Vol 14, No 2 (2022)

Oriental Studies

Reward for the loyalty, retribution for treachery: judicial practice of Chinggis Khan

Drobyshev Y.I., Pochekaev R.Y.


The article is an analysis of judicial activity of Chinggis Khan towards persons who entered his service under different circumstances. Analysis allows to state that Chinggis Khan not always used the same criteria taking his decision on the reward for loyalty and punishment for treachery. Authors attempt to explain the reasons of taking one or another decision by Chinggis Khan and clarify their correlation with political ideology formed by him during the establishing of the Mongol Empire. Besides, it seems that the analysis of specific cases could help trace the process of forming the system of khan’s court which foundation was laid by Chinggis Khan just during the period of the unification of Mongol tribes at the initial stage of creating of his empire. The source base for the research includes medieval historical works: “Secret history of Mongols”, “Sheng-wu qin-cheng-lu”, Compendium of chronicles” by Rashid ad-Din, “Yuan shih”, “Altan Tobchi” by Lubsan Danzan and some others. Positions of different scholars on decisions of Chinggis Khan are also taken into account.

RUDN Journal of World History. 2022;14(2):103-121
pages 103-121 views

History of historical science

G.N. Roerich’s study of the epic about Gesar

Shustova A.M.


This article analyzes the contribution of G.N. Roerich in the study of Tibetan epic of Gesar. Long years spent on expeditions, communication with the authentic population in remote places of Central Asia, an open-minded attitude towards the natives, as well as knowledge of local languages allowed him to collect unique material concerning the existence of legends, stories, songs and epic tales about the king-warrior Gesar. Based on the analysis of the data obtained, G.N. Roerich came to the conclusion about the unity of the ancient culture of the population of Tibet. The epic about Gesar, in his opinion, was associated with the ancient religion worshipping the forces of nature and space, associated with the art of the animal style, as well as with the barrow and megalithic culture. Studies of the epic about Gesar open the way for a deeper and broader analysis concerning the presence in Asia of the cultural and historical community of peoples in the ancient era, as well as the theme of large migrations of ancient tribes that spread throughout the Eurasian continent symbols and images that are similar in their semantic content.

RUDN Journal of World History. 2022;14(2):122-131
pages 122-131 views

Modern World

Canadian civilization: the essence and features of its formation

Komarov A.N.


The purpose of research is to reveal the key features of the Canadian civilization formed in the Modern history on the North American continent. The significance of this scientific research is that for the first time in Russian historiography, presents the key features of the Canadian civilization, which the author considers a special socio-cultural community. The article emphasizes that the Canadian civilization is distinguished by a number of specific features that differ from the traditional understanding of North American civilization as a whole. To achieve the result in his work, the author uses a comparative historical method and an interdisciplinary approach. When writing the article, the author relies on the achievements of domestic and foreign Canadian studies, as well as a source base illustrating the author’s conclusions. In the course of writing the work, the author analyzes the election programs of Canadian political parties, the British North America Act and other important sources. A positive role for the author in the process of writing his article was played by his familiarization with the existing theories of civilizations. The results of the study led to the conclusion that the Canadian civilization is distinguished by the long-term coexistence within its framework of two nations: French-Canadian and Anglo-Canadian, close ties with the political traditions of Great Britain, the USA and France, as well as its northernness. Emphasizes that the Canadian civilization differs from the traditional Anglo-Saxon one precisely by the presence of the Roman factor, i.e. the presence of the French-Canadian question. The latter for a long time determines the origins of the existence of the Canadian civilization and forms its key features at the present stage of development. To achieve the result in his work, the author uses a comparative historical method and an interdisciplinary approach.

RUDN Journal of World History. 2022;14(2):132-143
pages 132-143 views

“Golden triangle of separatism” - problems of the relevant cooperation of countries of the region

Mikhailov S.A.


This article attempts to analyze the situation in North-East India (NER) and the entire region in the light of existing and potential interaction between countries of South, South East and East Asia for solving the serious problem of the local separatism and terrorism. The author states that even a superficial glance at the situation demonstrates a very contradictory approaches and actions of the different countries in this field. The relevance of the research implies the possibilities of practical application of the potential of cooperation between countries of this region (using examples of the positive interaction between India and some of its neighbors) to choose the best ways to solve the problem of separatism and terrorism.

RUDN Journal of World History. 2022;14(2):144-157
pages 144-157 views

China Djibouti: Strategic partnership in East Africa

Ponomarenko L.V., Piskunov D.A.


The development of Chinese-African relations obtains a long history. Within its history, developing countries moved toward mutually beneficial partnerships developing a geopolitical alternative to the “North-South” relations. This paper examines improving relations between China and Djibouti and the main motives, principles and benefits derived from relationships of two countries within the framework of the “South-South” cooperation concept. Investigating two countries’ cooperation authors are guided by such international databases as China Africa Research Initiative, AidData, China Africa Project as well as “Russian and Chinese aid”. The paper is considering key investments projects and their role in the development of the African country economy as well as China aid in the struggle with economic and social problems. In its role, Djibouti being a logistic hub in South Africa plays a significant part in Chinese geoeconomic and political projects in South Africa. The present analysis allows to make the conclusion that Djibouti not only develops the shipping ecosystem but also gains influence on regional affairs and in international organisations. By means of the deployment of the military base China creates a favourable investment climate with a view to extending the volume of investments and trade.

RUDN Journal of World History. 2022;14(2):158-174
pages 158-174 views

Internet censorship in modern China: tight control and a flexible settlement system

Lyulina A.G., Efimenko E.S.


The article considers the features of Internet censorship in the People's Republic of China, the stages of its formation, origins of specifics and modern problems of controlling information in the media. Material addressed the current theme of the CPC's fight against “anti-historical research” with reference to the new law on the rights and interests of military personnel; at the same time, it gives some examples of “soft” selective censorship of Internet user messages in China. The cultural origins of the phenomenon of Chinese censorship reveal many aspects related to the assessment of the CCP's policy towards the media by Chinese and foreigners. The work used research materials of Russian and foreign specialists in the field of state censorship in China, current information of Chinese news websites and legislation in the field of information control.

RUDN Journal of World History. 2022;14(2):175-188
pages 175-188 views

The role of Sultan Qaboos bin Said in the formation and implementation of Oman’s foreign policy

Akhmedova N.S., Al-Yafai A.S.


The article analyzes the role of Sultan Qaboos bin Said in the development and implementation of Oman’s foreign policy strategy. Having come to power in 1970 and remained on the throne for almost half a century, this wise and far-sighted ruler not only brought his country out of poverty and backwardness, but also turned it into one of the most successful and stable states in the Middle East. His foreign policy was aimed at enhancing the international prestige of the Sultanate and strengthening its influence in the region. The Omani diplomatic school, founded by Qaboos bin Said and based on political pragmatism and realism, moderate openness, caution and flexibility, demonstrates its effectiveness and professionalism.

RUDN Journal of World History. 2022;14(2):189-196
pages 189-196 views

East and West: contacts and contradictions

Chinese Concepts and Opportunities in Information Warfare: China-US Rivalry in Cyberspace

Katkova E.Y., Yunyushkina A.S.


The research is devoted to the emergence of threats to information security and competition in cyberspace between the two largest powers - China and the United States. Over the past ten years, China has been actively developing offensive cyber capabilities, turning into a state with a combat- ready and modern army. Its technological level is behind the United States in many areas, but Beijing is rapidly closing the gap. Today, the information confrontation between these countries is of a strategic nature. Both China and the United States are investing large sums of money in the development of cyber technologies. The authors examine the different approaches of China and the United States to the methods of waging information wars and countering various challenges and threats in cyberspace. In conclusion, the authors come to the opinion that China will actively develop information technologies and build up its strategic potential in this area in the near future, which will lead to tougher competition among major powers in cyberspace.

RUDN Journal of World History. 2022;14(2):197-210
pages 197-210 views

Anglo-French Relations in Egypt 1798-1875

Oladejo M.T.


Several canonical works exist on European capitalism in North Africa, especially Egypt. From a revisionist perspective, this work analyses the features of British and French relations in Egypt of the nineteenth century. The definitions of capitalism in scholarly engagements reflects in the narratives of how English and French capital manipulated the political space to map Egypt in the dynamics of international economy. Internal or domestic capitalism was an institutionalized and standardized in the era of Mohammed Ali’s modernization policy. Invariably, the paper examines the nexus in the interplay of land, labor and finance that tied Egypt to global capitalism. The terminal period of 1875 marked a period of financial crises that plunged the nation to endless debt burden that further defined its national governance and international relations. With the plethora of secondary sources such as books and journals, this work adopts the historical method.

RUDN Journal of World History. 2022;14(2):211-222
pages 211-222 views

Trump’s Peace Plan

Werfelli W.


Since the 1960s, the US foreign policy has been characterized by relative stability in interaction with the dynamics of the Palestinian conflict. Well-established American institutions, legal, constitutional and political restrictions, and various groups of interests and pressure, especially the Jewish lobby, research centers, media, and American public opinion, which mostly support the Israeli point of view, are the important factors in developing and defining the foreign policy of the United States. One more factor relates to international and regional shifts. As the Palestinian-Israeli conflict was going on, and since the signing of the Oslo Accords in the early 1990s, the first issue among the priorities of successive US administrations in the Middle East until regional developments imposed other priorities as a result of the events of September 2001, and the subsequent occupation of Iraq in 2003. The emergence of Al Qaeda, the turmoil of the Middle East region and the disturbance of its political, social and religious structure coincided with the emergence of the so-called Arab revolutions of 2011 and extremist jihadist organizations such as the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant. Therefore, the role of Trump administration was determined by developments within the US on the one hand, and by the interaction of events in the Middle East region on the other hand.

RUDN Journal of World History. 2022;14(2):223-234
pages 223-234 views

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