. URL: 311/09/PDF/N1531109.pdf?OpenElement (aссessed: 13.03.2021).

11 Resolution 1612 (2005) Adopted by the Security Council at its 5235th meeting, on 26 July 2005 // United Nations. URL: Element (aссessed: 06.04.2021).

12 Resolution 1674 (2006) Adopted by the Security Council at its 5430th meeting, on 28 April 2006 // United Nations. URL: Element (aссessed: 06.04.2021).

13 Promoting Women, Peace and Security // United Nations Peacekeeping. (In Russian). URL: (aссessed: 06.04.2021).

14 As of 1 January 2019, Department for Peacekeeping Operations is reorganised into the Department of Peace Operations. See: UN reform: Two new departments for the peace and security pillar // UN Permanent Missions. August 23, 2018. URL: (accessed: 15.03.2021).

15 Military // United Nations Peacekeeping. 2021. (In Russian). URL: (aссessed: 15.03.2021).

16 Promoting Women, Peace and Security // United Nations Peacekeeping. (In Russian). URL: (aссessed: 06.04.2021).

17 Ngok Dinka and Misseriya Peace Conference // United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei. February 24, 2021. URL: (accessed: 20.09.2021).

18 DPKO/OMA Statistical Report on Female Military and Police Personnel in UN Peacekeeping Operations Prepared for the 10th Anniversary of the SCR 1325 // United Nations. 2010. URL: sites/default/files/gender_scres1325_chart.pdf (accessed: 15.04.2020).

19 Contribution of Uniformed Personnel to UN by Mission, Personnel Type, and Gender. Experts on Mission, Formed Police Units, Individual Police, Staff Officer, and Troops // United Nations Peacekeeping. October 31, 2021. URL: gender_statistics_42_oct_2021.pdf (accessed: 30.10.2021).

20 UN police gender initiatives // United Nations police. 2021. URL: (accessed: 15.03.2021).

21 Resolution 2185 (2014) Adopted by the Security Council at its 7317th meeting, on 20 November 2014 // United Nations. URL: doc/UNDOC/GEN/N14/640/92/PDF/N1464092.pdf?OpenElement (accessed: 15.03.2021).

22 Resolution 2185 (2014) Adopted by the Security Council at its 7317th meeting, on 20 November 2014 // United Nations. URL: doc/UNDOC/GEN/N14/640/92/PDF/N1464092.pdf?OpenElement (accessed: 15.03.2021).

23 Troop and police contributors // United Nations Peacekeeping. January 31, 2020. (In Russian). URL: (accessed: 13.04.2021).

24 Resolution 2185 (2014) Adopted by the Security Council at its 7317th meeting, on 20 November 2014 // United Nations. URL: doc/UNDOC/GEN/N14/640/92/PDF/N1464092.pdf?OpenElement (accessed: 15.03.2021).

25 UN Police Magazine // UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations. June 2007. P. 4. URL: (accessed: 13.03.2021).

26 United Nations police. Report of the Secretary-General // United Nations. December 15, 2011. URL: (accessed: 15.03.2021).

27 Women’s debut as UN peacekeepers beats expectations // UN news. May 29, 2016. (In Russian). URL: (accessed: 15.03.2021).

28 Policy on Formed Police Units in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations (2016) // United Nations Police. January 1, 2017. URL: (accessed: 15.03.2021).

29 Secretary-General Promotes Ann-Marie Orler of Sweden to United Nations Police Adviser in Department of Peacekeeping Operations // United Nations. March 8, 2010. URL: (accessed: 15.03.2021).

30 Maria Appelblom // International Association of Women Police. URL: Documents/Press%20Releases/Biography%20Maria%20Appelblom%20Stockholm%20Forum%20.pdf (accessed: 15.03.2021).

31 Interview: ‘Policing is about the passion to serve people’ — UNAMID Police Commissioner Priscilla Makotose // UN News. November 12, 2016. URL: (accessed: 20.09.2021).

32 UNAMID Police Chronicles // UNAMID Police. December 2016. Iss. 64. P. 18. URL: chronicles_issue_64_0.pdf (accessed: 20.09.2021).

33 New UN Police commissioner urges other female officers to join her in protecting civilians and building peace in South Sudan // UNMISS. May 25, 2018.  URL: (accessed: 20.09.2021).

34 A peacekeeper and a leader: Unaisi Bolatolu-Vuniwaqa, UNMISS Police Commissioner //  UN Peacekeeping. October 6, 2021. URL: (accessed: 20.09.2021).

35 New UN Police commissioner urges other female officers to join her in protecting civilians and building peace in South Sudan // UNMISS. May 25, 2018.  URL: (accessed: 20.09.2021).

36 Preparing for the 20th anniversary of UNSCR 1325: Pledge of Commitments on Women, Peace and  Security // PeaceWomen. September 18, 2019. URL: (accessed: 15.03.2021).


About the authors

Sergey A. Tishkov

Oryol Law Institute of the Ministry of the Interior of the Russian Federation named after V.V. Lukyanov

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0406-0900

PhD (Politics), Assistant Professor, Deputy Head, Chair of Criminalistics and Preliminary Investigation in the Departments of Internal Affairs

Oryol, Russian Federation

Igor K. Kharichkin

Moscow State Linguistic University

ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4478-0865

PhD, Dr. of Sc. (Philosophy), Professor, Department of Political Science, Institute of International Relations and Social and Political Sciences

Moscow, Russian Federation


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