GERMAN INFLUENCE ON CULTURAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF DON COSSACK HOST IN THE 19TH - EARLY 20TH CENTURY

Abstract


In the early 19th century, with the arrival of foreigners, there began the development of the Province of the Don Cossack Host. It was provided by favourable factors: vast areas of uninhabited land, low cost of land and low rent. In the second half of the 19th century the colo-nization of the Don Cossack Host became more intensive. It is the Germans, both offi cials and entrepreneurs and ordinary colonists who played an important role in this. In the article the author tries to show the degree of infl uence of the Germans on the socio-economic and cultural development of the Don Cossack Host in the 19th - early 20th century. On the basis of the scientifi c literature and archival materials, there are analyzed the activities of the Germans of different status and class: from the Ataman of the Don Cossack Host to an at-torney at law. The author describes the role played by the offi cials of the German nationality in establishing economic and cultural life in the Don lands. It is found that they were the initiators of the opening of schools, newspapers, parks, as well as educational institutions. In addition, attention is paid to the fact that the area was inhabited by German colonists engaged mainly in the agricultural or industrial entrepreneurship. They were able to develop their activities through the use of modern advanced technology, sound economic policies, the availability of transport infrastructure and sources of raw materials, as well as the initial absence of fi erce competition. The author concludes that despite their German origin, all of them considered themselves Russian subjects and made efforts for the prosperity of the region in which they found themselves due to various circumstances.


Olga V Erokhina

Principal contact for editorial correspondence.
erohina1@mail.ru
Moscow State Pedagogical University 88 Vernadsky prospect, Moscow, 119571, Russia

About the author: Olga V. Erokhina - PhD (in History), Professor of the Department of History of Russia at Moscow Pedagogical State University (Moscow, Russia).

  • Rovinskii DA. Russkie narodnye kartinki [Russian folk pictures]. St-Petersburg: Akademiya nauk Publ.; 1881. Book 5.
  • Klaus A. Nashi kolonii. Opyty i materialy po istorii i statistike inostrannoi kolonizatsii v Rossii [Our colonies. Experiments and materials on the history and statistics of foreign colonization in Russia]. St-Petersburg: V.V. Nusval’ta’s Publ.; 1869.
  • Velitsyn AA. Nemtsy v Rossii. Ocherki istoricheskogo razvitiya i nastoyashchego polozheniya kolonii na Yuge i Vostoke Rossii [The Germans in Russia. Essays on the historical development and present situation of the colonies in the South and East of Russia]. St-Petersburg: «Russkii vestnik» Publ.; 1893.
  • Evreinov GA. Rossiiskie nemtsy [Russian Germans]. Petrograd: Glavnoe upravlenie udelov Publ.; 1915.
  • Shtakh Ya. Ocherki iz istorii i sovremennoi zhizni yuzhnorusskikh kolonii [Essays from the history and modern life of the South Russian colonies]. Moscow: tovarishchestvo tipografi y A.I. Mamontova Publ.; 1916.
  • Gross E. Avtonomnaya Sovetskaya sotsialisticheskaya respublika nemtsev Povolzh’ya [Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of the Germans of the Volga region]. Pokrovsk: Nemgosizdat Publ.; 1926.
  • Galler PK. Vospominaniya (Byt nemtsev-kolonistov v 60-kh godakh XIX veka) [Memories (Life of German colonists in the 60s of the XIX century)]. Saratov: Saratovskii universitet Publ.; 1927.
  • Druzhinina EI. Znachenie russko-nemetskikh nauchnykh svyazei dlya khozyaistvennogo razvitiya Yuzhnoi Ukrainy v kontse XVIII veka [The signifi cance of Russian-German scientifi c relations for the economic development of Southern Ukraine in the late 18 th century]. Moscow: Nauka Publ.; 1966.
  • Malinovskii LV. Nemetskaya derevnya v Sibiri v period sotsialisticheskogo stroitel’stva (1925−1936 gg.). Dis… kand. ist. nauk [Economic and social development of the colonial village in southern Russia in the fi rst half of the XIX century. PhD thesis]. Tomsk; 1967.
  • Kostyuk MP. Nemetskaya kolonizatsiya na Volyni (60-e gody ХІХ – 1914 g. Dis… kand. ist. nauk [German colonization in Volhynia (60s years of the 19 th – 1914: PhD thesis]. L’vov; 1999.
  • German AA. Istoriya respubliki nemtsev Povolzh’ya v sobytiyakh, faktakh, dokumentakh [History of the Republic of the Germans in the Volga region in events, facts, documents]. Moscow: Gotika Publ.; 2000.
  • Chernova-Deke TN. Nemetskie poseleniya na periferii Rossiiskoi imperii. Kavkaz: vzglyad skvoz’ stoletie (1818−1917) (K 190-letiyu osnovaniya nemetskikh kolonii) [German settlements on the periphery of the Russian Empire. Caucasus: a view through the century (1818−1917) (To the 190th anniversary of the founding of the German colonies)]. Moscow: MSNK-press Publ.; 2008.
  • Vibe PP. Istoriya i etnografi ya nemtsev v Sibiri [History and ethnography of Germans in Siberia]. Omsk: OGIK muzeya Publ.; 2009.
  • Chernova TN. Rossiiskie nemetsy. Otechestvennaya bibliografi ya. 1991−2000 gg. Ukazatel’ noveishei literatury po istorii i kul’ture nemtsev Rossii [Russian Germans. Patriotic bibliography. 1991−2000 Index of the latest literature on the history and culture of the Germans in Russia.]. Moscow; 2001.
  • Cherkaz’yanova IV. Letopis’ dissertatsii o rossiiskikh nemtsakh (1960-e – 2009 gg.) [Annals of dissertations on Russian Germans (1960s − 2009)]. St-Petersburg; 2009.
  • Chesnok EV. Nemetskie kolonii Oblasti Voiska Donskogo [German colonies of the Donskoy Army Region]. Rossiiskie nemtsy na Donu, Kavkaze i Volge: Materialy Rossiisko- Germanskoi nauchnoi konferentsii. Anapa, 22−26 sentyabrya 1994 [Russian Germans on the Don, Caucasus and Volga: Materials of the Russian-German Scientifi c Conference. Anapa, September 22−26]. Moscow; 1995: 79−100.
  • Tereshchenko AG. Nemetskie kolonisty na zemlyakh Voiska Donskogo [German colonists on the lands of the Don Army]. Donskoi vremennik. Rostov on Don; 1996: 137−153.
  • Erokhina OV. Sotsial’no-ekonomicheskoe i kul’turnoe razvitie nemetskikh kolonii Oblasti Voiska Donskogo vt. pol. XIX – fevral’ 1917 g.: Dis. … kand. ist. nauk [Socio-economic and cultural development of the German colonies. fl oor. XIX – February 1917: Dis.. cand. east. sciences]. Volgograd; 2001.
  • Shcherbakov IV. Germanskie investitsii i predprinimateli v promyshlennosti Yuga Rossii (70-e gg. XIX v. – 1914 g.): Dis. … kand. ist. nauk [German colonies of the Region of the Don Army (the last third of the 19 th century − 1914): PhD thesis]. Rostov on Don; 2002.
  • Root EV. Nemetskie kolonii Oblasti Voiska Donskogo (poslednyaya tret’ XIX v. – 1914 g.): Dis. … kand. ist. nauk [German colonies of the Region of the Don Army (the last third of the 19 th century − 1914): PhD thesis]. Rostov on Don; 2003.
  • Antonov V. Peterburg: vy eto znali? Lichnosti, sobytiya, arkhitektura [Petersburg: did you know this? Personality, events, architecture]. Moscow: Tsentrpoligraf; 2012.
  • Filevskii PP. Istoriya goroda Taganroga (1698−1898) [History of the city of Taganrog (1698−1898)]. Taganrog: Sfi nks; 1996.
  • Pashchenko I. Divnaya istoriya o sud’be shestogo Taganrogskogo gradonachal’nika – «pobeditelya kholery» [A marvelous story about the fate of the sixth Taganrog town governor − the “winner of cholera”]. Available at: http://pravtaganrog.ru/divnaya-istoriyao-sudbe-shestogo-taganrogskogo-gradonachalnika-pobeditelya-kholery/ (Date of access: 17 June 2017).
  • Petrovskii AI. Opis’ voiskovym, nakaznym i voiskovym nakaznym atamanam, v raznoe vremya v goroda Cherkassk, a zatem Novocherkassk dlya upravleniya Oblast’yu voiska Donskogo ot vysshego nachal’stva postavlennym. (1738−1916 gg.) [The list of military, command and military ataman at various times, in the cities of Cherkassk, and then Novocherkassk for the control of the area of the Don army from the highest authorities delivered. (1738−1916)]. Novocherkassk: Oblast’ Voiska Donskogo Publ.; [1917?].
  • Dantsev A. Boevoi spodvizhnik Lermontova (O Pavle Khristoforoviche Grabbe (1787−1875) [The combatant associate of Lermontov (About Pavle Khristoforovich Grabbe (1787−1875))]. Vechernii Novocherkassk. 2003; (83).
  • Karasev AA. Donskie atamany za poslednie polveka [Don atamans for the last half-century]. [B. m.], 1899.
  • Deputat YaE. Ditts v roli obvinyaemogo i ego ob”yasnenie [Dietz in the role of the accused and his explanation]. Privolzhskaya gazeta. 1906; (118).
  • Troinitskiy A., ed. Pervaya vseobshchaya perepis’ naseleniya Rossiiskoi imperii 1897 g. XII [The fi rst general census of the Russian Empire in 1897 XII]. Novocherkassk: Oblast’ Voiska Donskogo Publ.; 1905.
  • Tereshchenko AG., Chernenko AL. Rossiiskie nemtsy na Yuge i Kavkaze. Entsiklopedicheskii spravochnik [Russian Germans in the South and the Caucasus. Encyclopedic reference book]. Rostov on Don: OOO «Rostizdat» Publ.; 2000.

Views

Abstract - 43

PDF (Russian) - 11

Comments on this article

View all comments
 |  Add comment

Copyright (c) 2017 Erokhina O.V.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.