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Data on the countries producers of emeralds, their contribution to universal production are stated. Huge labor costs on extraction of jeweler emeralds - from the 12th tone of ore are noted, only 10 grams of raw materials are suitable for a facet. Reliable data about world production of emeralds for various reasons don’t exist. Emeralds of different fields differ on mineral inclusions and a chemical composition. About 70% of emeralds are extracted from magmatic breeds and 30% from the metamorphic. It allows to define an origin of emeralds in laboratories. The main diagnostic signs of stones from Kampuchea, Zambia, Brazil, Pakistan are given. A large number (90-95%) of all got stones is exposed to procedures of a laboratory upclassing. The main methods applied to improvement of appearance of stones are stated.Processes of an artificial upclassing conduct to depreciation of jewelry. For establishment of true value of emeralds diagnostics of volume of a laboratory upclassing or its absence is carried out. For this purpose use various methods. Was for detection of filler to consider a mineral under magnifying glass or a microscope until recently enough. But with development of technical means of an upclassing, visual method it is already not enough. Today it is already impossible to estimate extent of artificial impact on a stone without use of the expensive equipment. Besides modern electronic microscopes in gemological laboratories apply the Raman and rentgenoflyuoristsentny spectrometers. On upclassing degree - small, moderate and considerable, emeralds share on three, different on costs, groups. The main objective of such researches is directed on protection of consumers, investors and the extracting enterprises.

About the authors

T S Gorelenkova

Gokhran of Russia


Copyright (c) 2016 Гореленкова Т.С.

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