Viral and bacterial coinfection as a global problem of modern medicine

Abstract


Coinfection is becoming increasingly medical-social value in the modern world, not only because of their high incidence, but also because a reliable methodological approach to their clinical evaluation, treatment and prevention is absent. This methodological approach should be based on knowledge of the mechanisms of interaction of pathogenic microorganisms with each other - direct and/or mediated through immune system. The most pathogens in сoinfections are bacteria and viruses, their association not only contributes to a severity of infection, but also greatly increases the frequency of its complications and deaths. In this review, based on the example of respiratory coinfections, malignant processes, human immunodeficiency virus associated microorganisms, the interaction of bacterial-viral pathogens examines to show their high diversity. Among the mechanisms of interaction of coinfecting agents, special attention is paid to the impact of viruses on bacterial toxin production, and bacteria on the infectivity of viruses. Coinfecting microorganisms contribute to overcoming epithelial barrier by each other, can mutually beneficial to modify the functions of the cells of the immune system and help to escape from the immune response. It was found that the gene expression of oncogenic viruses and HIV is governed by epigenomic changes caused by the bacteria that leads to carcinogenesis. It was shown that the diversity of bacterial-viral interactions in coinfections not only requires new approaches to their timely identification and control, but also generates new biotechnology and strategies for combating of coinfection development around the world.

About the authors

Irina P Balmasova

Moscow State University of Medcine and Dentistry named by A.I. Evdokimov; Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia

Email: iri.balm@mail.ru

E S Malova

Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia

Email: iri.balm@mail.ru

R I Sepiashvili

Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia

Email: iri.balm@mail.ru

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