Vol 15, No 4 (2016)

ARTICLES
45TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF RUSSIAN HISTORY!
Кozmenko V.M., Мoseikina M.N.
Abstract
В данной статье анализируются основные направления деятельности кафедры истории России Российского университета дружбы народов за 45 лет ее существования. В частности, рассмотрены вопросы становления, формирования и развития кафедры с учетом современных требований к высшей школе в области учебно-методической, научно-исследовательской и внеучебной работы. В этой связи авторы анализируют деятельность созданных на кафедре докторантуры и аспирантуры, диссовета по историческим наукам, научного журнала «Вестник Российского университета дружбы народов. Серия: История России». Раскрывается роль кафедры в подготовке специалистов высшей квалификации. Особое внимание в статье уделяется творческим связям кафедры с ведущими вузами России, ближнего и дальнего зарубежья, показана роль двойной магистратуры, осуществляемой в рамках совместных договоров РУДН с университетами Гренобля (Франция) и Шаньдуня (Китай). Авторы проводят всесторонний анализ позитивных результатов в деятельности кафедры за прошедшие 45 лет, делая при этом упор на последние годы.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(4):7-17
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PROTEST OF THE ORENBURG’S POPULATION AGAINST THE AGRARIAN AND FOOD POLICY AT THE TURN OF 1920-1930-IES: EXPERIENCE OF THE CONTENT ANALYSIS OF THE OGPU SUMMARIES
Kalduzova V.A.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the study of the influence of agro-food transformation on the level of social stability in the early period of industrialization. The subject of the study was the passive protest of the population. On the basis of the frequency content analysis of the summaries of the Joint State Political Administration (JSPA) as a single, rather structured and representative source, there are brought out peculiarities of the protest of the urban and rural population of the Orenburg district which was not directly reflected in the official documents. The author notes that the social-economic changes carried out in the late 1920s transformed the living conditions of the rural and urban society, and led to the changes in the system of food provision. The population reaction was manifested in the growth of passive protest against these measures. In the conclusion the author marks the unevenness of the activity of social groups among the rural and urban population.The main cause of the peasant protest was the tax policy of the Soviet state. The strengthening of grievances was observed during the campaign for the procurement of bread. The author notes the initiate changes in the traditional mentality of the peasantry, the radical growth of this segment of the population. The discontent among the urban population was caused by a low quality and insufficient assortment of food products. The reduction of the number of citizens’ radical statements took place along with the growth of this indicator among the rural population. The author comes to the conclusion that such a response to the increasing of the modernization processes in the country and harsh methods of the agrarian and food policy implementation was appropriate. The system of codification developed and used in the article can be applied for the analysis of the JSPA reports and the study of the protest in the second half of the 1920s.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(4):18-28
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SOUTH OSSETIA'S INDUSTRY IN 1920-1940 OF THE 20TH CENTURY
Tadtaev T.V.
Abstract
The article considers the industrial development of the South Ossetian Autonomous Region within the Georgian SSR in the 1920-1940s. The author sets the task to find out how the industry originated in South Ossetia, to define its role in the economic and social development of South Ossetia, to establish and reveal the full potential of the Republic, to conduct a comparative analysis of the development of the industry in the past and the present. Particular attention is paid to the factors which were constraining the industrial development in the region, including the policy of the Georgian authorities in Tbilisi. The author has come to the conclusion that industrialization of South Ossetia was not implemented. It was caused by the fact thatthe economy was mainly determined by the desire of the Georgian authorities. All this strongly inhibited the development of South Ossetia. It is confirmed by the fact that out of 10 industrial enterprises in 1933 (a sawmill, a furniture factory, charcoal "beta" were the most important among them) were in charge of Georgia’s “Lestrest” and “Gruzpromsoyuz” with only 129.4 thousand rubles of gross output and the sawmill did not have any gross output at all. It was clearly stated in the decision of the Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Georgia in 1934 that South Ossetia was economically the most backward compared with all the republics and regions in the Union of the Transcaucasian Federative Socialist Republics (among them - the Azerbaijan SSR, the Armenian SSR, the Georgian SSR). In the following years the situation did not improve. The Georgian authorities continued their previous policy by means of economic levers. Tbilisi artificially constrained the industrial development of South Ossetia, reduced the standard of living of Ossetians and thus forced them to leave in search of work, study, life, etc.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(4):29-38
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NORTHERN BLACK SEA COAST IN THE AGGRESSIVE PLANS OF THE THIRD REICH AND ITS SATELLITES (1940-1944)
Sinitsyn F.L.
Abstract
In this article the author analyses the content and implementation of the plans of Nazi Germany and its satellites towards the Northern Black Sea Coast during the pre-war period and the occupation period in the years of the Great Patriotic War (1940-1944). The Nazis designed the central part of this region for the primary colonization by German and European settlers, while the eastern part was planned for the economic exploitation. Romania also had plans for the Northern Black Sea. In 1918 this country occupied Bessarabia (in 1940 this region was retrieved to the Soviet Union). In the predatory plans of Romania this region was viewed in two perspectives - Bessarabia as the region considered by Romania as an integral part of the country, and Transnistria as an occupied territory, playing the role of a subject of territorial bargaining with Germany. During World War II Germany and Romania created their occupation zones in the Northern Black Sea. In addition, several other countries also had their plans for the Northern Black Sea. Some areas of this region were occupied by Italian troops. The Italian Consulate in Odessa implemented an active advocacy to prepare the ground for a possible transition of the region under the control of Italy. However, the defeat of the Italian army at Stalingrad nullified the possibility of this country’s participation in the redistribution of the Soviet lands. Bulgaria expressed some interest in the Northern Black Sea Coast too. However, although Germany was interested in involving Bulgaria in the war against the Soviet Union, this did not happen. The Turkish government unofficially informed the German government of its claims to the Crimea and other Soviet territories. The Turkish mission visited the occupied Soviet territory, including Crimea. However, after the defeat of Wehrmacht at Stalingrad, Turkey refused to enter the war on Germany’s side.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(4):39-45
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FAIRS AS THE MECHANISM OF CULTURAL INTEGRATION IN MULTIETHNIC REGIONS: THE CASE OF FAIRS OF MIDDLE VOLGA IN THE 19TH CENTURY
Krasnoshchyokov V.A.
Abstract
This article is a historical-cultural analysis of the role of fairs in the processes of cultural interaction in multi-ethnic regions in the 19th century as exemplified by the Middle Volga region. The article is based on a body of sources, which describe the local fairs, including reference books, statistical and economic data for the provinces of the Middle Volga and documents of ‘Economic notes to the general surveying of 1766-1861s’ stored at the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts (RGADA). The author used historical cultural and methodological approaches, which enabled to estimate fairs as a cultural phenomenon and consider fair trade of the Middle Volga region in a historical perspective, to identify its genesis, and patterns of development in the history of the region. The analysis showed that the fairs served as a mechanism for cultural integration of the peoples of the Middle Volga region in the 19th century. As a part of everyday life, fairs were not only the leading form of trade and form of marketing communications on the basis of personal contacts in the Middle Volga in the 19th century, but also a major cultural phenomenon, a place where different social, professional and ethnic interactions were reflected in the real forms of everyday culture. The peoples of the region closely associated with the central provinces of Russia and with each other through fairs, which played the role of ethno-cultural integration mechanism and the transmission of values and forms of traditional culture in the Middle Volga. The economic and cultural ties between the inhabitants of the region, with a variety of beliefs, customs, habits and needs, expressed in the forms of fair trade, resulted in more homogeneous forms of economic activity, the spread in the daily use of the population of similar features of material and spiritual culture.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(4):46-56
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RUSSIAN ECCLESIASTICAL MISSION IN THE YEARS OF FLOURISHING OF ORTHODOX CHRISTIANITY IN CHINA (1920s-1940S)
Zhe L.
Abstract
The article focuses on the role of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in China in the period of substantial growth of Orthodox flock of Russian emigrants after the Russian revolution of 1917. Main attention is given to the role of the Orthodox Church as spiritual center of the Russian emigrant community. This research has led to the conclusion that the Orthodox Church has achieved big success in providing spiritual guidance to Russian emigrants and preserving their habitual forms of religious activity. At the same time Mission’s inattention to ecclesiastical work among the Chinese has led to considerable difficulties in development of Chinese Orthodoxy after the departure of Russian community from China in the late 1940s - early 1950s. Future development of the Orthodox Christianity in China demands strengthening mutual understanding between the Russian Orthodox Church and the Chinese state in context of positive development of relations between two states; it is also important to adapt the contents of the Orthodox teaching to demands of the Chinese audience and to create platforms for public discussion on religious and cultural problems in both countries.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(4):57-65
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PROPAGANDA IN PERIODICAL PRESS DURING THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR (CASE STUDY OF VLADIMIR REGION)
Tryakhov I.S.
Abstract
The article considers the characteristic of propaganda in the periodical press during World War II. The author pays attention to the disadvantages of propaganda and flexibility of the Soviet press influence during the hard war years. The author uses the examples of central and local newspapers to considerthe drawbacks of propaganda. Besides, the sources of the research were the speech of L.Z. Mekhlis,the Chief of the Red Army propaganda (in Russian - “Glavpur”), the official letters of G.F. Aleksandrov,the chief of propaganda and agitation control to A.S. Shcherbakov, the reports of the Information Bureau, the letters addressed to Stalin to the editorial board of the central newspapers. In the article there are used both general scientific and specific historical methods of the historical research. The latter include the historical-genetic method, implemented through identifying the sources and reasons for changes in the agitation and propaganda activities. This method enables us to compile facts and historical data and recreate the overall picture of the propaganda efforts. Besides, there was used the historical-comparative method, aimed atidentifying various features and their comparison and contrasting. The author has come to the conclusion that in 1941-1943 the periodical press made a lot of propaganda mistakes, however by the end of the war these mistakes were less evident. The attention is paid to the brightest examples of the political and military propaganda. In remote regions there was no need of counter-propaganda since the opponent had no opportunity to carry out propaganda activities among the population. In general, the efficiently organized work of periodicals made the consolidating impact on the mass consciousness.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(4):66-77
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EGYPT AND RUSSIA - PROSPECTS FOR COOPERATION UNDER PRESIDENT ABDEL FATTAH EL-SISI
Khalaf S.I.
Abstract
In this article the author examines the dynamics of the evolution of the Egyptian policies following the "Arab Spring Revolutions" of 2011 especially after the inauguration of Egyptian President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi and the new trends of the Egyptian Policies in both the domestic and the international Affairs. As the main focus of this article will be the special nature of the bilateral co-operation between both countries and the prospects of its development in the key areas. Over the past years, Egypt proved to be one of the biggest trade and economic partner of Russia in the Middle East. About 100 of vital industrial projects were built in Egypt with the assistance of the Soviet Union, as these projects nowadays play an important role in the Egyptian economy. The Russian-Egyptian relations have reached a qualitatively new level, establishing an active political dialogue at all levels including the contacts on the Presidential Level which led to the bilateral governmental agreements concerning a number of major projects including the modernization of the projects that were built by the assistance of USSR expertise, including the Aswan Hydropower stations, the creation of special industrial zones for production of Russian agricultural machinery and equipment’s for the Middle East and North Africa Countries on the Egyptian Land, increasing the grain deliveries to Egypt including wheat, delivery of liquefied natural gas by "Gazprom", construction and operation of the first nuclear power plant by the State Corporation "Rosatom" in northern Egypt.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(4):78-88
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THE EVOLUTION OF THE MILITARY-TECHNICAL COOPERATION BETWEEN RUSSIA AND BELARUS IN 1990-2010-IES
Sozykin M.V.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(4):89-97
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RUSSIAN-CHINESE HUMANITARIAN AND CULTURAL COOPERATION IN THE EARLY 21ST CENTURY
Khan’ko M.V.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(4):98-103
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MODERN POLITICAL HISTORY IN STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION: PARADOXES OF SENTIMENTS AND ATTITUDES
Slizovskiy D.E.
Abstract
В статье на основе проведенного в апреле-июне 2016 г. опроса среди 500 студентов двух высших учебных заведений анализируется восприятие этой категорией молодежи современных исторических реалий политического содержания. Автор анализирует состояние студенческих реакций и поведения на текущие исторические и политические события, особенно в отношении сентябрьских выборов 2016 г., на основе чего опровергает сложившееся представление о состоянии аполитичности как о «затвердевшем» явлении среди российской молодежи.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(4):104-114
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FALSIFICATIONS AND MYTHS OVER HUMAN LOSSES OF THE RED ARMY IN THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR BATTLES
Borisov V.A., Sinyutin S.S.
Abstract
The authors analyze the sources on the number of casualties during the Second World War and reveal the trend according to which during the initial period of the post-Soviet time there was the idea of the ''excessive cost of the Victory''. Then there appeared the idea that the Red Army losses greatly exceeded those of the German troops and their allies. Besides, in recent years there has been the statement of the considerable numerical superiority of the Red Army before and during the war. These are Boris Sokolov, Mark Solonin, Gavriil Popov, Vladimir Beshanov and Andrei Zubov who make up the group of authors comingto such conclusions. As the cause of heavy losses in the initial operations of the war,they consider the low morale of the Red Army, the lack of the ability to fight, the Red Army "incompetent commanders". In contrast to these conclusionsthe authors adducethose of foreign ones - American and British historians David Glantz and Robert Kershaw - as well as Russian military researcher V. Litvinenko. The latter has highlighted three important qualities of the Red Army. Firstly, the soldiers and officers of the Red Army more firmly and courageously defended the Soviet Union in 1941, than the soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht of Germany in 1945. Secondly, in the decisive battles of the war the command of the Red Army was more far-sighted and realistic compared with the command of the Wehrmacht in the assessment of the situation at the front and reacted more promptly and adequately in the current combat situation. Thirdly, the Red Army not only surpassed the Wehrmacht with its combat power and military prowess, but also demonstrated the immensely higher morality in dealing with the defeated enemy and the civilians. The combination of outstanding military and moral qualities puts the Red Army in the first row of the greatest armies in the world history. V. Litvinenko has counted the 'irretrievable loss of human life in the battles of the war' and his estimation has refuted the existing opinion of the 'multiple excess of casualty losses of the Red Army over the Wehrmacht' in the Great Patriotic War operations.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(4):115-123
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RUSSIAN EMPEROR ALEXANDER I IN THE WORKS OF FRENCH HISTORIAN MARIE-PIERRE REY (Book review of: Rey M.-P. Alexandre I. Paris: Flammarion, 2009. 593 p.; Rey M.-P. L’effroyable tragedie. Une nouvelle histoire de la campagne de Russie. Paris: Flammarion, 2012. 320 p.)
Arslanov R.A., Kon’kova O.Y.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(4):124-131
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RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(4):132-134
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