An economic project of regional integration in Africa

Djeghar A.


According to the latter’s 2022 report, foreign direct investment (FDI) to Africa reached $83 billion in 2021. This increase is due to the proportion of 45 % of the total linked to an intra-company financial transaction in South Africa. In reality, the global integration of Africa does not. Average global economic growth over the past twenty years has not exceeded 2.5 % (UNCTAD 2020). In the continent, globalization continues to be combined with a multitude of cooperation agreements and monetary unions. Globalization is seen as a process where Africa is a rich passive periphery in the hands of the powerful. The African Union recognizes that the plans it has developed have not achieved the expected objectives (Rapport UA 2020). Africa is still not integrated into the global economy. Underdevelopment continues to proliferate in the continent. Faced with this observation, a question arises: how then to boost the economic integration of Africa? This research aims to demonstrate the importance of reviving local development projects, because global integration must first go through African regional integration supported by African states themselves. There are strategic projects of development that could boost Africa’s development. This research aims to express the importance of the trans-Saharan road project in Algeria for regional integration. The method adopted is the descriptive one. We highlight the local riches of the country. The potentialities described in this intervention, constitute a part of the optimal economic environment of the trans-Saharan road. The project starts from the Mediterranean Sea crosses all the Algerian and then Nigerien territory to the Atlantic could be the stimulator that will boost African trade. In the economy of the 21st century, “The Trans-Saharan Highway” project is an opportunity for African and foreign investors to position themselves strategically and then concretize the regional and global integration of Africa.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2023;31(2):197-210
pages 197-210 views


A model of economic stability for metallurgical companies under conditions of economic transformation and sanction risk

Kostyukhin Y.Y., Sidorova E.Y., Lebedeva D.V.


Transitioning to a new model of economic growth during economic transformation and sanctions risks is challenging. Such change requires effective decisionmaking and management of strategic business zone portfolios and evaluating proposed organizational pivots. This article discusses the internal and external impacts of possible risks on metallurgical enterprise activities. Based on the data obtained, we identify possible threats that need to be integrated into new enterprise strategy. Drawing upon this data, this study proposes a strategic organizational pyramid that divides the company’s development strategy into four levels of impact: corporate, financial, functional and operational. These levels emphasize the degree of risk impact and aim to improve the strategy at all levels. The study assesses the potential of the phases of the life cycles of the enterprise. Finally, we compile the design indicators of the economic efficiency of the proposed strategies to increase the value of the company in the face of new risks.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2023;31(2):211-220
pages 211-220 views

Location of links in the pharmaceutical value chain in Сhina: the role of contract research organizations

Volgina N.A., Li N.


Cross-border pharmaceutical value chains are expanding their presence in international production, including in the highly profitable R&D link. Leading pharmaceutical companies, known as Big Pharma, are establishing contract relationships with research organizations in many countries around the world, including emerging economies where China plays a very significant role. The purpose of this study is to assess the placement and location of Chinese contract research organizations in the R&D links of the international pharmaceutical chain. As a result of the study, the authors came to the following conclusions. The development of the Chinese market can be dated to the beginning of the 2000s, when outsourcing firms for large international pharmaceutical companies began to be created. The Chinese market for contract research organizations has developed at a faster rate compared to the world market. As the key explanations for the rapid development of the Chinese market, the authors highlight the strong state support of the Chinese government, the improvement in the quality of research services provided by Chinese companies, as well as the lower price of these services compared to competitors. Market development relies primarily on the close ties of Chinese contract research organizations with Big Pharma companies. Demand from local Chinese pharmaceutical companies and from foreign affiliates of small and medium-sized of pharmaceutical companies located in China plays an increasing role in stimulating the market for contract research organizations. The rapid development of the Chinese market for contract research organizations has been accompanied by its consolidation and concentration, as well as monopolization in some market subsectors. Market consolidation was also supported by the accelerated pace of M&A in pharmaceutical R&D amid the pandemic.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2023;31(2):221-237
pages 221-237 views

Analysis of the competitiveness of the biological pharmaceutical industry on the example of the United States

Wang K., Solovieva Y.V.


Since entering the era of bioeconomy, the biotechnology industry economy represented by the bio pharmaceutical industry is leading a new wave of technological revolution. China’s strategic deployment for the bio pharmaceutical industry economy has achieved remarkable results, but there is still a large competitive gap compared with the United States and other biomedical powers. The goal of this article is to study the American biomedical market and find out the gap, so as to provide inspiration for the development of the biomedical industry in China and other countries. The Porter Diamond Model is used to build the theoretical research method analysis framework of the international competitiveness of the bio pharmaceutical industry. Taking the United States as an example, the paper analyzes its competitive advantages in six aspects: the elements of the biomedical industry, the enterprise structure and competition, the demand conditions, the relevant and supporting industries, the government and development opportunities. Based on this, the paper puts forward policy recommendations conclusions for China’s development of the bio pharmaceutical industry, so as to provide reference value for the development of the pharmaceutical industry.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2023;31(2):238-252
pages 238-252 views


Foreign trade relations between Russian Federation and Syrian Arab Republic in terms of Eurasian integration

Tinkova A.A., Digilina O.B., Alkanj Alabseh Y.


The issues of the relevance of foreign trade cooperation between Russia and Syria, including the opportunities and risks of the Syrian economy for partners; the current state of bilateral trade between Russia and Syria; Syria as a promising direction for the Russian export business and the need for its development are considered. The authors analyzed the foreign trade potential of the dynamics and structure of foreign trade relations, identified comparative advantages in the world commodity markets, determined the place and role of bilateral foreign trade partnership. Russia is one of the key export markets for Syrian agricultural products, whose price competitiveness is supported by zero preferential duties within the framework of the unified system of preferences of the Eurasian Economic Union. In the course of the study, the authors identified the volume of unrealized export potential of Syria to the EAEU countries and vice versa, including in the structure of goods. It is concluded that it is necessary to develop trade relations on a bilateral basis with the help of instruments aimed at raising awareness of consumer demand and supply of national producers, as well as through “soft power” instruments in the field of education. It seems that Syria’s obtaining observer status in the EAEU will become an incentive to strengthen trust relations and investment attractiveness, which, in turn, will become the basis for joint work on infrastructure cross-border logistics projects in Syria (the Five Seas Strategy) and will reduce costs for increasing mutually beneficial bilateral trade. The study contains theoretical and statistical justification, as well as practical proposals for the development of friendly relations and strategic partnership with the Syrian Arab Republic in the context of the development of integration processes of the Eurasian Economic Union.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2023;31(2):253-267
pages 253-267 views

Development of border regions economic interaction: mechanisms and models

Manshin R.V., Xu S.


In order to develop cross-border circulation of goods and people, the authorities of a country or region can take various measures aimed at creating favorable conditions for crossborder exchange and reducing barriers and restrictions that impede its development. The article explores the mechanisms of cross-border cooperation and proposes a new grouping of them. The author made an attempt to develop a new methodological approach to modeling the development of commodity exchange in the border regions, based on the development of two complementary models - descriptive and prescriptive type. The peculiarity of the author’s approach is to distinguish between target impacts on the result and the “natural” trend in the development of commodity flows and assess the impact of the consequences of target impacts. The proposed descriptive model makes it possible to identify and explain the determinants of the advance or lag in the growth rates of the region’s import-export operations in comparison with the growth rates of the gross regional product. In the descriptive model, there are no estimated indicators that would reflect the level of administrative, logistical, and other barriers in the trade and economic relations of the border regions. To overcome this shortcoming, in combination with the first model, the author proposes to use another model - a normative one, in which the same estimated indicator is chosen as two factor indicators - an aggregated indicator of barriers to cross-border turnover. The idea is that the “height of the barriers” should be measured separately - on each side of the common border of the two border regions. The use of two models in combination allows a better understanding of the reasons for the change in indicators of cross-border transactions in the region. On this basis, decision makers can develop and implement a “road map” to reduce administrative, bureaucratic barriers at border checkpoints.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2023;31(2):268-281
pages 268-281 views

Monetary and financial questions

Stability of the global financial system as a factor in the post-crisis recovery of the world economy

Smirnov E.N.


The purpose of the study was to assess the adaptability of the global financial system to the crisis phenomena observed in recent years in the world economy. In particular, the key financial risks of the development of the global economy and the opportunities for their neutralization were identified, the role and possibilities of monetary policy in overcoming the current unprecedented inflation were shown, and the possibilities of transition to sustainable growth based on curbing inflation on short-, mediumand long-term trends were identified. development of the world economy. A special role in our study was played by the substantiation and development of mechanisms for the rational management of public debt, which plays a fundamental role for a fair recovery of the world economy.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2023;31(2):282-298
pages 282-298 views

Methodological approach to the assessment of the national banking sector transformation under the influence of fintech

Turuev I.B., Shashkina E.O.


Banking sector often acts as the strong driver of innovations, not only due to the financing capital power, but also because of the surging consumption of the digital economy products, for instance, cyber-security platforms, new client’s identification methods and predictive analytics for better needs catering. In recent years, many countries witnessed rapid change in financial products delivery methods, however, the experience was not accumulated and structured on the level of the whole banking sector, not on the individual banks’ level. The article contributes to the theoretical and methodological summarizing of the main directions of the banking sector transformation under the influence of the fintech industry. The methodological framework of the research includes the fundamental approach to the industry analysis. The review of the dynamic of the basic balance sheet and PL ratios demonstrated that the main directions of the transformation are the surging competition observed by the pricing indicators, larger digital clients share and more sustainable financial model (operational efficiency, income sustainability, retail-based funding). Based on comparative statistical and variation analysis, the rating measuring the overall level of the banking sector transformation was constructed. The rating allowed to distinguish 3 groups of countries with China and Great Britain leading the rating of the most modified banking sectors. Correlation analysis proved the rating relevance.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2023;31(2):299-315
pages 299-315 views


Current state and prospects of development of China’s seaports

Semenova N.K.


From an economic point of view, ports contribute to the comprehensive development of cities and can have a comprehensive stimulating effect on the economy of the interior. As a hub connecting various modes of transport, such as railways, highways, aviation and pipelines, ports are an indispensable component of the state’s transport network. During the gradual improvement of the Chinese transport system. At the same time, ports are the gateway for the foreign trade of a country or region. The efficiency of ports is directly related to the effectiveness of foreign economic cooperation. In addition, the development of ports is closely linked to the economic security of the country. Ports initiate the socio-economic growth of the region, serve as a center of social activity. Ports are also a major source of employment, as ports employ a large number of workers. The emergence of China as a great maritime power is becoming a fait accompli before our eyes. In the context of profound changes in the domestic and international macro environment, the port industry of the People’s Republic of China is accelerating the pace of transformation and modernization, adhering to new development concepts and providing strong support for the economic development of the state. The study reveals China’s modern leadership in the global port industry, formed in the fierce competition of the largest ports in East Asia. The stages of development of the ports of the People’s Republic of China and the role of the planned economy in this process, the modern structure of the port economy of the People’s Republic of China and the leading ports of the country are analyzed. New trends and prospects for the development of both continental and foreign ports of the People’s Republic of China are considered. The paper analyzes the place of the People’s Republic of China in the modern world port industry, determines the stages of development of China’s ports and the role of the planned economy in this process, studies the modern structure of the port economy of the People’s Republic of China and the country’s leading ports, identifies new trends and prospects for the development of mainland and foreign ports of the People’s Republic of China, analyzes key trends and problems underlying recent changes in the the port system of China. To date, there has not been a comprehensive study in the Russian bibliography that gives a general idea of the role of the port economy in the development of the PRC economy and China’s leadership in the port and shipping industries of the world. The present study aims to fill this gap.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2023;31(2):316-329
pages 316-329 views


Assessment of the effectiveness of budget financing of innovative Russian universities

Kovelsky V.V., Rostova E.P.


The research is devoted to the study of the effectiveness of public funding of innovative universities of the Russian Federation that participated in the 5-100 project and have the status of national research universities. Analysis of the spending of taxpayers’ money has always been one of the important elements of federal accounting and control of any state. The 5-100 project itself was an important milestone in the development of Russian universities and in increasing their competitiveness in the international market. Of course, like any significant project with significant funding, “5-100” in all the years of its existence caused a variety of emotions, from complete delight to complete rejection. One of the elements of negative rhetoric was the investment of federal funds for the development of the scientific research of universities. However, during numerous inspections, no significant violations were identified, and the results of the project were found to be satisfactory. At the same time, the authors of this article were interested in exploring the deeper layers of the 5-100 project the relationship between the territorial components and a number of important indicators, such as, for example, publication activity, income from scientific research and a number of others. Based on the analysis of statistical data, the heterogeneity of the ratio of R&D results and the volume of budget financing of universities was revealed, and the influence of the territorial factor on the studied indicators was shown. Based on the analysis of eight indicators characterizing the publication activity of university employees and the volume of R&D funding, the universities considered in the study are divided into three clusters without considering the territorial feature. The analysis made it possible, among other things, to identify the uneven distribution of budgetary funding for R&D. The authors explain this effect by the territorial features of universities, when regional universities receive less funding compared to universities in the Central Federal District and the North-West Federal District. At the same time, not all universities of the Central Federal District and the North-West Federal District are distinguished by a high number of publications in domestic and foreign information and analytical systems of scientific citation. Yet, even with the distribution of funds, which could be more efficient, the significance of the 5-100 project for the development of the higher education system is still great and the current most important projects of the Ministry of Education and Science, such as Priority 2030, continue the best that was in project “5-100”.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2023;31(2):330-349
pages 330-349 views

Assessing the impact of technological sanctions on computer equipment imports

Naumov V.N., Zhiryaeva E.V.


The purpose of the study is to assess the risks of economic modernization caused by technological sanctions. Hypothesis: the imposed sanctions had little effect on actual imports of computer hardware components to Russia. Since the sanctions under consideration have been tightened since 2014, it was assumed that there were no fundamental changes in the structure and volume of imports. Analysis of the US export control system showed that there are four reasons for controlling the export to the Russian Federation of a number of computers and their components. For export to the Russian Federation and Belarus all applications for licenses are considered with a presumption of denial. The embargo policy provides for the restriction of exports to Russia of goods of headings 8541 (semiconductor devices) and 8542 (electronic integrated circuits). Enterprises that are considered military end users are restricted from exporting to them chips with high processing speed. The embargo covers quantum computers that are believed not to be manufactured in Russia. The dominant subheadings in the import structure are 8542 31 (microprocessors) and 8542 39 (other integrated circuits). Clusters of exporting countries have been constructed using the methods of principal components and multidimensional scaling. It is established that the main ones are China, Taiwan, Vietnam and Malaysia. Next, an analysis of the dynamics of imports was performed to test the hypothesis. Graphical, quantitative methods of the theory of time series, methods of mathematical statistics and regression analysis are used. For countries without export controls the increase in imports to Russia over 15 years, both in terms of processors (160 %) and integrated circuits (224 %), was an order of magnitude greater than for countries with export controls. As the share of imports from countries without export controls increases, the significance of sanctions decreases, which confirms the formulated hypothesis. At the same time, the “foreign direct product” rule, which allows the US to control exports from Taiwan, could negatively affect this dynamic.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2023;31(2):350-369
pages 350-369 views

China’s arms trade: trends and challenges

Reshetnikova M.S., Shvets S.S.


Over the past decade, China has made significant progress in the development of the defense industry; today, China is able to produce almost all the nomenclature items of weapons, military vehicles, and ammunition. The aim of the research is to analyze China’s successes in the development of the defense sector; it is highlighted that the Chinese military-industrial complex has reached the point of technological self-sufficiency at this time. The essential features of the public-private partnership model (“the triple helix”) are considered. The authors tracked the evolution of China’s export regulations as they related to the selling of goods from the militaryindustrial complex. The share of Chinese military-industrial complex exports in the global arms market is revealed. The study shows the escalation of US-Chinese rivalry in the field of building up military capacities and establishing export ties. Trade in military-industrial complex products is a means for China to achieve its foreign policy goals. The authors discuss possible areas for improving the country’s export strategies and vectors of geographical coverage of foreign trade, as well as barriers and difficulties in the development of foreign trade in military-industrial complex products.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2023;31(2):370-378
pages 370-378 views

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