Vol 30, No 4 (2022)


Assessment of ecosystem functions of urban forests in terms of soil and trees

Shergina O.V., Mironova A.S., Tupitsyna Y.S.


Forests in the cities of the Angara region (Irkutsk, Angarsk, Usolye-Sibirskoye), exposed to aerotechnogenic pollution and recreational load of varying degrees of intensity, were surveyed. In pine and pine-birch forests on natural gray forest soils, 27 sample plots were studied. The current state of the urban environment was assessed by a set of morphostructural, physico-chemical and toxicological indicators of tree plantations (pine, larch, birch) and gray forest soils - the main habitat-forming components. For the first time on the basis of the obtained data and assessment of ecosystem functions of soil cover and tree plantations the results of studies on purification of atmospheric air and preservation of phyto-pedocenoses in the urban environment are presented. The study of biogeochemical redistribution of flows of aerotechnogenic pollutants in urban forests revealed the degree of manifestation of the most important ecosystem function of the soil cover - the ability to accumulate and detoxify man-made pollutants and the function of woody plants - the ability to clean atmospheric air by accumulating toxicants in the needles and leaves. The results obtained made it possible to judge about the sustainability of woody plants and soils of urban forests, about the possibility of purification and restoration of the urban environment.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(4):447-458
pages 447-458 views

Water budget of a Ramsar site in Ecuador

Arias Ordonez P.J., Suasnavas Lagos C.V., Kharlamova M.D., Arias Ordonez W.R.


Wetlands have been degrading and disappearing due to several anthropogenic impacts, such as pollution by discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater, agricultural runoff, land conversion, etc. The assessment and forecast of hydrological processes in wetlands, namely inflows and outflows, is essential for developing and implementing plans aimed at managing and protecting wetlands areas. We estimated the water budget of a Ramsar site, La Tembladera wetland, for a two-year period (2018-2019) by using the water balance method. The evapotranspiration was calculated using the Thornthwaite method and the runoff was estimated using the Curve Number method. The proposed water balance model showed that the major inflows to the wetland were the San Agustín and Bellavista canals, and Estero Pinto, about 92.9% (2018) and 90.5% (2019) of the total inflows. The runoff and wastewater flows represented the minor inflows. The runoff was 0.003% in 2018 and 0.004% in 2019, whereas the wastewater volume accounted for 0.05% of all inflows in both years. The actual evapotranspiration was the major outflow in both years, being 67.1% (2018) and 73.6% (2019) of the total outflows. On the other hand, the irrigation canal was the minor outflow, 32.9% in 2018 and 26.4% in 2019. Therefore, La Tembladera wetland hydrology is mostly linked to the canals system and climate conditions, precipitation and actual evapotranspiration. Our findings could be the basis for further research and developing plans in order to rationally manage and protect this wetland of international importance.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(4):459-474
pages 459-474 views

Assessment of the ecological status of street plantings in Balashikha city, Moscow region

Parakhina E.A., Rudneva M.A.


The level of urbanization in the world is increasing by the year. In Russia, it amounts to about 75%. Green spaces play a leading role in the process of maintaining the ecological balance of urbanized territories. One of the main sources of environmental pollution in cities are cars. Monitoring the condition of woody plants in outdoor plantings is an important part of assessing the condition of urban systems. The purpose of the work is to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the ecological state of tree plantations in the street plantings of Balashikha, a city, which is a part of Moscow agglomeration. The study was carried out in 2019-2021 in 20 streets of Balashikha. The species composition, the vital state of tree and shrub vegetation in street plantings according to Alekseev’s methodology and winter hardiness according to Lapin and Sidneva’s methodology were revealed. The following results were obtained: in the street plantings of Balashikha there are 21 species of trees and shrubs, the average age of tree plantations is 30-40 years, the most common ones are Аcеr nеgundo L., Аcеr plаtаnoidеs L., Tiliа cordаtа Mill., single - Acer tataricum L., Pinus sylvestris L., Sorbus aucuparia (L.) Gaertn., Ulmus laevis Pall. In order to maintain sustainable development, it is necessary to change the strategy of urban greening (implement a more diverse species composition, conduct monitoring studies involving not only utilities, but also researchers dealing with urban ecology problems, apply modern maintenance technologies. Recommendations are given on the introduction of new types of woody plants for outdoor plantings to improve the ecological situation in Balashikha.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(4):475-485
pages 475-485 views

Possible causes of natural water level variations in the Kosin Lakes in the 20th-21st century - natural and anthropogenic

Rozanov V.B., Berezkin V.Y., Chereshenko A.V.


Fluctuations level of Kosinsky lakes in Moscow are of great importance not only for the comfortable living of peoples and for the functioning of one of the city’s popular recreational areas. In addition, it is important for the preservation of all unique ecosystem of the protected area. The decrease in the level of lakes during the 20th century, combined with their pollution, repeatedly led to their eutrophication and fish kill. The aim of the work was to establish the relationship the water level in the Kosinsky lakes (during the observation period) the amount of precipitation and economic activities related to drainage. The null hypothesis: the reason for the modern swallowing of the Svyatoe Lake is not so much climate change as anthropogenic activity. The article presents data on fluctuations in the level of lake-type water bodies in the Kosino-Ukhtomsky district of Moscow, for the period 1924-2021, and an assessment of the impact of them modern anthropogenic processes. The work is based on the results of both the authors’ own field research (geodetic survey in the Kosnsky Three Lakes area in 2006-2021) and archival data from the Kosinskaya biological station and other organizations. It shown that the changing level of the Holy Lake in the last decade cannot explained only by meteorological phenomena (precipitation). The significant role of hydrotechnical measures in regulating the level of lakes Beloe and Chernoye has confirmed.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(4):486-497
pages 486-497 views

Development and justification of new technologies purification of water environments from pollution by heavy metals

Glubokaya A.S., Atamanova O.V., Tikhomirova E.I., Podoksenov A.A., Simonova Z.A.


An actual trend in applied ecology is the development and implementation of innovative environmental protection technologies. Modern methods for extracting heavy metal ions from industrial wastewater are quite diverse. The purpose of the study was to develop and justify new technologies for purification of aqueous media, including adsorption purification, from heavy metal ions (by the example of Ni2+ and Cd2+ ions). Laboratory studies have established that the degree of adsorption extraction of Ni2+ ions by the sorption material from bentonite modified with carbon nanotubes and fired at a temperature of 550 °C increases by 13-14% due to its activation with 18% HCl solution and 38% CaCl2 solution, and the degree of adsorption extraction of Cd2+ ions with this activation of the sorbent, it increases by 16-17%. A technological scheme of a water purification station is proposed, which includes highly efficient adsorption filters with sorption material from bentonite of the specified modification and acid-salt activation.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(4):498-510
pages 498-510 views

Cereals waste in the Krasnodar region as a local heat energy resource

Andreenko T.I., Kiseleva S.V., Rafikova Y.Y.


Presents the results of the cereals waste energy potential assessment for the municipalities of the Krasnodar region. The gross and technical potential of cereals waste (straw), calculated according to the author’s methodology and correlated with the needs in thermal energy for the population of the studied region. The obtained results show a significant amount of technical heat potential for many municipalities of the region. The spatial distribution obtained with the help of geoinformation technologies makes it possible to determine the most promising areas for the use of cereals waste for the thermal energy production. Also assessed the prospects for replacing traditional fuels such as coal, diesel fuel, natural gas and heating oil with straw energy. The possible environmental effect from the replacement of hydrocarbon fuel for the municipal districts of the Krasnodar region was calculated.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(4):511-523
pages 511-523 views


Natural factors influence on first rarely flooded soil salination of the river Volga delta

Valov M.V., Barmin A.N., Belyaev D.Y., Sintsov A.V., Lipezina E.V.


Soil degradation is one of the common types of which is soil salination, is a serious limited factor of food security and sustainable territory development. It is necessary to pay a special attention on the first soil salination of arid regions, as arid climate leads to the active salt accumulation in the upper rooting soil horizons and gives rise to withdrawal of large land areas from economic turnover. The purpose of the this work is defining of the watersoluble salts specific features in soils of the river Volga delta upper level natural boundaries under the influence of natural factors. Botanic natural sanctuary “Svinoroiny meadow (Meshkovsky)” was chosen as a research object, associated with the new Caspian coastal plain within distribution of the river Volga delta Baer knoll landscape. Water extract ions analysis and soil solution toxicity calculation on the area were carried out from 1979 till 2020. It was revealed that dynamics direction of salination types are defined by the ascent of water predominanceon over descending on the area in the conditions of the territory exudative water regime. Salination increase to a great extent depends on the great volumes of spring-summer floods and appropriate ground water level rise, area desalination is defined by atmospheric precipitations quantity.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(4):524-536
pages 524-536 views

Activities of the student association as a contribution to the development of professional skills of students and the beginning of scientific research

Aleinikova A.M.


In 2022, the Professional Student Society of the RUDN University Ecology Institute turned 10 years old. The Society has made a significant contribution to the environmental education of many generations of environmental students. Many interesting expeditions, volunteer work, quests, round tables, reports were organized. Based on the results of field work, scientific articles and graduation papers were written, agreements were signed with national parks.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(4):537-543
pages 537-543 views

Environmental Monitoring

Development of a laser spectroscopy method and a hard-software framework for ecological monitoring of underwater areas by remote operated vehicles

Proschenko D.Y., Bukin I.O.


The results of the experimental development of the method and the hard-software framework for a remote-operated underwater vehicle are presented in this work. The method of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and a small-sized laser spectrometer are designed to monitor of the dissolved oil products pollution of underwater areas and to assess the impact of pollution on the phytoplankton community state. The excitation technique of the sea water LIF was experimentally tested to simultaneously measure the concentration of chlorophyll A, the specific reproduction of dissolved organic matter by phytoplankton cells, and the concentration of oil products dissolved in sea water. It has been experimentally shown that to implement this technique, it is necessary to carry out the excitation of the LIF by two wavelength radiation. To measure the concentration of chlorophyll A and the specific reproduction of dissolved organic matter (DOM), it is necessary to use excitation by radiation in the green region of the spectrum (532 nm in this work). To measure the concentration of dissolved petroleum products in sea water, it is necessary to use UV radiation (278 nm in this work). The results of tests of the spectrometer under laboratory conditions on sea water samples containing phytoplankton cells and solutions of petroleum products are described. The results of the work create a methodological and software-hardware basis for carrying out the mission of ecological monitoring of underwater areas with the simultaneous solution of the problem of detecting oil pollution and assessing its impact on the phytoplankton community.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(4):544-560
pages 544-560 views

Selection of sorbent in case emergency spills of oilfield liquids on the territory of the Kambarsky oil field

Borisova E.A., Krasnoperova S.A.


During the development and operation of oil and gas fields, all components of the natural environment (atmospheric air, surface and underground waters, relief, soil and vegetation cover, fauna) undergo significant transformation. Therefore, to prevent and reduce negative impacts on these natural objects, modern technologies and technical means should be used that are most environmentally acceptable for the specific conditions of the territory where the projected man-made structures are located. When planning appropriate technologies aimed at restoring the components of the natural environment, one should take into account the economic assessment of the damage caused during the prevention and elimination of emergency oil spills. This article proposes the selection of a new sorbent in case of emergency spills of oil-field fluids on the territory of the Kambarsky oil field, as well as conducting economic calculations of the prevented damage.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(4):561-573
pages 561-573 views

Comparative analysis of fluorescent methods selectivity for ecotoxicants environmental monitoring

Plotnikova O.A., Tikhomirova E.I., Melnikov G.V.


A comparative analysis of classical and synchronous fluorescent methods selectivity for ecotoxicants determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was carried out. PAHs sorption preconcentration from aqueous cetyltrimethylammonium bromide micellar solutions and spectra recording on a viscose matrix were used. In the case of complex environmental samples, the scope of fluorimetric analysis can be expanded by registering synchronous fluorescence spectra obtained by simultaneously scanning the excitation and emission wavelengths with a constant shift: λem - λex = Δλ = const. The composition of PAHs mixture (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluorene, pyrene) was experimentally evaluated by classical fluorescence with selective excitation and synchronous fluorescence. It was concluded that the use of synchronous spectra makes it possible to improve the selectivity of the PAHs fluorescence analysis in a mixture. These methods can be successfully applied to identify individual PAHs in monitoring of environment water bodies.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(4):574-583
pages 574-583 views

Safety of human activity

Magnetic field of the industrial frequency polluting statistical model near overhead power lines with voltage class 220 and 500 kV located in Russia

Prokofyeva A.S.


A statistical model of the actual pollution of the magnetic field industrial frequency created by overhead lines has been developed for the initial assessment of the actual electromagnetic situation near the overhead lines, epidemiological studies and to supplement the already completed environmental work with dosimetric characteristics.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(4):584-596
pages 584-596 views

A link between solar activity and smoke with hemoblastosis in children

Pinaev S.K., Chizhov A.Y., Pinaeva O.G.


The study of the role of environmental factors in the occurrence of human neoplasms is an important task of medical ecology. An indicator of carcinogenic environmental impacts is childhood tumors due to the predominantly prenatal genesis of tumors at this age. In the structure of childhood oncological morbidity, hemoblastosis predominate. The link between the incidence of childhood leukemia and exposure to ultraviolet radiation, the protective role of sun exposure in relation to the risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHL) and the absence of such in Hodgkin’s lymphoma in children have been established. There is evidence of the connection between childhood hemoblastosis and smoke of various origins. The aim of the study was to evaluate the link between solar activity and smoke with hemoblastosis in the Russian children. We used official data on the incidence of childhood hemoblastosis in Russia in 1997-2020 and data on solar activity from the site of the Royal Observatory of Belgium. The generated dynamic series was subjected to correlation and regression analysis in 11 consecutive iterations with a time delay (lag) from 0 to 10 years in relation to the year of registration of neoplasms. An increase in the incidence of leukemia and a decrease in the incidence of Hodgkin’s lymphoma in the children’s population of Russia have been established. The incidence of NHL in children did not reveal a significant trend. A general pattern was revealed in the form of the connection between childhood leukemia and lymphomas and solar activity, most pronounced in 1997-2008. The increase in the childhood leukemia incidence, taking into account the literature data of the role of exhaust gases in its genesis, can be associated with a threefold increase in the number of cars in Russia during the study period. The reasons for the decrease in the incidence of Hodgkin’s lymphoma require further study. To reduce the risk of hemoblastosis in children, it is advisable to introduce food products into the diet to stimulate autophagy, and transfer factor.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(4):597-605
pages 597-605 views

Biological resources

The system of factors of anthropogenic impact on the fish fauna of the Northern Dvina river basin

Tortsev A.M.


Industry, electric power, utilities, agriculture, mining, construction, shipbuilding, transport and fishing have a constant anthropogenic impact on the Northern Dvina river basin. Identification and qualitative assessment of factors of anthropogenic impact on the fish fauna of the Northern Dvina river basin within the boundaries of the Arkhangelsk region is the aim of the research. Open data of public authorities on anthropogenic impact and scientific publications are the basis for the research. The main factors of anthropogenic impact on fish fauna have been identified. The impact is multifactorial. Fishing reduces the number of fish populations, and economic activities in the water area and the banks of the water body worsen the conditions of the fish habitat. This leads to a change in the parameters of fish populations. Reconstruction of existing wastewater systems and construction of new ones, as well as the introduction of restrictions on the use of forest resources in the coastal zone are directions for reducing the anthropogenic impact.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(4):606-619
pages 606-619 views

The state of the problem of irrational use of aquatic biological resources in 2022 on the example of Pollock fishing

Iakimov A.V.


The supervisory authorities insufficiently control the large-scale fishing that currently exists and there are problems in this industry. The study of the current real situation on mining vessels is very important, since the data, that they receive from them is often incorrect and the actual volumes of the seizure of aquatic biological resources are unknown. Describes the state of the problem of irrational use of aquatic biological resources on the example of Pollock fishing. Provides data on fishing operations, by-catch of other species of aquatic organisms and various violations in the fishery. It describes the amount of ejection overboard of Pollock juveniles, adults and everything that does not go into processing on the ship. The current work of the supervisory authorities on the quality of control and accounting of violations is described.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2022;30(4):620-628
pages 620-628 views

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