Vol 23, No 2 (2022)

Motion of a rigid dumbbell with a flywheel in a central gravitational field

Kupreev S.A., Melnikov V.M., Samusenko O.E., Bondarenko Y.A., Yablonovsky P.A.

Abstract

The article introduces theoretical studies of space flight of the dumbbell. A description of the general qualitative picture of the possibility of implementing the non-reactive principle of motion of an extended body in a central gravitational field is presented. In strict accordance with the laws of classical mechanics, a non-reactive principle of displacement of the mass center of an extended body in a central gravitational field is shown, based on the internal redistribution of the total kinetic moment of the body between the kinetic moments of the mass center of the body and relative to the mass center of the body. The dynamics of the Beletsky - Hirwitz gravity plane has been studied. The issues of practical implementation of the non-reactive principle of motion are considered, including from the point of view of quantum physics. It is shown that the principle of motion based on the use of the spin of low-energy elementary particles is more efficient than a photon rocket. In particular, the use of the graviton spin for the motion of bodies is a billion times more efficient than the use of the graviton for jet motion and makes it possible to achieve body acceleration of more than 6,600 m/s2 without overload. The results obtained can be used in experiments to search for elementary particles with low energy, to explain cosmic phenomena and to develop transport objects based on new physical principles.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Research. 2022;23(2):83-96
pages 83-96 views

Modern aspects of the use of artificial intelligence for predicting natural disasters on the rivers of the Russian Federation (using the example of the Amur River)

Aleksandrov N.E., Ermakov D.N., Brom A.E., Omelchenko I.N., Shkodinsky S.V.

Abstract

Among all observed natural disasters, water-related disasters are the most frequent and pose a serious threat to people and socio-economic development. River floods are the most relevant for the Russian Federation, and the importance of flood control, particularly in the Far East, was repeatedly stressed by Russian President Vladimir Putin. The quality of performance of various artificial intelligence methods on the task of predicting river floods in the Amur River basin was investigated. The uniqueness of the research lies in the fact that similar studies have not previously been conducted for this river. The main task of the work was the subsequent practical application of the obtained results in flood forecasting and risk management systems. For this purpose, the best method was searched among widely used methods on the market, which have a rich choice of auxiliary solutions: gradient tree binning, linear regression without regularisation and neural networks. The study design focus on achieving maximum reproducibility of the results. The gradient boosting over the trees in the domestic implementation of CatBoost showed the highest quality. The results of this work can be extrapolated to other rivers comparable in both area and volume of data collected.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Research. 2022;23(2):97-107
pages 97-107 views

Necessary and sufficient conditions for dividing the structure of algorithms into non-intersecting sets: polynomial and enumeration algorithms

Malinina N.L.

Abstract

The article is devoted to a rigorous proof of the first millennium problem, which is named as P≠NP. This problem was raised in 1971 by S. Cook and marked the beginning of a long struggle in order to understand and prove it. The problem is closely related to the concept of a combinatorial explosion, which concept was aroused in the early 1970s and became a symbol of the enormous difficulties that developers of algorithms and programs have to face, since the complexity of the tasks that have to be solved is growing every day. The presented proof is based on the achievements of graph theory and algorithm theory. Necessary conditions (normalizing), to which arbitrary algorithm must satisfy in order to be solved with a help of a Turing machine, are proved in the article. Further, using the theory of algorithms and graph theory, it is proved that normalized (necessary condition) graphs (visualization of algorithms) with respect to such a characteristic of their complexity as a cyclomatic number fall into three non-intersecting sets that have different properties. These properties are determined by the structural features of graphs, and they can be taken into account when developing algorithms and programs for solving mass problems. The division of algorithms of mass problems into three non-intersecting sets is proved. Such division corresponds with graph-schemes, or block-schemes of polynomial (P) or enumeration (NP) algorithms. This proves a sufficient condition, to which algorithms must satisfy in order to belong to different classes and actually confirm that P≠NP.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Research. 2022;23(2):108-116
pages 108-116 views

Automatized system of optical measurements of liquid crystal elements with improved output signal characteristics

Usachev V.V., Belyaev V.V., Chausov D.N., Moyseenko S.V.

Abstract

The article discusses the developed automated system for the research of a liquid crystal cell, which consists of hardware and software parts. Unlike previously developed devices for optical measurements of liquid crystal elements, the automated system under consideration provides signal generation accuracy within 0.5% and SFDR noise immunity of at least 80 dB. The hardware part of the system includes the development of a circuit for generating a voltage signal of a certain amplitude and frequency, the formation of signals for controlling the movement of a stepper motor and controlling the intensity of the luminous flux of four laser LEDs, the development and tracing of a printed circuit board. The software part consists in the development of an applied executive algorithm that builds a sinusoidal signal at the output of a digital-to-analog converter of a microcontroller. This example uses the STM32F746IGT6 microcontroller based on the ARM Cortex-M7 core, which has a superscalar architecture with dynamic prediction, a memory protection module, a floating-point computing unit, as well as a direct memory access controller DMA (direct memory access), which is used for accelerated data exchange between memory and peripherals. The DMA is used to quickly control the digital-to-analog converter.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Research. 2022;23(2):117-123
pages 117-123 views

Some aspects of the possibility of building a nuclear power plant on the Moon

Belov V.V., Sazonova S.A.

Abstract

The problem of space exploration is a priority in the development of any large state, because it solves the problems of future technological progress. Obviously, such development is not possible without a stable energy source directly in outer space. Materials of this work are devoted to a conceptual study of the possibility of building a stationary nuclear power plant (NPP) on the Moon. A review of open sources of information on the availability of already existing or under development nuclear power plants capable of operating in the “Lunar environment,” as well as meeting the requirements of safe operation and future utilization, selected specific models of heavy and superheavy-class carrier rockets (existing and conceptual) with the ability to transport payloads of 10 tons or more to the Moon. Based on the analysis of data on reactor plants and information on operating and construction conditions on the Moon, a conceptual solution of “reusable” enclosing structure of stationary NPP on the Moon, which serves as protection from falling space bodies, radiation and solar radiation, is formed. The main principal concepts of the stages of construction, operation and utilization of a stationary NPP on the Moon are presented. The problems of creation, development and utilization of stationary sources of nuclear energy in the absence of atmosphere (space), existing at the moment and requiring investigation during the nearest decade, are shown.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Research. 2022;23(2):124-139
pages 124-139 views

The influence of heating temperature on coercive force and hardness changes in carbon hypoeutectoid steels

Kornilova A.V., Kyaw Z.

Abstract

Hypoeutectoid steel with 0,25% carbon without preliminary heat treatment was investigated. The article describes an experimental study of the hardness and coercive force of this steel during heating and subsequent cooling in calm air. The magnetization depth of the device used and the penetration depth of the indenter when measuring hardness are significantly greater than the thickness of the total oxide films, therefore the measurement result is a complex value depending on the properties of the base metal and oxides. The influence on the studied parameters is proved not only of the structure of the base metal, but also of the properties of oxide films that appear on the steel surface in an oxygen-containing medium during heating. As a result, hardness and coercive force do not correlate with each other at all temperature intervals of heating. It is shown that the visual assessment of temperature by temper colors is subjective, and when the temperature threshold exceeds 500ºС (for the research steel in given modes), the visually determined dependence between the temperature and the color of the sample surface after temperature exposure disappears.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Research. 2022;23(2):140-145
pages 140-145 views

Evaluation of the technical condition of electromagnetic injectors on the test bench according to the error in measuring the flow rate of the test liquid

Khodyakov A.A., Khlopkov S.V., Basova V.V., Telkov O.I., Kosmacheva A.D.

Abstract

It has been established that the average values of the error in measuring the flow rate of the test liquid (TL) by electromagnetic injectors (EMI) are associated with the vehicle mileage. The greater the mileage, the higher the value of the error. It is shown that the dependence of the error in measuring the flow rate on the run can be described in a rough approximation by regression. The technical condition of the EMI was assessed by an instrument for cleaning and analyzing fuel injectors HP-6V, complete with an Ultrasonic Cleaner ultrasonic bath. The objects of study are the EMI of gasoline engines with distributed fuel injection. The injectors were used in the power units of GAZ-27040 V (“Gazelle”), ZAZ Chance SX, VAZ 2121 (“Niva”), Chevrolet Lacetti and others, mileage from 0 to 188 thousand km. Siemens DEKA ZMZ 6354, Siemens DEKA VAZ 6238, Siemens DEKA VAZ 20734, Siemens DEKA VAZ 20735, Bosch 0 280 158 502, Bosch 0 280 158 017, Bosch 0 280 158 022, Bosch 0 280 150 9925, Denso 23925 injectors tested.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Research. 2022;23(2):146-154
pages 146-154 views

Augmented reality in an intelligent vehicle control system

Kruglova L.V., Ceesay F.K.

Abstract

The use of augmented reality in intelligent vehicle control systems is an important and urgent task for the production and operation of vehicles. Along with the development of sensors, it is necessary to create algorithms and software for such systems. The paper describes a program that simulates the formation of an augmented reality image on a projection display located on the windshield of a car. Augmented reality content modeling is proposed to be carried out by combining the image seen through the windshield and the data coming from the sensors of the intelligent car control system. The functioning of an intelligent vehicle control system is based on the principle of Sensor Fusion, according to which the input data from several discrete sensors are combined to obtain a virtual environment model. The main advantage of the developed program is the possibility of adaptive adjustment of image parameters depending on environmental conditions. The program also implements the function of switching information channels to display data from various devices. The use of augmented reality technologies in intelligent vehicle control systems contributes not only to the convenience of car operation, but also improves the comfort of travel conditions, increases the level of driving safety.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Research. 2022;23(2):155-164
pages 155-164 views

The rational for associated mining of phosphorites and glauconites in the development of titanium-zircon placers at the Tsentral’noye deposit

Georgievskiy A.F., Bugina V.M.

Abstract

In order to maximize the use of the Tsentral’noye placer deposit in the Tambov region, a study was made of technological samples from overburden rocks and concentration tailings of titanium and zirconium ores, in which dispersed useful phosphorite and glauconite minerals are present as an impurity. Samples weighing 300 kg were subjected to wet and dry screening, self-grinding, gravitational separation, and magnetic separation. The isolated phosphate and glauconite fractions and their concentrates were studied using polarizing and electron microscopy, X-ray, chemical, and quantitative spectral analyse. As a result, detailed data on the material and structural features of minerals, their relationships and enrichment characteristics were obtained. This, in turn, made it possible to outline possible directions for the additional use of the ores of the Tsentral’noye deposit in the form of phosphorite and glauconite concentrates obtained from them. For their agrochemical evaluation, vegetative experiments were carried out, which showed the high efficiency of the accumulated concentrates, which in agriculture in the form of mineral fertilizers of the ameliorant leads to an increase in the plant mass of grain crops by 25-26 %. Since the reserves of phosphates and glauconites are estimated at 17 and 6 million tons respectively, if the deposit is developed, additional reserves appear that can significantly reduce the cost of building a mining enterprise.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Research. 2022;23(2):165-173
pages 165-173 views

Geological structure and oil and gas content of the shelf of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea

Kotelnikov A.E., Ondo Ayenvegue L.M.

Abstract

The oil and gas potential of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea, in which revenues from the sale of gas and oil account for more than 90 % of national income, is studied. An urgent issue is to increase oil and gas reserves, in this regard, the task is to assess the prospects for discovering new oil fields based on the analysis of geological information. The oil and gas basin of the Gulf of Guinea stretches as a narrow coastal strip along the western coast of equatorial Africa and is represented by thick sedimentary strata. The most significant basin of the Rio Muni contains a thick promising stratum of Senonian deposits overlain by Tertiary sediments, the thickness of which increases from south to north. Intervals of reservoir rocks with good porosity properties are known in both Tertiary and Cretaceous sediments, but industrial productivity has so far been established only in the Cretaceous sediment complex. Within the basin there are promising oil and gas bearing areas with anticlinal zones of oil and gas accumulation, which are associated with screening of tectonic, stratigraphic and lithological types. In the southern parts of the basin, saline deposits are not deep and are of interest for the exploration of oil deposits. The results of the study showed that in the Rio Muni Basin, the territory of Block K in the southernmost part of Equatorial Guinea is a promising region with proven hydrocarbon reserves. The Paleocene and Turonian reservoirs consist of undeformed slope submarine fans similar to the Deepwater Campos Basin in Brazil.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Research. 2022;23(2):174-181
pages 174-181 views

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