Vol 31, No 2 (2023)


Attractiveness of sports facilities and mass recreation and physical culture zones for birds

Rakhimov I.I., Ibragimova K.K.


Birds inhabiting urban areas in the process of urbanization acquire a variety of adaptations to new habitat conditions. Sports facilities, areas for mass recreation and physical culture of citizens have become a characteristic mandatory component of urban development. Trophic connections and numerous behavioral reactions, specifically related to the specifics and nature of the use of physical culture objects, have been revealed.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2023;31(2):159-168
pages 159-168 views

Air temperature changes due to altitude above sea level in the Northern Ural Mountains

Tantsyrev N.V., Ivanova N.S., Petrova I.V.


The research is devoted to an urgent modern problem: the identification of temperature factors that limit the distribution and survival of plants in the mountainous conditions of the Northern Urals. The article’s aim is to determine the air temperature in four altitudinal zones of the southern part of the Northern Urals (Sverdlovsk region 59º30´N, 59º15´E) and to identify regression relationships of the obtained temperature data with control temperature data from the nearest meteorological station. Registration of air temperatures was carried out from May to September 2019 around the clock, every two hours in the mountain forest zone (at an altitude of 460 and 640 m above sea level) under the canopy of Siberian stone pine forests, in the zone of subalpine woodlands with elements of mountain forest tundra (820 m above sea level) and on a plateau in the mountain tundra zone (1030 m above sea level). It has been established that the change in air temperature at different altitude levels and at the nearest meteorological station (far from 60 km, at an altitude of 202 m above sea level) occurs relatively synchronously. Difference between average daily temperatures at altitudes of 460, 640, 820 and 1030 m above sea level and the control data of the meteorological station is 2.2, 3.0, 4.7 and 5.1ºC respectively. For all altitude levels, a reliable close straight-line relationship between average daily air temperatures and meteorological station data has been established. The altitudes of 460, 640, 820 and 1030 m above sea level correspond to the coefficients of determination ( R 2) equal to 0.96, 0.95, 0.92 and 0.88. The relationship of the minimum temperatures of the corresponding altitude levels with the control data is also quite high ( R 2 is not lower than 0.7). With the help of the identified relationships and the obtained regression equations, it is possible to retrospectively restore the dynamics of the thermal regime according to the meteorological station data for mountain habitats of different altitudes in the southern part of the Northern Urals over a long period. Including extreme critical temperatures, which act as factors limiting the resettlement and survival of plants and determine the ecosystem biodiversity.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2023;31(2):169-178
pages 169-178 views

Methodological approaches to the electromagnetic radiation effects on microorganisms

Shcheglov G.A., Masloboev V.A.


All living organisms are surrounded by natural and artificial origin electromagnetic radiation (EMR), which affects organisms. The artificial radiation sources number is increasing, but the EMR influence mechanisms on living organisms have not yet been fully investigated, despite the large number of studies. However, understanding the EMR action mechanisms can give impetus to the development of various biotechnologies. To solve the problem of understanding the EMR effects on organisms and develop new biotechnologies, it is necessary to apply new research methods. Therefore, the study of research methods is an urgent task. This research is a review of studies and research methods on the effects, of EMR on organisms. It brings together studies that consider different approaches to the study and existing hypotheses of the mechanisms of radiation effects. The aim of the paper is to review and evaluate methodological approaches to investigate the effects of EMR. The paper considers research on the EMR effects on microorganisms, eubacteria. Based on the results of the work, it is proposed to study the effect of radiation lasting several hours. As well as to apply spectrophotometry and fluorimetry methods.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2023;31(2):179-190
pages 179-190 views

Special aspects of ecosystem recreation in the area of dumps of sub-standard zeolite-containing rocks of Holinsky deposit of Eastern Transbaikalia

Obuzdina M.V., Rush E.A.


The research presents the problem of liquidation of dumps of substandard raw materials of zeolite-containing rocks of the Holinsky deposit, measures for the reclamation of disturbed lands. The most effective way to restore ecosystems is renaturation. Time intervals of succession are considered. Renaturation of disturbed lands consists of 6 stages. Possible dominant plants for the proposed options are considered in detail: Stipa lessingiana, Poa platensis, Festuca valesiaca, Poa angustifolia, Elytrigia intermedia, Artemisia vulgaris, Trifolium pratense , Trifolium repens, Agropyron desertorum.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2023;31(2):191-200
pages 191-200 views

Human ecology

Chemical pollution in Arctic cities: public health risk assessment and solutions

Mariya A.R., Roman A.K., Elena V.S.


The research presents characteristics of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic inhalation and aquatic chemical risk caused by chemical pollutants of atmospheric air and drinking water exposure to the health of the population of the Arctic city of Salekhard. It has been established that carcinogenic risks with inhalation exposure to chromium, soot and formaldehyde as well as with oral exposure to cadmium, beryllium, lead and hexavalent chromium correspond to the upper limit of the acceptable risk and are subject to constant monitoring. The risk of oral exposure to arsenic needs to be minimized through the development and implementation of additional health measures. The calculated indices of non-carcinogenic risk for inhalation and oral exposure, not exceeding 1.0, that shows a low probability of adverse effects from critical organs / systems.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2023;31(2):201-211
pages 201-211 views

Working conditions of trade workers and their adaptation during the COVID-19 pandemic

Yakovleva T.P., Soshenko M.V., Stepanova A.I., Koverkina E.V.


It is shown that the restrictions of interpersonal communication, the introduction of additional requirements to working conditions in the period 2020-2022 in connection with COVID-19, due to the increased risk of getting sick, had a stressful effect on the population. First of all, this concerned employees of those professional groups who, in the course of work, come into contact with a large number of the population (customers, buyers). Representatives of these professional groups, during the pandemic, as a rule, continued to work in the workplace. The purpose of the study: to assess the working conditions and adaptation of personnel of trade organizations in different periods: 2012 and 2021 (before and during the COVID-19 pandemic). The objects of the study were large non-food trade organizations. The working conditions of employees of trade organizations were assessed in accordance with the Guidelines for the Hygienic Assessment of Factors of the Working Environment and the labor process, as well as the method of interviewing employees about their own working conditions. A computerized questionnaire developed by the Leningrad Psychoneurological Research Institute named after V.M. Bekhterev was used to assess neuropsychiatric maladaptation (ONPD). The survey was conducted in 2012 and 2021 - before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The majority of respondents were women (about 70%) with various experience in this profession. A total of 66 people were interviewed. The working conditions of trade workers (sellers) in 2012 and in 2021 are similar and are harmful to the second degree. During the 2020-2021 pandemic, the working hours in trade organizations have changed: new rules have been introduced during the working day, new work processes have been organized (introduction of remote technologies, constant monitoring of the health of employees and customers by logging the health status of employees, visual inspection and remote temperature measurement). A comparative analysis of the assessment of neuropsychiatric maladaptation showed that during the pandemic and concomitant restrictions aimed at minimizing contacts between people, 31.0% of employees had psychoemotional discomfort, expressed in asthenic symptoms (15.1%), the appearance of depressive moods (15.1%). In 2021, workers significantly (p ≤ 0.05) exceeded the average values on the A scale (asthenia): 37.0±6.2 and 56.7±9.6; and there was an upward trend on the D scale (depression). This indicates that the forced conditions of restriction of social contacts that have arisen in the last two years have a negative impact on the processes of adaptation and mental comfort of employee

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2023;31(2):212-224
pages 212-224 views

Biological resources

Chlorella growth stimulation depending on the duration of extremely high frequencies electromagnetic radiation exposure

Shcheglov G.A.


The result indicates the possibility of creating methods to stimulate the growth rate of microalgae by extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMF). Pollution of quarry waste water with inorganic nitrogen compounds (ammonium, nitrate, nitrite) is an important problem in the mining industry. Biological treatment methods with the use of plant organisms and microorganisms show efficiency and require less financial and labour costs than physical and chemical methods of waste water treatment. Not all organisms and microorganisms are applicable in the Far North conditions. The microalgae Chlorella shows the ability to reduce nitrate and ammonium concentrations in quarry wastewater, and some species of microalgae can survive at water temperatures of 3⁰C. A number of works indicate the stimulating effect of EHF EMR on microorganisms and the ability to reduce the toxicity of pollutants. Therefore, the methods of treatment of quarry waste water from inorganic nitrogen compounds by microalgae Chlorella under the influence of electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency are relevant for development. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the duration of EHF EMR exposure on the growth rate of the Chlorella microalgae. Materials and Methods: In this work, 2 control and 9 working experiments were carried out to cultivate Chlorella vulgaris for 24 hours with the exposure time of EMF EHF from 5 to 480 minutes at the beginning of cultivation. The increase in biomass concentration in the experiments relative to control values was studied spectrophotometrically. Results: The maximum increase in biomass concentration was observed at an exposure time of 120 minutes.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2023;31(2):225-231
pages 225-231 views

Environmental Monitoring

Monitoring of the development of blue-green algae in the Kuibyshev reservoir using remote sensing indices

Sherstobitov D.N., Ermakov V.V., Pystin V.N., Tupitsyna O.V.


The research presents the results of remote monitoring of blue-green algae of the Kuibyshev reservoir, leading to eutrophication of the reservoir. Multispectral images were taken by the European Space Agency’s Sentinel-2 remote sensing satellite and were processed by using QGIS software. Satellite images were processed using spectral indices. After using several spectral indices, the three most informative ones were selected: NDVI, NDWI and SIPI. The usage of processed images made it possible to define the boundaries of the distribution of blue-green algae more clearly, as well as the zones of the most intensive development of biomass. The use of several spectral indices made it possible to determine the most suitable data for the usage under adverse meteorological conditions. The analysis of the processed satellite images makes it possible to assess the intensity of the development of blue-green algae. This is the basis for the development of a forecast model of biomass changes in the reservoirs of the middle zone of the Russian Federation.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2023;31(2):232-240
pages 232-240 views

Device concept for organization of monitoring network

Gusak D.V.


State observation networks of the state of environment include a complex of stationary, route and sub torch observation posts. Stationary observation posts are a fairly expensive structure that used equipment of a certain accuracy. Modern technological development allows to create devices of small dimensions with a unified output interface, having a measurement error comparable to the error of equipment used in stationary observation posts or less. Therefore, this paper proposes the concept of creating a device, which, in particular, may be converted into an atmospheric air monitoring device. Currently, environmental and emission control issues remain relevant. The purpose of the study, the facet of which is revealed in this work, is to organize a monitoring network for the analysis of atmospheric air pollution. The work contains a list of priorities for the organization of the device, its main functions. The result is a structural diagram of the central component of the device, called “Heart” and an additional component - “Expansion Board”, that describes the main necessary nodes for the operating of the device. The working element of the instrument is sensors of substances with different operating principle. In addition, there are described a way to ensure nonvolatile device and organization of a unite interface of data transmission within it. A short list of tasks for which the proposed device is directed is presented.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2023;31(2):241-250
pages 241-250 views

Comprehensive water quality assessment of surface sources in the city of Latacunga and the canton Pedro Vicente Maldonado in Ecuador

Salazar Flores C.A., Kurbatova A.I., Mikhaylichenko K.Y., Barannikova S.I.


A study of the quality of drinking water sources - surface waters of the river systems of the city of Latacunga and the canton of Pedro Vicente Maldonado, Ecuador, was carried out during 2018 and 2019. The general sanitary water quality index (WQI) was calculated according to Russian methods, the water quality index of the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF-WQI) of the Ecuadorian water quality regulation. Results from parameterizing the water quality, obtained by WQI and NSF-WQI methods and combined into an overall scheme, were used to generate the rating scale for assessing the hydro-ecological status of aquatic ecosystems. When carrying out a qualitative and quantitative analysis of water from river reservoirs, the excess of the threshold limit values of such indicators as the biological oxygen demand and iron was determined. The calculations show that the WQI method and the NSF-WQI method lead to similar results when assessing the water quality of both reservoir of the city of Latacunga and canton of Pedro Vicente Maldonado. According to the WQI method, the hydrological state of the reservoir of the city of Latacunga was characterized in the range of a scale from “Crisis” to “Risk”, while according to the NSF-WQI method the state was assessed as “Risk”. The hydrological state of the reservoir of the canton of Pedro Vicente Maldonado, was assessed as “Risk” by both the WQI method and the NSF-WQI method. Furthermore, in none of the water bodies under study is the environmental “catastrophe” not recorded.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2023;31(2):251-264
pages 251-264 views

Industrial Ecology

Questions of accumulated environmental harm - People’s Republic of China

Zhang X., Pinaev V.E.


The research is dedicated to the state of legislation in the People's Republic of China on accumulated environmental harm and existing practices of liquidating objects of accumulated environmental harm. This research contains an up-to-date list of regulatory legal documents of the People’s Republic of China on the topic. The research also presents some aspects of Chinese scientists’ research on environmental impact and accumulated environmental harm.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2023;31(2):265-269
pages 265-269 views

Evaluation of the emission of petroleum products during the disposal of contaminated polyethylene cans

Salakhova V.K., Rudakova L.V., Pugin K.G.


During the maintenance of private vehicles, a stream of consumer waste is generated in the form of containers with engine oil residues. When choosing methods for handling such waste, it is necessary to have quantitative indicators of the tare weight and the volume of engine oil remaining after use. Containers contaminated with motor oils during disposal, neutralization and disposal due to the emission of oil residues create increased risks of man-made impact on environmental objects. The purpose of the study is to determine the volume of motor oil remaining after emptying under various conditions. Viscosity, temperature, runoff angle of engine oil was taken into account as changing conditions. Laboratory studies made it possible to establish that when disposing containers made of HDPE (from 1 to 30 liters), in which engine oil was placed, the waste may contain from 1.5 to 15% of oil products. The smaller the tare volume, the higher the percentage of oil product residues in relation to the tare weight. It is proposed to use K 1 indicators to assess the emission of oil products from containers during its disposal, which allows quantifying the volume of engine oil that can enter the environment during disposal or disposal.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2023;31(2):270-277
pages 270-277 views

Assessment of the solar energy development role as a tool for the energy transition in Russia

Nefedova L.V., Rafikova Y.Y.


Based on the characteristics of the current state of the use of renewable energy sources (RES) in the world and in Russia, the role of solar energy in solving one of the urgent problems of the development of modern society - energy transition to the use of low-carbon energy sources is considered. The volumes of electricity produced and the reduction of CO2 emissions at photovoltaic stations operating in the regions of Russia at the beginning of 2022 were evaluated and analyzed. The Republic of Kalmykia and Altai were singled out, which have the largest shares of solar electricity in the energy balances, 35.7 and 23.2%, respectively. The problems of assessing the natural resource risks of using solar resources in the Russian Federation in connection with the climatic zoning of the territory are considered. The authors propose a method for assessing the degree of risk of using solar resources based on calculating the characteristics of the variability of solar radiation on the earth’s surface, assessing and mapping the level of natural resource risks. The levels of resource risks in the development of solar energy for the Orenburg and Astrakhan regions, leaders in the development of solar energy in Russia, were assessed.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2023;31(2):278-290
pages 278-290 views

Reuse of concrete and brick scrap as aggregates

Ukrainskiy I.S., Mayorova L.P., Salikov D.A., Shevchuk A.S., Chainikov G.A.


The use of industrial waste as concrete aggregates solves the problem of recycling these wastes and simultaneously reduces the volume of natural stone materials extraction and, consequently, decreases the environment load associated with their extraction. The special military operation caused a large amount of concrete and brick scrap from the emergency buildings demolition. To substantiate the possibility of recycling the mentioned construction wastes by means of their application as concrete aggregates, the authors have reviewed research works in this area, made a plan of the experiment, determined physical and mechanical characteristics of rubble from the studied materials and cement concrete on its basis. The results of the experiment have been analyzed and conclusions about possibility to use concrete and bricks scrap as aggregates in concrete have been formulated.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2023;31(2):291-301
pages 291-301 views



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RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2023;31(2):302-306
pages 302-306 views

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