Cover Page

Cite item


Problems related to the delimitation of powers between the prosecutor and the head of the investigating body, as well as ways to resolve them, are in the constant focus of attention of representatives of legal science. The concept and model of differentiation of powers between such participants in criminal proceedings that was introduced in 2007, has led to serious problems, which are expressed in: - decrease in the quality of prosecutorial supervision of the preliminary investigation body in order to protect human and civil rights and freedoms at the stage of preliminary investigation; - lack of procedural independence of the investigator, priority of interdepartmental control over prosecutorial supervision; - duplication of prosecutor’s supervision; - large accusatory bias of the court, prosecution and investigation body and others. The negative side of such problems is that the rights and freedoms of man and citizen are violated in the first place at all stages of criminal proceedings. In this regard, the properly organized delineation of powers and functions between the prosecutor and the head of the investigating body will be standard for ensuring the rule of law; it will contribute to the fight against crime and speedy preliminary investigation in order to create the court basis to reduce the cases of incorrect court decision. The purpose of the scientific article is to analyze the provisions of the current concept and models of separation of powers between the prosecutor and the head of the investigating body, identify the main systemic problems in this area and formulate proposals for their elimination. To achieve this goal, the scientific article explores the features and problems of individual concepts and models for their implementation in organizing activities of prosecution body and preliminary investigation bodies to delimit the powers between the prosecutor and the head of the investigating body. In a scientific article, the author came to the conclusion that reforming the current concept and model of separation of powers between the prosecutor and the head of the investigating body in order to eliminate significant problems is not possible without a reform. A return to previous concepts and models is also unacceptable due to historical experience of their application. The necessity of reforming the foundations of the entire law enforcement system of criminal justice body as a whole and reviewing the legal status of the prosecutor at all stages of criminal proceedings is noted.

About the authors

Nikita V. Babich

Peoples' Friendship University of Russia

Author for correspondence.

Candidate of Legal Sciences, Assistant at the Department of the Judiciary, Law Enforcement and Human Rights Activities, Law Institute

6 Miklukho-Maklaya str., 117198, Moscow, Russian Federation


  1. Alexandrov, A.S. (2009) Voprosy vzaimodeystviya prokurora, rukovoditelya sledstvennogo organa i sledovatelya v khode dosudebnogo proizvodstva po ugolovnomu delu [Issues of interaction between the prosecutor, the head of the investigative body and the investigator during the pre-trial proceedings in the criminal case]. Vestnik MVD [Bulletin of the Ministry of the Interior]. No. 1. 52–59. (in Russian).
  2. Alexandrov, A.S. (2010) K voprosu o sozdanii yedinogo Sledstvennogo komiteta [On the establishment of a single Investigative Committee]. Herald of the Saratov State Academy of Law. No 6 (76). 17–21. (in Russian).
  3. Amirbekov, K.I. (2013) Balance of powers between a public prosecutor and a head of investigation. Agency: a conceptual approach. Bulletin Academy of the R.F. Prosecutor General’s Office. No 1 (33). 28–35. (in Russian).
  4. Babich, N.V. (2018) Features of some modern concepts and models of the organization and activities of the investigative body in Russia. Eurasian advocacy. No. 4 (35). 70–84. (in Russian).
  5. Baev, O.Y. (2011) Izbrannyye raboty po problemam kriminalistiki i ugolovnogo protsessa: Sbornik [Selected works on the problems of forensic science and the criminal process: Collection]. Mosсow: EKSMO Publ. (in Russian).
  6. Beloborodova, E.S. (2018) O polnomochiyakh prokurora na zaklyuchitel'nom etape predvaritel'nogo sledstviya [About the powers of the prosecutor at the final stage of the preliminary investigation]. New legal bulletin. No 3 (5). 39–44. (in Russian).
  7. Galushkin, A.A., Sangadzhiev, B.V. (2013) To the Question of Lawyer Participation in the Criminal Trial in Russian Federation at the Present Stage: Practice and Perspective. «Pravovaya Initsiativa» (The Legal Initiative). No. 11. 6. (in Russian).
  8. Goryunov, V.V. (2012) Procedural independence of investigator in light of reform of investigation establishment. Russian Investigator. No 19. 13–16. (in Russian).
  9. Dzhatiev, V. (2008) Zachem Rossii prokuratura? [Why the Russian prosecutor?] Zakonnost' [Legality]. No 8. 30–32. (in Russian). Джатиев В. Зачем России прокуратура? // Законность. 2008. № 8. С. 30–32.
  10. Drukalev, I.L. (2011) Problems of Prosecutor’s Supervision in Pretrial Criminal Proceedings. Law. No. 2. 97–100. (in Russian).
  11. Islamova, E.R. (2016) On issue of correlation of prosecutor's procedural powers and head of investigative body. Baikal Research Journal. Vol. 7. No. 2. doi: 10.17150/24116262.2016.7(2).22. (in Russian).
  12. Islamova, E.R., Choubykyn, A.V. (2016) A reasoned resolution of the prosecutor on sending materials to the preliminary investigation body to decide the issue of criminal prosecution (problems of implementation). The Crimean Scientific Bulletin. No. 3 (9). 155–163. (in Russian).
  13. Kapinus, O.S. (2013) K voprosu o protsessual'nom polozhenii prokurora v stadii vozbuzhdeniya ugolovnogo dela [To the issue of the procedural status of the prosecutor at the stage of initiating a criminal case]. Procurator. No. 2. 50–58. (in Russian).
  14. Kolokolov, N.A. (2014) «The great opposition»: the investigator vs the prosecutor. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta MVD Rossii. No. 10. 244–255. (in Russian).
  15. Kovtun, N.N. (2015) The institute of specialized investigating judges: on the discussion of vectors of the legislative will. Russian journal of legal studies. No. 2 (3). 174–183. (in Russian).
  16. Kruglikov, A.P. (2012) Polnomochiya prokurora po vozbuzhdeniyu ugolovnogo dela i osushchestvleniyu ugolovnogo presledovaniya [The powers of the prosecutor to institute criminal proceedings and criminal prosecution] Zakonnost' [Legality]. No. 1. 12–16. (in Russian).
  17. Kruglikov, A.P. (2008) Rol' prokurora v ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve [The role of the prosecutor in criminal proceedings]. Zakonnost' [Legality]. No. 8. 25–29. (in Russian). Кругликов А.П. Роль прокурора в уголовном судопроизводстве // Законность. 2008. № 8. С. 25–29.
  18. Lebedev, V.M. (ed.) (2015) Ugolovno-protsessual'noye pravo: uchebnik dlya bakalavriata i magistra [Criminal procedure law: a textbook for undergraduate and master studies]. Moscow: Yurayt Publ. (in Russian).
  19. Morugina, N.A. (2008) Protsessual'nyye polnomochiya rukovoditelya sledstvennogo organa poproverke zakonnosti prinimayemykh sledovatelem resheniy [Procedural powers of the head of the investigative body to verify the legality of decisions made by the investigator]. The bulletin of Voronezh Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. No. 2. 48–51. (in Russian).
  20. Novikov, E.A. (2009) Rukovoditel' sledstvennogo organa v rossiyskom ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve: protsessual'nyye i organizatsionnyye aspekty [Head of the investigative body in the Russian criminal proceedings: procedural and organizational aspects]. Abstract diss. ... cand. legal sciences. Moscow. (in Russian).
  21. Ovsyannikov, I.V. (2014) Prosecutorial supervision at the stage of criminal proceedings. Bulletin Academy of the R.F. Prosecutor General’s Office. No. 4 (30). 9–14. (in Russian).
  22. Popov, M. (1907) Polnyy slovar' inostrannykh slov, voshedshikh v upotrebleniye v russkom yazyke [A complete dictionary of foreign words that have come into use in the Russian language]. Moscow. Printing house t-va I.D. Sytina Publ. (in Russian).
  23. Ragulin, A.V. (2017) About need of expansion of powers of the prosecutor as participant of criminal legal proceedings in Russian Federation. Eurasian advocacy. No. 4 (29). 52–65. (in Russian).
  24. Ryabinina, T.K. (2008) I vnov' k voprosu o pravovom statuse prokurora v ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve [And again to the question of the legal status of the prosecutor in criminal proceedings]. Criminal Judicial Proceeding. No. 1. 41–45. (in Russian).
  25. Spirin, A.V. (2015) Polnomochiya prokurora po nadzoru za protsessual'noy deyatel'nost'yu organov predvaritel'nogo sledstviya: voprosy teorii, praktiki, zakonodatel'nogo regulirovaniya [The powers of the prosecutor to supervise the procedural activities of the preliminary investigation bodies: theory, practice, legislative regulation]. Diss. ... cand. of legal sciences: 12.00.09. Ekaterinburg: Publ. (in Russian).
  26. Shadrin, V.S., Choubykyn, A.V. (2014) Problemy prokurorskogo nadzora za zakonnost'yu otkaza v vozbuzhdenii ugolovnogo dela [Problems of prosecutorial supervision of the legality of refusal to institute criminal proceedings]. Kriminalist. No. 1 (14). 28–33. (in Russian).
  27. Shevchenko, V.Y. (2008) Mesto prokuratury v sisteme razdeleniya vlastey [The place of the prosecutor's office in the system of separation of powers]. Black Holes in Russian Legislation. No. 1. 70. (in Russian).
  28. Shichanin, I.I. (2010) Activity of procurator related to preparation of indictment and direction of the criminal case to court. Russian investigator. No. 17. 11–13. (in Russian).
  29. Tabolina, K.A. (2018) On the need to strengthen the role of the prosecutor in the procedure for the initiation and investigation of criminal cases. Courier of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University (MSAL). No. 2 (42). 129–138. doi: 10.17803/2311-5998.2018.42.2.129-138. (in Russian).

Copyright (c) 2020 Babich N.V.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies