Vol 27, No 3 (2019)

Industrial Ecology
Comprehensive assessment of environmental impact during the operation of a pilot plant for the processing of dead tail of the Khingan tin deposit
Mayorova L.P., Abuzov A.V.

The article presents the results of a comprehensive environmental impact assessment in the extraction of tin from stale tails accumulated in tailings during the operation of the Khingan deposit. Tailings pose a threat to the environment and at the same time are a source of technogenic raw materials. Operation of a pilot plant of gravity-flotation type will have a negligible impact on the environment, and a low positive effect on the socio-economic sphere. At the same time, the environmental situation will significantly improve in connection with the liquidation of tailings.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2019;27(3):163-172
Integrated ship system for preparation and conditioning of drinking water
Mizgirev D.S., Cherepkova E.A., Slyusarev A.S., Otdelkin N.S.

The article considers the ways of preserving the quality of drinking water during prolonged storage in closed ship containers. The analysis of water treatment methods in marine conditions allowed to select the most promising and safe methods. The classification of activated oxidation technologies is given in the paper. The functional scheme of integrated ship systems of preparation and conditioning of drinking water is presented.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2019;27(3):173-183
The distribution distance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the tundra zone under the impact of thermal power plant
Yakovleva E.V., Gabov D.N.

Being widely distributed in the tundra zone and highly sensible to temporal or spatial changes in composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ecosystems, Pleurozium schreberi Brid. can serve a pollution indicator of tundra biocenoses with polyarenes. The purpose of the present study is estimating the PAH distribution distance in the tundra zone under the impact of thermal power plant (TPP). The study was conducted in the Bolshezemelskaya tundra area of the Vorkuta region (Komi Republic, Russia). The surface accumulation and total content of PAHs in Pleurozium schreberi and organic horizon of tundra surfacegley soils (Stagnic Cambisols) at the background site and sites removed from the TPP at 0.5; 1; 1.5; 3; 5 and 12 km were studied. The PAH content in Pleurozium schreberi under the impact of TPP changes with distance not linearly. The maximum accumulation was noted at 3 km distance, then the content of PAHs decreased and reached a background level of 12 km from the source. The high molecular weight structures seemed to be transported at distance of no more than 3 km and fell down to the moss surface. The light structures could fly further. This fact responded for concentration of heavy and light structures on particles with different diameter. The moss surface at the background and polluted sites did not contain naphthalene. The total polyarene capacity on the moss surface is relatively the same for the background and polluted sites. At 3 km site, there was a sharp increase in the mass fraction of surface PAH by a factor of 3 due to an increase in the mass fraction of 4-5 - nuclear polyarenes. Being contaminated, the moss activates the bioaccumulation processes of PAHs and so transports polyarenes from its surface to inner organs. The exclusion is a site at a distance of 3 km where the proportion of surface accumulation increased with maximum pollution, i.e., PAH ingress into moss decreased. Determined that the dead part of Pleurozium schreberi or the whole plant is to be used for true identification of polyarenes. The changes in polyarene content in organic soil horizons are the same as in Pleurozium schreberi . By the obtained data, PAHs in tundra can move at large distances. The background-like PAH values are estimated for the site as 12 km from the pollution source for Pleurozium schreberi . The background-like PAH values for organic soil horizons are not estimated. The obtained results agree with the cluster analysis data.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2019;27(3):184-198
Life Safety
Occupational air negative impacts on the workers at the light industry manufactures
Gutorova N.V., Tikhonova N.S., Sedlyarov O.I.

Creating favorable work conditions is one of the most important priorities in the modern industry production. Observed in the recent years light industry manufacture growth is followed by a negative impact on the occupational air in industrial spaces and thus proves relevance of this research. The purpose of this work is to determine the characteristics of the formation of the occupational air and its impact on workers, taking into account the specifics of light industry production. Investigations of the temperature-humidity of the air state were carried out by the method of full-scale instrumental measurements of the occupational air. A feature of the research is that the measurements were carried out at a significant number of modern operating enterprises during the certification of work places with the involvement of laboratories accredited by the Russian Federation Oversight Committee for Sanitation and Epidemiology. The result of this article is a definition of jobs and areas that do not meet regulatory requirements. General recommendations are given to reduce the negative factors of the indoor air and their impact on the workers.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2019;27(3):199-208
Environmetal defence
Assessment of ecological comfort of soils of urban ecosystems under the influence of heavy metals on them
Nevedrov N.P.

Assessment of the ecological state of environmental components in urban areas plays an important role in achieving environmental safety and environmental comfort for human habitation and economic activities. A comprehensive index of ecological comfort of soils polluted by heavy metals is presented and tested. The index is calculated by the ratio of the total impact of heavy metals (HM) on soils, plants, and soil biota to the sum of indicators of environmental sustainability of soils to this effect and the ability of soils to prevent HM pollution in nearby territories. The scale for ecological regulation and ecological comfort of urban ecosystem soils is proposed. It was noted that 42.8% of the soils of the studied key sites located in the sanitary-protective and recreational zones are environmentally comfortable, while 57.2% of the soils of the industrial, residential and sanitary-protective functional zones of the city are not considered to be ecologically comfortable.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2019;27(3):209-218
Assessment of risks of occurrence and consequences of oil spill in the area of the Cheboksary river port
Plastinin A.E., Domnina O.L., Zakharov V.N., Safarov A.M.

Due to the significant number of oil spill incidents, spill forecasting plays an important role in developing plans for their prevention and response. In this article, the authors propose an analysis of the risk of oil pollution from ships in the region of the Cheboksary river port. The analysis was performed by determining the frequency of oil spills in the vicinity of the specified port, assessing the consequences (losses) and summarizing the estimates. At the same time, using mathematical modeling of oil spills in the region of the Cheboksary river port, the authors developed regression models for assessing damaging factors and calculated the size of the damage to the components of the environment (water, soil, air). The results of the studies performed in this work can be used in the development of measures to prevent or reduce the adverse effects of emergency situations, taking into account the natural and climatic conditions.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2019;27(3):219-230
Environmental management
A review in Southeastern Nigeria: environmental problems and management solutions
Kalu N.N., Zakirova Y.L.
This article aims at understanding the environmental problems in the Southeastern part of Nigeria and how they affect public activities and values. It is meant to highlight the standard of living, environmental conditions, and the possible solutions with challenges to sustaining the environment. The Southeastern part of Nigeria is becoming heavily influenced by climate change. Problems and difficulties are stretching from persistent flooding to destruction of natural habitat and environmentally related health issues. In other words, this article answers questions related to environmental problems and reveals the reason why there are frequent occurrences of these problems. Another crucial part is in the explanation of the social behaviour and complex risks associated with ignorance of indirect human activities, focusing more on the issues which could be in the water, soil, and air. In concerns towards environmental problems in Southeastern Nigeria, this article will lay more emphasis on the most persistent environmental issues and concerns affecting these areas and how to manage them.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2019;27(3):231-240
Short announcements
The index of ornithological attractiveness of facilities for the processing and disposal of municipal solid waste
Sergeev S.A., Kuznetsova I.N., Enaleev I.R.

In connection with the increase in the number of household facilities attractting birds and the widespread growth of synanthropic bird populations, the problem of ornithological safety is becoming more and more urgent. For effective scaring away of birds from territories where their presence is undesirable, it is necessary to understand what has brought these birds to this territory, it’s important to find out the reasons for the ornithological attractiveness of the economic object. This article describes a method by which it’s possible to calculate the ornithological attractiveness of any business object. These calculations allow to plan the place, time and mode of work of bird repellent specialists.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2019;27(3):241-246

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