Trends of Development of the Modern International Justice

Cover Page

Abstract


The article is devoted to tendencies of development of modern international law and the international justice authorities. Globalization of the modern world and the interaction of States at all levels: political, economic, commercial, educational, and others - determines the relevance of the article. The interaction leads to conflicts and disputes between States, between States, legal and physical persons, between legal and physical persons from different countries, they require resolution at the international level. The increase of number of international contacts is followed by the increase of conflicts between the parties and, respectively, the number of international judicial processes. International law and the international judicial bodies play a special role in solving the problems of the peaceful settlement of international conflicts. Certain trends characterize the current stage of development of international law. These are diversification and fragmentation resulting in the proliferation of international judicial bodies. Strengthening the rule of law in international relations is the main positive point of the main trends in international law. The sphere of international relations, which are not covered by international law, are reduced. The main negative aspect of modern tendencies in the field of international justice is: the possibility of multiple interpretations of international law, especially the regional courts, as well as increasing the risk of issuing conflicting, sometimes inconsistent, decisions of different international judicial bodies. The possibility of finding a forum shopping is a negative consequence as well. This creates a legal conflict, delays, problems with recognition of international judicial bodies, their jurisdiction, for failure to execute court decisions. This leads to a reduction of efficiency of activity of international courts in General. The main task of modern international law is to overcome or mitigate conflicts of jurisdictions of the various international judicial bodies, as well as to set the stable matches between international courts and the enforceability of their decisions. Studies of the leading Russian and foreign lawyers play an important role for overcoming contradictions in the sphere of international law and the activities of international judicial bodies. Scientists note in their works that the modern trends of development (diversification, fragmentation, proliferation, imperativity) is an objective phenomena, they are caused by the development of pluralism of the modern world.


About the authors

Ekaterina S Orlova

Federal Agency for Fishery of the Russian Federation

Author for correspondence.
Email: orlova-nauka@yandex.ru
12, Rozhdestvensky bulvar st., Moscow, Russia, 107006

Chief Specialist-Expert

References

  1. Abashidze, A.Kh., Goltyaev, A.O. (2013). Universal'nye mekhanizmy zashhity prav cheloveka [Universal Mechanisms for the Protection of Human Rights]. Moscow: Yuniti Publ. (in Russian).
  2. Abashidze, A.Kh., Solntsev, A.M. (2012). Mirnoe razreshenie mezhdunarodnykh sporov: sovremennye problemi [Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes: Contemporary Issues]. 2nd edn. Moscow: RUDN Publ. (in Russian).
  3. Alter, J.K. (2011). The Evolving International Judiciary. Buffet Center for International and Comparative Studies Working Paper Series, (11), pp. 4–59.
  4. Anufrieva, L.P. (2002). Mezhdunarodnoe chastnoe pravo: v 3-kh tomakh [Private International Law]. Moscow: BEK Publ. (in Russian).
  5. Bekyashev, K.A. (ed.) (2005). Mezhdunarodnoe publichnoe pravo: Uchebnik dlya vuzov. 4 izd.
  6. [Public International Law: Textbook for Universities. Fourth edn.]. Moscow: TK Velbi, Prospekt Publ. (in Russian).
  7. Bennouna, M. (1983). Droit international du développement: Tiers monde et interpellation du droit international. Paris: Berger-Levrault Publ.
  8. Biehler, G. (2008). Procedures in International Law. Berlin: Springer Publ.
  9. Burke-White, W. (2004). International Legal Pluralism. Michigan Journal of International Law, 25, pp. 963–979.
  10. Charney, J.I. (1999). The Impact on the International Legal System of the Growth of International Courts and Tribunals. International Law and Politics, 31, pp. 697–708.
  11. Dupuy, P.-M. (1999). The Danger of Fragmentation of Unification of the International Legal System and the International Court of Justice. International Law and Politics, 31, pp. 791–807.
  12. Helfer, L.R. (1999). Forum Shopping for Human Rights. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 148(2), pp. 285–400.
  13. Higgins, R. (2001). Respecting Sovereign States and Running a Tight Courtroom. International & Comparative Law Quarterly, 50(1), pp. 121–132.
  14. Ispolinov, А.S. (2016a). Pervoe reshenie Suda EАES: reviziya nasledstva i ispytanie iskusheniem [The First Decision of the Court of the Eurasian Economic Union: Revision of the Inheritance and the Test of Temptation]. Rossijskij yuridicheskij zhurnal [The Russian Legal Jounal], (4), pp. 85–93. (in Russian).
  15. Ispolinov, А.S. (2016b). Rol' posleduyushhikh soglashenij (subsequent agreements) gosudarstv v prave mezhdunarodnykh dogovorov [The Role of Subsequent Agreements of States in the Law of Treaties]. Zakonodatel'stvo [Legislation], (10). pp. 79–87. (in Russain).
  16. Kapustin, A.Ya. (2001). Mezhdunarodno-pravovye problemy prirody i dejstviya prava Evropejskogo Soyuza [International Legal Problems of Nature and the Law of the European Union]. LL.D. thesis. Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University). (in Russian).
  17. Kapustin, A.Ya. (2014). Mezhdunarodnoe pravo: Uchebnik dlya bakalavrov [International Law: a Textbook for bachelors]. 2nd edn. Moscow: Yurayt Publ. (in Russain).
  18. Khabrieva, T.Y. (ed.) (2015). Shankhajskaya organizatsiya sotrudnichestva: novye prioritety razvitiya: monografiya [The Shanghai Cooperation Organization: New Priorities of Development: Monograph]. Moscow: INFRA-M Publ. (in Russian).
  19. Khabrieva, T.Y., Tikhomirov, Y.A. (eds.) (2015). Nauchnye kontseptsii razvitiya rossijskogo zakonodatel'stva: Monografiya, 7-e izd [The Scientific Concept of Development of the Russian Legislation: Monograph. Seventh edn.]. Moscow: ID Juriprudentsia Publ. (in Russian).
  20. Kislitsyna, N.F. (2010). Razvitie sistemy mezhdunarodnogo prava na sovremennom ehtape [The Development of International Law System at Present Stage]. PhD thesis. Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University). (in Russian).
  21. Kolodkin, R.A. (2005). Fragmentatsiya mezhdunarodnogo prava [Fragmentation of International Law]. Moskovskij zhurnal mezhdunarodnogo prava [The Moscow Journal of International Law], (2), pp. 38–61. (in Russian).
  22. Koneva, A.E. (2017). K voprosu o besperspektivnosti uchrezhdeniya Vsemirnogo suda po pravam cheloveka [To the Question about the Futility of the Institution of a World Court of Human Rights]. RUDN Journal of Law, 21(1), pp. 83–101. (in Russian).
  23. Lavranos, N. (2008a). Regulating Competing Jurisdictions among International Courts and Tribunals. Zeitschrift fur auslandisches Recht und Volkerrecht, (68), pp. 576–621.
  24. Lavranos, N. (2008b). Towards a Solange Method between International Courts and Tribunals. In: I. Shany, T. Broude, eds. The Allocation of Authority in International Law, Essays in Honour of Prof. R. Lapidoth. Oxford: Hart, pp. 217–235.
  25. Martineau, A.-C. (2005). La fragmentation du droit international: un renouvellement de la? European Society of International Law Series [online]. Available at: http://esil-sedi.eu/wpcontent/uploads/2018/04/Martineau.pdf [Accessed April 10, 2018].
  26. Oppenheim, L. (1949). Mezhdunarodnoe pravo: Mir. T. 1. [International law: Peace. In two vols.].Moscow: Gos. Izd-vo Inostr. lit. Publ. (in Russian).
  27. Orlova, E.S. (2017). Stanovlenie sistemy mezhdunarodnogo pravosudiya [The Formation of the System of International Justice]. In: Pashentsev, D.A. (ed.). Prava i svobody cheloveka i grazhdanina: teoreticheskie aspekty i yuridicheskaya praktika: Materialy ezhegodnoj Mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konferentsii pamyati professora F.M. Rudinskogo, 27 aprelya 2017 goda [Rights and Freedoms of Human and Citizen: Theoretical Aspects and Legal Practice: the Proceedings of the Annual International Scientific Conference in Memory of Professor F.M. Rudinsky, 27 April 2017]. Ryazan: Publishing House Concept, pp. 338–340. (in Russian).
  28. Plotnikov, A.V. (2012). Yurisdiktsionnyj konflikt i dialog mezhdunarodnykh sudov v protsesse fragmentatsii mezhdunarodnogo prava [Jurisdictional Conflict and Dialogue of International Courts in the Process of Fragmentation of International Law]. Rossijskij yuridicheskij zhurnal [Russian Law Journal], (4), pp. 108–117. (in Russian).
  29. Romano, C.P.R (1999). The Proliferation of International Judicial Bodies: the Pieces of the Puzzle. International Law and Politics, 31, pp. 709–751.
  30. Romano, C.P.R. (2007). The Shift from the Consensual to the Compulsory Paradigm Adjudication: Elements for a Theory of Consent. New York Journal of International Law and Politics, 39(4), pp. 791–872.
  31. Sauer, H. (2008). Jurisdiktionskonflikte in Mehrebenensystemen: die Entwicklung eines Modelles zur Losung von Konflikten zwischen Gerichten unterschiedlicher in vernetzen Rechtsordnungen. Heidelberg: Springer.
  32. Shany, Y. (2003). The Competing Jurisdictions of International Courts and Tribunals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  33. Shinkaretskaya, G.G. (2009). Tendentsii razvitiya sudebnykh sredstv mirnogo razresheniya mezhdunarodnykh sporov: Monografiya [Trends in the Development of Judicial Remedies for Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes]. Moscow: NOTA BENE Publ. (in Russian).
  34. Smbatyan, A.S. (2017). Tolkovanie i primenenie pravil Vsemirnoj torgovoj organizatsii: Monografiya [The Interpretation and Application of the Rules of the World Trade Organization]. Moscow: INFRA-M Publ. (in Russian).
  35. Sokolova, N.A. (ed.) (2014). Fragmentatsiya mezhdunarodnogo prava. Liber amicorum v chest' professora E.G. Moiseeva [Fragmentation of International Law. Liber amicorum in Honor of Professor E.G. Moiseev]. Moscow: Kutafin University Publ. (in Russian).
  36. Terris, D., Romano, C., Swigart, L. (2007). The International Judge: An Introduction to the Men and Women who Decide the World’s Cases. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  37. Tiunov, O.I. (ed.) (2015). Subekty sovremennogo mezhdunarodnogo prava: Monografiya [The Subjects of Modern International Law: Monograph]. Moscow: INFRA-M Publ. (in Russian).
  38. Tiunov, O.I., Ignatenko, G.V. (2013). Mezhdunarodnoe pravo: Uchebnik. 6-e izdanie [International Law: the Textbook. 6th edn.]. Moscow: Norma Publ. (in Russian).
  39. Tiunov, O.I., Kashirkina, A.A., Morozov, A.N. (2011). Vypolnenie mezhdunarodnykh dogovorov Rossijskoj Federatsii: Monografiya [The Implementation of International Treaties of the Russian Federation: Monograph]. Moscow: Norma Publ. (in Russian).
  40. Tolstykh, V.L. (2009). Kurs mezhdunarodnogo prava: Uchebnik [International Law: Textbook].Moscow: Volters Kluver Publ. (in Russian).
  41. Tolstykh, V.L. (2009). Mezhdunarodnye sudy i uchastie Rossii v ikh deyatel'nosti [International Courts and Russia's Participation in Their Activities]. Ekonomicheskie strategii [Economic strategies], (7), pp. 78–85. (in Russian).
  42. Tolstykh, V.L. (2010a). Formirovanie sistemy mezhdunarodnogo pravosudiya i ee osnovnye kharakteristiki [The Formation of the System of International Justice and Its Main Characteristics]. Vestnik Novosibirskogo gosudаrstvennogo universitetа. Seriya: Pravo [Bulletin of Novosibirsk State University. Series: Law], 6(2), pp. 125–132. (in Russian).
  43. Tolstykh, V.L. (2010b). Proliferatsiya mezhdunarodnykh sudov i ee posledstviya [Proliferation of International Courts and Its Consequences]. Rossijskoe pravosudie [Russian Justice], (10), pp. 54–63. (in Russian).
  44. Tolstykh, V.L. (2015). Mezhdunarodnye sudy i ikh praktika: Uchebnoe posobie [International Courts and Their Practice]. Moscow: Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya Publ. (in Russian).
  45. Tolstykh, V.L. (ed.) (2014). Instituty mezhdunarodnogo pravosudiya: Uchebnoe posobie [Institutions of international justice]. Moscow: Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya Publ. (in Russian).
  46. Vylegzhanin, A.N. (ed.) (2015). Mezhdunarodnoe pravo: uchebnik dlya akademicheskogo bakalavriata. T. 2. [International Law: a Textbook for Academic Bachelor Degree. Vol. 2]. Moscow: Yurayt Publ. (in Russian).

Statistics

Views

Abstract - 11938

PDF (Russian) - 3136

Cited-By


PlumX

Dimensions

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Orlova E.S.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies