RUSSIAN PROTECTORATE OVER BUKHARA AS IT EVALUATED BY BUKHARAN ELITE OF 19TH - BEGINNING OF 20TH CENTURY

Cover Page

Abstract


Goal. Article devoted to analysis of information and evaluations of the members of the Bukharan elite of the 1870s - 1910s on legal transformations made by Russian authorities in the Bukharan Emir-ate which since 1868 was under the protectorate of the Russian Empire. Author used works of contem-poraries - Bukharan officials who were loyal to emir’s government (Sadr-i Ziya, Salimbek) or criti-cized them (A. Donish, A. Sami) as well as oppositionists who demanded reforms (A. Fitrat, S. Ayni). Methods. Using methods of historical legal, formal legal and comparative legal analysis the au-thor characterizes attitude of contemporaries on the interference of the Russian authorities in the inter-nal affairs of Bukhara in general and their evaluation of transformations made by Russians in different fields of legal relations - taxation, trade, criminal and judicial and even the public health. Results. Author finds that social status and political vies of members of the Bukharan elite (au-thors of analyzed works) substantially affected their evaluation of transformations made in the Bukha-ran Emirate with initiative of Russian authorities. Conservative officials criticized these transformations and opposed any reforms in Bukhara. Reformers (jadids or Young Bukharans) evaluated many of trans-formations positively. At that it makes sense to note the contradictory position of some authors: they welcome changes carried out by Russian authorities but at the same were afraid that Emirate would lose completely its independence to Russia and its development would continued in the “Russian” (i.e. Eu-ropean) way without considering national and religious specific features, traditions of Central Asian state and law. Nevertheless, in fact, all authors demonstrated their adaptation for new political and legal realities, realized that influence of Russia became “fait accompli” and sometimes even gave information on getting out profit (by themselves or their familiars) in the changed circumstances in different fields of legal relations. Conclusions. The information of Bukharan contemporaries on the legal transformations in Bukha-ra under the Russian protectorate is a valuable addition to the legal monuments and notes of Russian and western contemporaries related to this subject.

Roman Yu Pochekaev

ropot@mail.ru
National Research University Higher School of Economics - Saint Petersburg Law Faculty 17, Promyshlennaya st., Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 198099

Roman Yu. Pochekaev - Candidate of Legal Sciences, Associate professor, Professor, Head of the Theory and History of Law and State Department, Law Faculty, National Research University Higher School of Economics - St. Petersburg.

  • Abdirashidov, Z. (2016) Known and Unknown Fitrat: Early Convictions and Activities // Acta Slavica Iaponica. 37, 103-118.
  • Akhatova, D. A. (1998) Prosvetitel'sko-pedagogicheskie vozzreniya Abduraufa Fitrata [Enlightening and Pedagogic Views of Abdurauf Fitrat]. Author's Abstract of Dissertation of Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences. Uzbek Scientific Research Institute of Pedagogical Sciences named after T.N. Kari-Niyazov. (in Russian) Ахатова Д.А. Просветительско-педагогические воззрения Абдурауфа Фитрата : автореф. … канд. пед. наук. Ташкент, 1998.
  • Babadzhanov, B. (2004) Russian Colonial Power in Central Asia as Seen by Local Muslim Intellectuals. In: Eschment, B. & Harder, H. (eds.). Looking at the Coloniser: Cross-Cultural Perceptions in Central Asia and the Caucasus, Bengal and Related Areas. Würzburg, Ergon Verlag, pp. 75-90.
  • Becker, S. (2004) Russia’s Protectorates in Central Asia: Bukhara and Khiva, 1865-1924. London, New York, Routledge.
  • Blagowiestschensky, G. (2006) Die wirtschaftliche Entwiklung Turkestans. Translated from German by Zakharova, L. A. In: Istoriya Kazakhstana v zapadnykh istochnikakh XII-XX vv. T.V: Nemetskie issledovateli v Kazakhstane. Ch. 1 [History of Kazakhstan in Western sources of the 12 th - 20 th cc. Vol. 5. German scholars in Kazakhstan. Pt. 1]. Almaty, Sanat, pp. 241-282. (in Russian) Благовещенский Г. Экономические развитие Туркестана // История Казахстана в западных источниках XII-XX вв. Т. V: Немецкие исследователи в Казахстане. Ч. 1 / пер. с нем. Л.А. Захаровой. Алматы: Санат, 2006. С. 241-282.
  • Boboyorova, L. Kh. (2010) Ayni i tadzhikskaya prosvetitel'skaya literature [Ayni and Tajik enlightening literature]. Author's Abstract of Dissertation of Candidate of Philological Sciences. Tajik National University. (in Russian) Бобоерова Л.Х. Айни и таджикская просветительская литература : автореф. … канд. филол. наук. Душанбе, 2010.
  • Carrère D'Encausse, H. (2009) Islam and the Russian Empire: Reform and Revolution in Central Asia. London, I.B. Tauris.
  • Grassi, E. (2011) Tajik literature between reforms and revolutions (1870-1954). PhD Thesis. Università degli Studi di Napoli L'Orientale.
  • Grassi, E. (2015) The Manuscripts of the Works by Aḥmad Dāniš and his Popularity as a “Precursor” of the Bukharan Jadids. In: Chiara, M. De & Grassi, E. (eds.) Iranian Languages and Literatures of Central Asia (From the18th Century to the Presen). Paris, Peeters Publishers, pp. 233-258.
  • Kazymova, G. (1997) Dzhadidizm i stanovlenie obshchestvenno-filosofskikh vozzreniy S. Ayni [Jadidism and Formation of Social-Philosophical Views of S. Ayni]. Obshchestvennye nauki v Uzbekistane [Social Sciences in Uzbekistan]. (5), 49-52. (in Russian) Казымова Г. Джадидизм и становление общественно-философских воззрений С. Айни // Общественные науки в Узбекистане. 1997. № 5. С. 49-52.
  • Khalid, A. (2000) Society and politics in Bukhara, 1868-1920. Central Asian Survey. 19 (3-4), 364-393. Available from: doi: 10.1080/026349300750057991.
  • Khalid, A. (2004) Visions of India in Central Asian Modernism: The Work of Abd ar-Ra’uf Fitrat. In: Eschment, B. & Harder, H. (eds.). Looking at the Coloniser: Cross-Cultural Perceptions in Central Asia and the Caucasus, Bengal and Related Areas. Würzburg, Ergon Verlag, pp. 253-274.
  • Khaydarov, A. A. (2012) Reformatorskie vzglyady Akhmada Donisha v obnovlenii sistemy obrazovaniya v Bukharskom emirate (XIX i nachalo XX vekov) [Reformative Views of Ahmad Donish on the Renovation of the Education System in the Bukharan Emirate (19 th and beginning of the 20 th centuries]. Author's Abstract of Dissertation of Candidate of Pedagogic Sciences. The Finance and Economics Institute of Tajikistan. (in Russian) Хайдаров А.А. Реформаторские взгляды Ахмада Дониша в обновлении системы образования в Бухарском эмирате (XIX и начало ХХ веков) : автореф. … канд. пед. наук. Душанбе, 2012.
  • Kositova, U. F. (2017) «Ruznoma» («Dnevnik») Sadri Zie i osobennosti tadzhikskoy memuaristiki v kontse XIX i nachale KhKh vekov [“Ruznoma (“Diary”) of Sadri Ziyo and specific features of Tajik memoirist literature at the end of the 19 th - beginning of the 20 th centuries]. The Dissertation of Candidate of Philological Sciences. Khujand State University named after academician B. Gafurov. (in Russian) Коситова У.Ф. «Рузнома» («Дневник») Садри Зие и особенности таджикской мемуаристики в конце XIX и начале ХХ веков : дисс. … канд. филол. наук. Худжанд, 2017.
  • Logofet, D. N. (1909) Strana bespraviya. Bukharskoe khanstvo i ego sovremennoe sostoyanie [The Land of Lawlessness. Bukharan Khanate and Its Present Status]. Saint-Petersburg, V. Berezovskiy publ. (in Russian) Логофет Д.Н. Страна бесправия. Бухарское ханство и его современное состояние. СПб. : Издательство В. Березовский, 1909.
  • Morrison, A. S. (2008) Russian rule in Samarkand, 1868-1910: A comparison with British India. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  • Pierce, R. A. (1960) Russian Central Asia 1867-1917. A Study in Colonial Rule. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press.
  • Pochekaev, R. Yu. (2004) Rossiyskiy sud v Bukharskom emirate i ego rol' v protsesse frontirnoy modernizatsii [Russian Сourt in the Bukharan Emirate and its Role in the Frontier Modernization Process]. In: Sborniki Prezidentskoy biblioteki. Seriya «Istoricheskoe pravovedenie. [The Presidential Library Collections. Series: “Studia Historica-Juridica”]. Issue 2. Saint Petersburg, Prezidentskaya biblioteka imeni B.N. El'tsina, pp. 188-203. (in Russian) Почекаев Р.Ю. Российский суд в Бухарском эмирате и его роль в процессе фронтирной модернизации // Сборники Президентской библиотеки. Серия «Историческое правоведение. Вып. 2: Российская судебная власть в контексте историко-правовых исследований. СПб. : Президентская библиотека имени Б.Н. Ельцина. С. 188-203.
  • Ṣadr Z̤ iyāʼ, S., Shukurov, R., Shakuri, M. & Allworth, E. (2004) The Personal History of a Bukharan Intellectual. Leiden, Brill.
  • Sangirova, D. Kh. (2000) “Tarikhi Azizi” - vaznyi istochnik po istorii izucheniya tsarskogo colonial’nogo perioda [“Tarikhi Azizi” as an Important Source on History of Tsarist Colonial Period]. Author's Abstract of Dissertation of Candidate of Historical Sciences, Institute of Oriental Studies named after Abu Raykhan Biruni of the Academy of Science of Uzbekistan. (in Russian) Сангирова Д.Х. «Тарихи Азизи» - важный источник по истории изучения царского колониального периода : автореф. … канд. ист. наук. Ташкент, 2000.
  • Sartori, P. (2016) Ijtihād in Bukhara: Central Asian Jadidism and Local Genealogies of Cultural Change. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. 59 (1-2), 193-236. Available from: doi: 10.1163/15685209-12341397.
  • Shukurov, R. (2007) Anatomiya otchuzhdeniya: voobrazhaemaya karta mira v “Dnevnike” Sadr-i Ziya [Anatomy of Estrangement: Imaginary Map of the World in the Diary of Sadr-i Ziya]. Iran-name. (3), 29-39. (in Russian) Шукуров Р. Анатомия отчуждения: воображаемая карта мира в «Дневнике» Садр-и Зийа // Иран-наме. 2007. № 3. С. 29-39.
  • Tukhtametov, T. G. (1977) Rossiya i Bukharskiy emirat v nachale XX veka [Russia and the Bukharan Emirate in the Beginning of the 20 th Century]. Dushanbe, Irfon. (in Russian) Тухтаметов Т.Г. Россия и Бухарский эмират в начале ХХ века. Душанбе : Ирфон, 1977.
  • Yastrebova, O. (2004) The Bukharan Emir Abd ak-Ahad’s Voyage from Bukhara to St. Petersburg. In: Eschment, B. & Harder, H. (eds.). Looking at the Coloniser: Cross-Cultural Perceptions in Central Asia and the Caucasus, Bengal and Related Areas. Würzburg, Ergon Verlag, pp. 63-74.
  • Yuldashev, K. (1963) O sotsial'no-ekonomicheskikh vozzreniyakh Akhmada Donisha [On the Social-Economical Views of Ahmad Donish]. Obshchestvennye nauki v Uzbekistane [Social sciences in Uzbekistan]. (10), 55-58. (in Russian) Юлдашев К. О социально-экономических воззрениях Ахмада Дониша // Общественные науки в Узбекистане. 1963. № 10. С. 55-58.

Views

Abstract - 27

PDF (Russian) - 9

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Pochekaev R.Y.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.