“The World is Bigger than Five”. Turkey’s Emergence as a Global Actor in World Politics: Prospects and Challenges for Russia
- Authors: Irkhin A.A.1, Moskalenko O.A.1
- Sevastopol State University
- Issue: Vol 21, No 1 (2021): Conceptualizing the Problems of World Politics through the Prism of IR Theory
- Pages: 91-107
- Section: THEMATIC DOSSIER
- URL: https://journals.rudn.ru/international-relations/article/view/25959
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.22363/2313-0660-2021-21-1-91-107
The foreign policy realized by Turkey’s president clearly evidences the fact that Erdogan does not accept today’s world order as a model for the near future. This has led to the proposition of The World Is Bigger than Five formula since 2013. At least in several key regions, Ankara attempts to change the world order through more than emotional declarations; it uses both hard and soft power in the Eastern Mediterranean, Middle East, Black Sea region, Caucasus, and Central Asia. The main indicators of Turkish soft and hard power (military, economic, technological factors, and attractiveness of mass culture) are examined to identify possibilities of Turkey to change the balance of power in key regions and on a global scale. From 2007, the vision of Turkey as an influential actor globally has been propagated by the Turkish elite of the Justice and Development Party (AKP). Geopolitical, civilizational, and systematic approaches are used. The research process is carried out within the paradigm of classical and critical geopolitics. During the AKP’s time in power, moderate Islamists gave Turkey a new impetus - a return to its civilizational roots. One must note the state’s development of its economy, military-industrial complex, and the new national position globally as a patron of every Muslim. Modern Turkey can be considered a great regional power with sectoral global leadership in its military attainment, and due to the attractiveness of its model of development. Ankara invests heavily in soft power, its success is based on the Turkish development ideology, which represents a synthesis of neo-Ottoman, neo-Pan-Turkic and pan-Islamic ideas. The revival of Turkey as a regional power and its desire to become a world power will inevitably increase the space of contradictions in Russian-Turkish relations, reducing the sphere of cooperation between the two countries.
Table 1. Parameters of Leadership in the Black Sea Region
Total area, km2
Land border, km
GDP, billion USD
National debt, % of GDP
Military expenditures, % of GDP
143 722 205
82 017 514
43 922 939
6 966 899
21 302 893
3 364 496
Source: составлено авторами по данным CIA World Factbook // CIA. URL: https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/ (accessed: 30.11.2020)
Fig. 1. Turkey’s Military Expenditures in 2010—2018, millions USD
Source: Turkey Military Expenditure // Trading Economics. URL: https://tradingeconomics.com/turkey/military-expenditure (accessed: 30.11.2020)
About the authors
Aleksandr Anatolievich IrkhinSevastopol State University
Author for correspondence.
PhD, Dr. of Sc. (Political Science), Head, Political Science and Philosophy Department, Institute of Social Sciences and International RelationsSevastopol, Russian Federation
Olga Aleksandrovna MoskalenkoSevastopol State University
PhD in Philology, Associate Professor, Theory and Practice of Translation Department, Institute of Social Sciences and International RelationsSevastopol, Russian Federation
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