Vol 25, No 2 (2017)

Articles
PIETER BRUEGEL THE ELDER - AUTHOR OF THE FIRST GRAPHIC FOOD CHAINS SCHEME
Nikol’skii A.A., Mikodina E.V., Vanisova E.A.
Abstract

The drawing of Netherlandish painter Pieter Bruegel the Elder “The Big Fish Eat the Little Fish” reflects perhaps not political allusions, as it is interpreted in the history of art, but a graphic food-chains scheme. It is possible that the picture engraving, stored in the British Museum, has influenced the creation of the food-chains concept by British ecologists Johnstone [1], Hardy [2] and Elton [3]. The taxonomic attachment of organisms depicted in the drawing has been determined.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2017;25(2):195-205
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COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF SENSITIVITY OF DIFFERENT TEST FUNCTIONS OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE TO SALTS OF HEAVY METALS
Vyatchina O.F., Zhdanova G.O., Stom D.I.
Abstract

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are convenient eukaryotic model to determining the toxicity of various pollutants, including heavy metals. Most of biotests with the use yeast are based on the determination of the cytotoxic or genotoxic effect of heavy metals. These methods are time consuming, require special laboratory equipment. For develop of new rapid test-reaction used the ability of baker’s yeast S. cerevisiae, as a yeast of fermentation, was used to form a foam on the surface of the fermentation liquid. To conduct the bioassay used a commercial preparation of dry yeast “SAF-Moment” (LLC “SAF-Neva”, Russian Federation), as a fermentable substrate - 2% glucose solution. The toxic effect of heavy metal salts was determined by the suppression of foaming in a yeast suspension after incubation for 15 min. In parallelevaluated the influence of salts of heavy metals on the growth and survival of yeast. Foaming activity of theyeast was more sensitive to the tested toxicants in comparison with the growth function ofyeastand their survival. Mercury chloride exerted a toxic effect on the foaming in the yeast suspension in a concentration of 0,0001, sulfateof copper, chlorideof cadmium, chlorideof cobalt 0,001, sulfateof lead 0,01, sulfateof iron 0,1, sulfateof zinc 1 g/l. Built a series of toxicity of heavy metal salts with respect to the test functions of S. cerevisiae basically coincided. The advantages of the test reaction for suppressing the foaming activity of yeast are technical simplicity, express (a test of response is 15 min), minimal material costs, no need for special microbiological equipment, culture media, maintaining the culture in a viable condition. The proposed reaction can be used as a express bioassay to assess the toxicity of environments contaminated by the pollutants of this class.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2017;25(2):206-216
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THE DOSE-EFFECT OF OIL POLLUTION OF SOILS ON THE BIOTIC COMPONENT OF ECOSYSTEMS
Buzmakov S.A., Egorova D.O., Gatina E.L.
Abstract

The degree of influence on the biotic component of ecosystems depends on the level of oil contamination present in the soil. To determine the dose-effect, the reaction of living objects of different levels of organization with the use of methods of toxicology, analytical chemistry and ecology was studied. It was found that the concentration of oil in the soil of 200 g/kg and above has a toxic effect on microorganisms: the toxicity index was 38 units, the decomposition rate of benzo [a] pyrene significantly decreases. It was found that increasing the dose of oil pollution nonlinearly affects the conditions of plant development. At the same time, plant components react less actively to changes in the concentration of oil in the soils of the coniferous-broad-leaved subzone than in the soils of the southern taiga. The use of Daphnia magna Straus as a test object showed that for animals the soil becomes acute with an oil content of more than 200 g/kg soil. Thus, a dose-effect is shown for microorganisms, plants and animals with oil contamination of various soils.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2017;25(2):217-229
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FACTORS OF ACCUMULATION AND DEPLETION OF HEAVY METALS AND METALLOIDS IN DANDELION LEAVES IN MOSCOW
Vlasov D.V.
Abstract

The aim of the study is to evaluate the landscape and technogenic factors of the formation of biogeochemical anomalies of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sb and Zn in the leaves of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). The plants of the municipal districts of Sokolinaya Gora, Perovo, Ivanovo, Novogireevo, Veshnyaki, Novokosino and Kosino-Ukhtomsky of the Eastern Administrative District of Moscow were studied. Concentrations of heavy metals and metalloids (HM) in washed plant samples were determined by atomic absorption method. The biogeochemical specialization of dandelion leaves in the city relatively to the background landscapes is following: Mo13,5Cd4,8Pb4,5Fe4,5As3,5Sb3,0Cu1,3. Technogenic and landscape factors of accumulation and depletion of HM in leaves are determined by tree-based models in the SPLUS software. The most significant factors are the physical and chemical properties of soils. However some other landscape factors could also influence, for example soil flooding for Pb, landscape and geochemical position for Mn, Fe. Technogenic factors that could influence on HM distribution are functional zoning (Cu, Cd, Zn), atmospheric deposition of HM - Fe, Cd, Mo, vehicle emissions - Pb, Fe.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2017;25(2):230-241
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DRYING SEDIMENTARY PRODUCTION OF SEWAGE WATER IN NATURAL CONDITIONS
Budykina T.A.
Abstract

Industrial sewage sludge poses a considerable threat to the environment due to the high level of humidity and due to the fact that it contains pathogenic microorganisms and heavy metals ions in quantities that considerably exceed threshold limit value. The article covers the results of a study regarding the drying of sewage sludge produced by a tannery in natural conditions indoors (controlled conditions) and outdoors, with temperatures below and above zero at different times of the year (production testing). The study discovered that humidity of sewage sludge produced by a tannery can be reduced within 2 months from 85% to 10,8% due to the drying technology in natural conditions at a temperature of 20 °С. If the drying procedure takes place in form of briquets at a temperature of 20 °С the size of the briquet would be reduced by 8,1 times, its mass - by 6 times, its linear size - by half. Sewage sludge drying conducted outdoors in winter progresses slowly and affects only the uppermost layer of 5-10 cm; in summer the drying process progresses faster and within the time frame of 20 days the humidity of the sludge is reduced from 85% to 70%. Rotation of defrostation, drainage, drying and freezing procedures is conducive to a specific, more powdery sludge than the one that is produced by using only the drying procedure with temperatures above zero. A dewatered sludge can be used to produce LECA (lightweight expanded clay aggregate). The article provides generalized statistics of study results regarding the sludge drying procedure in natural conditions in contrast to the geotube method.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2017;25(2):242-252
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ZINC AND CADMIUM IN TREE SPECIES OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS: PATTERNS OF TRANSLOCATION, ACCUMULATION AND BARRIER MECHANISMS
Zheleznova O.S., Chernykh N.A., Tobratov S.A.
Abstract

This paper has been devoted to the problem of zinc and cadmium accumulation and distribution in the tree organs (on the example of forest ecosystems in the center of the East European plain). Using the translocation and discrimination factors it has been found that zinc as a rule translocated to the aboveground tree phytomass while cadmium was located to a greater extent within the roots. It has been found that the selectivity of the membrane transport systems of plantsincreased toward photosynthetic organs. It has been shown that the main reason of high cadmium accumulation in the stem wood is predominant cadmium xylem transport in the form of free ion Cd2+. In addition it has been foundsome aspects of species-specific accumulation of zinc and cadmium in tree species, associated with their geochemical specialization and peculiarities of the thiol compounds metabolism

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2017;25(2):253-270
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TE MPORARY CHANGES IN POLYARENES CONTENT IN SOILS AND PLANTS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF COAL MINING
Yakovleva E.V., Gabov D.N., Beznosikov b.k.
Abstract

Rapid development of the industry causes intensified contamination of the environment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Tundra ecosystems have high recourse potential but also are characterized by a low resistance to anthropogenic influences. The aim of our research was to study possible use of organogenic soil horizons, plants and lichens to trace temporary changes in PAH content in south tundra communities under the aerotechnogenic pollution. Monitoring of PAH content was conducted in organogenic soil horizons and plants from lower vegetation layer of southern tundra. Soils and plants were sampled both from the вackground site and from the sites established in 0,5; 1 and 1,5 km north-east from the coal mine “Vorkutinskaya” taking into account the wind rose. The samples were collected at the polluted sites in 2013 and 2015. The model species - lichen Peltigera leucophlebia Nyl., moss Pleurozium schreberi Brid. and dwarf shrub Vaccinium myrtillus L. (leaves). ASE-350 accelerated solvent extraction system (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA) was used to extract PAHs from plants and soils. PAH content in the sample was determined by HPLC method.13 PAH structures were identified in organogenic horizons, plants and lichens from the sites under study. Coal dust was found to be the main PAH source for soils and plants affected by the mine “Vorkutinskaya”. Light polyarenes made the greatest contribution to the total PAH content. Their proportion remained stable in time at different distances from the mine indicating the constant nature of the contamination. Decrease of PAH content in plants during the two-year period was caused by decrease of mine effect intensity. Plants responded on changes in PAH streams faster than soil organogenic horizons. So, we suppose that plants can be used as better indicators of environmental changes. The largest level of PAH accumulation was revealed for moss Pleurozium schreberi, which due to its wide spread and active PAH accumulation ability can be used to indicate the contamination level in zones affected by coal mining industry.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2017;25(2):271-293
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ABOUT ENS URING ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF WATER RESERVOIRS OF ECONOMIC-DRINK PURPOSE OF OIL-FARMING OF ORENBURG REGION
Gayev A.Y., Savilova E.B.
Abstract

In the oil and gas bearing areas of the Buzuluk depression with water resources deficiency and the development of environmental pollution (OC) processes, zones of groundwater concentration have been identified, both in the upper and lower hydrodynamic floors, in order to ensure water and environmental safety of the region, and oil fields - technical water for systems Maintaining reservoir pressure. We have established that the zones of concentration of fresh groundwater are gravitating toward riverine areas and are practically absent in their parts. They are vulnerable to pollution, and they can be used as indicators of the state of the OS. To protect water resources from pollution, it is recommended to place the projected engineering infrastructure, taking into account the scheme of typing the territory for protection against pollution, built by us. To protect groundwater from pollution, barrier technologies should be used, a number of which have been developed by the authors. Our geological-geophysical and neotectonic analysis of hydrogeological materials made it possible to identify the zones of concentration of brines and saline waters, which it is advisable to replace fresh water in the systems of maintaining reservoir pressure. For the same purpose, it is necessary to utilize wastewater from oilfields that can not be effectively cleaned. The proposed set of measures will increase the level of environmental safety of the oil producing regions of the Orenburg region and with the same purpose can be used in other similar regions.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2017;25(2):294-305
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CONCEPTUAL MO DEL OF THE EXPERT SYSTEM FOR REHABILITATION OF THE GEOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT CONTAMINATED BY OIL PRODUCTS
Absametov M.K., Shagarova L.V., Muratova M.M.
Abstract

The Republic of Kazakhstan is one of the oil-producing countries in the world.It is the area where oil is extracted by numerous oil companies, natural reserves of hydrocarbon raw materials are intensively exploited,and anthropogenic load on soils causes additional contamination of the geological environment.On the other hand, Kazakhstan is one of the water-deficient countries on the Eurasian continent, where groundwater is an important strategic resource. Therefore,prediction of the possibilitythat oil products can reach the groundwater level and pollutantscan spread in the aeration and saturation zones is one of the prerequisites for timely response for rehabilitation of the geological environment and ensuring of good quality of groundwaters.Therefore, the development of an expert system for rehabilitation of the geological environment contaminated by oil products is really actual. As the expert system is implementedon a single information platform of the CIS countries, it is necessary to coordinate the work of international participants at all its stages, from defining the concepts to selecting the model sites for system testing.The subject of this article is to determine the set of input data required for predicting migration of oil and oil products through soil, groundwater and surface runoff, andto develop a conceptual model of the expert system determining the structure of the modeled system and interrelations between its elements. Building of a clear hierarchy of objects makes the model more understandable for the developers and more friendlyfor the users of the expert system. The system usesthe methods of studying oil pollution, their systematization, updating of new and previously acquired knowledge.The structure of the methods contains conceptual, operational and logical components. Information on the time variation in the distribution of the concentration of petroleum products in the geological environment and the data on technologies used to restore the geological environment take into account specific features of the studied area.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2017;25(2):306-316
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IMPLEMENTATION OF LMS INTO TEACHING ESP TO ECOLOGICAL FACULTY STUDENTS
Rudneva M.A., Valeeva N.G.
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to identify the relevance of LMS-based flipped classroom model for teaching English for specific purposes. The research is based on a case study conducted with a group of 2d year Environmental Sciences students who study English for specific purposes at a university level. To integrate computer-assisted module into everyday educational practices an LMS-based course was created. The students were asked to log into the LMS on a weekly basis and perform activities complementing on-site learning. The process has been evaluated by means of weekly follow-up as well as monthly quizzes. The students were asked to take part in a survey contemplating the motivational and educational value of the LMS-based training. The paper discusses the findings, outlines major challenges the instructor has to overcome having employed such semi-flipped classroom format and offers plausible solutions.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2017;25(2):317-324
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