Vol 17, No 1 (2017): International organizations and Non-Western World

THEMATIC DOSSIER
International financial institutes and multipolarity challenges
Kuznetsov A.V.
Abstract

The world is changing, moving towards multi-polarity. However, despite the explicit shifting of the center of economic gravity from the West to the East, the dominance of the West in establishing the rules of conduct in the global economy and global finance remain virtually immutable. The author argues that the widely-discussed reform of the IMF quota and governance has not led to a significant strengthening of the role of the most dynamically developing emerging economies in the Fund’s decision-making. Regional economic players (such as the BRICS) have been actively involved in the international division of labor. However, the existence of institutional financial monopolies hinders the redistribution of global value added. Armed with the advanced information technologies and financial innovations, the leaders of financial globalization are redirecting scarce global resources in favor of the world-systemic core. The study is based on comparative methods and system analysis and aims to provide a comprehensive view on the way of involvement of global financial institutions in the control of the processes of financial globalization. US dominance in international financial institutions contribute to the further advancement of the global role of dollar as reserve currency of central banks, the currency of international settlements, deposits, loans and investments. It’s shown that the implementation of financial globalization is strongly correlated with the concept of the «center-periphery» model, on which the functioning of the global capital market is dependent. The features of the modern structure of the global currency market are summarized. The article reveals some legal aspects of global governance, in particular the role of the Anglo-American law in the global economy and global finance. It is concluded that for full participation of emerging markets, particularly the BRICS countries, in the processes of globalization, it is necessary to create a parallel financial system, aimed at the development of the real sector of the economy, which would be independent of the rules that have been established within existing system of international financial institutions.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2017;17(1):9-21
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IMF and socio-political processes in the post-soviet space
Fedorchenko S.N.
Abstract

The article shows that the practice of the International Monetary Fund to provide loans to countries in need starts an unexplored chain reaction of changes in the socio-political processes. As a working hypothesis, the author proposes the following assumption: functioning in the conditions of post-Soviet societies, where for a long time a key role in the economy and politics was played by the state, the IMF had underestimated the strong request of the local population to support the social sector by the government, which led to two consequences of his consulting activities - fund recommendations actually led to the stabilization of financial systems in the region, but on the other hand - to the inconsistency and incompleteness of the modernization of the structural reforms. Citizens criticized the reduction of subsidies for social segments, so the post-Soviet elites constantly fluctuated in relation to the full implementation of the recommendations of the IMF package. The author is of the opinion that the post-Soviet government in fact limited the maneuver of the fund, hence in some cases, even an international organization had to make concessions and indulgence of their original demands. The lack of a unified approach and long-term lending between the post-Soviet elite and the IMF provoked disappointment of the population of the need for liberalization and weakening of the state institution, as well as create conditions for social instability up to the “color revolutions”. The study is based on data of sociological surveys of the population.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2017;17(1):22-33
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“The Soviet delegation considers USSR joining the International Monetary Fund advisable”: Soviet Union and IMF in 1943-1946
Minkova K.V.
Abstract

The paper based on the Soviet documents previously not included in scientific circulation and little-known American documents focuses on the evolution of the Soviet Government's position in relation to USSR participation in the International Monetary Fund in 1943-1946. The present study is intended not only to close the significant gap in the domestic and foreign historiography, but also to reveal the true attitude of the Soviet government to international economic cooperation, greatly distorted in the 1950s-1980s by both Soviet and Western propaganda. Stemming from principles of historicism and scientific objectivity, having carefully analyzed Soviet documents and compared them with those of the U.S., the author concludes that in the initial phase of post-war international economic and trade cooperation the Soviet government attached great importance to the participation of the Soviet Union in the formulation of the principles of this cooperation and was ready to make significant concessions for the opportunity to work on the formation of international economic policy and maintain the image of an influential actor in the international arena. However, in the autumn of 1945 the Soviet government's position began to change due to the multiplicity of reasons of exclusively political nature. In particular, the Soviet Union was drawn into a big economic and political game between Washington and London, which resulted in false premises for all Soviet representations of participation in international economic cooperation in late 1945 and early 1946 and, consequently, all decision taken by the Soviet leadership. This fact has become one of the key reasons for the refusal of the USSR to join the IMF in that period.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2017;17(1):34-47
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Colonial legacy as a source and a problem in South-South Cooperation: The Case of Brazil
Pavlova E.B.
Abstract

The aim of this article is to identify the key narratives of colonial legacy as nodal points in the articulation of the Brazilian agenda in the South-South cooperation. Brazil’s aspirations for regional leadership and attempts to increase its international prestige are analyzed in a constructivist framework. Most importantly, our theoretical reasoning departs from the constructivist take on the agent-structure debate, proposed by A. Wendt in 1987. This approach, firstly, helps to clarify the main difficulties which Brazil faced in Latin America and to examine Brazilian efforts to overcome colonial legacy in order to secure regional leadership, one of the principal goals of its foreign policy. Secondly, colonial legacy can be seen as an unconditional source for the geographical expansion of Brazil’s influence and the increasing the number if its allies by means of the South-South cooperation. Thirdly, we demonstrate the very complex relationship on the structural level between the BRICS project and the problem of colonial legacy. Using the example of Brazil as a state which, on the one hand, has not been able to overcome the postcolonial complex, and on the other, is actively performing political rituals aimed at demonstrating its increasing power, we can more clearly outline the possibilities and limitations inherent in the structure of contemporary international system. Finally, this research suggests that BRICS, a group that claims to articulate the principles of the new world order, more beneficial for the states of the South, has limited chances to succeed with that mission.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2017;17(1):48-58
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Asymmetry of ECOWAS integration process: contribution of regional hegemon and small country
Omo-Ogbebor D.O., Sanusi A.H.
Abstract
This article deals with the role of Nigeria and Ghana in ECOWAS specific fields of integration since its creation in 1975. It showed the relevance of Nigeria as a regional leader and the importance of Ghana as a key factor in ECOWAS integration process, and their respective foreign policy stand towards West African integration process in the present century. In order to evaluate and present the role of Nigeria and Ghana in ECOWAS integration process, the authors set out three main tasks to actualize it. The first task is to identify the main areas of ECOWAS integration process, namely: economic integration, security formation and political reformation using qualitative methodological analysis to achieve this task. The second task is the review of ECOWAS operational structure, which explained how Nigeria was able to exert its hegemony status in ECOWAS, and how Ghana is able to remain useful in ECOWAS despite the overwhelming influence of Nigeria. The third task is using historical analytical method to present facts and explain the various contributions by Nigeria and Ghana in ECOWAS economic liberation process, peacekeeping operations, and political interventions in ECOWAS member states which have brought relative peace and security to the region. The authors draw conclusion based on the result of the research analysis that, in spite of ECOWAS compositions which include the Francophone countries in the region and its leadership structure, Nigeria and Ghana have led by example, by devoting much attention and commitment to the ECOWAS integration process through mediations, peacekeeping, political intervention and economic cooperation.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2017;17(1):59-73
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INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS
Imbalances in the development of European currency integration: key issues and recent trends
Sahling C.
Abstract

The recent financial and sovereign debt crises affected the Eurozone countries in different ways. The centre-periphery divide of the national economies exacerbated existing problems in the euro area. In this article an empirical analysis of the development of intra-European imbalances is provided. The analysis shows that the problem of internal imbalances remains unsolved. High unemployment and high public debt in Eurozone’s periphery reflects the internal imbalances. In some Northern countries the public debt ratios are becoming higher, too. Significant current account imbalances provide an important indicator of external imbalances. The co-existence of large current account surpluses in Germany and the Netherlands and deficits in Greece challenges the possibilities of deeper European integration. The provided analysis shows a reduction in external imbalances because of better performance of periphery current accounts. A real solution of European problems needs deeper macroeconomic policy cooperation between national authorities and European institutions. The article highlights the limits of European institutions in promoting common economic policy. It is necessary to boost competitiveness by coordinated structural reforms in the euro area; fiscal austerity policies are not enough to restore pre-crisis internal balance. For sustainable economic growth European investment projects should be implemented in the euro area. The recovery of national economies should be used to reduce the high public debt levels in both centre and periphery countries. In the absence of economic adjustment through the exchange rate in the euro area further improvement in European current accounts convergence is important for European economic integration.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2017;17(1):74-85
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PEACE AND SECURITY
United Nations role in resolution international conflicts
Suleymanov A.V.
Abstract

In recent years ongoing international conflicts and border disputes intensified to an extent that certainly actualized a question of the role of the United Nations (UN) in the solution of these problems. Thereupon the objective of this article is to define the degree of influence of the United Nations and its precautionary effect on settlement of international conflicts at the present stage. The author makes the short analysis of intermediary activity of the United Nations and defines its legal basis. Besides, researcher considers the functionality specifics of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) of the United Nations and its actions aimed at the settlement of the territorial disputes and conflicts in the recent years. The basic method of this research is the comparative-historical approach which is used to reveal positive or negative dynamics of the United Nations performance at the present stage. Now the United Nations make active efforts in the solution of many international conflicts and lowering their escalation. However, despite of a growing demand for the solution of conflicts in a judicial order, the most serious problems of the international character remain insoluble. Nowadays the United Nations play a limited role in the settlement of the international problems. This is based on the fact that most parts of the conflicts evade UN resolutions which have only a recommendatory character. Therefore, the United Nations system needs certain reformation to reflect the new needs and realities in the world today. For the settlement of such challenging international conflicts it is necessary for all the countries to recognize jurisdiction of the UN ICJ.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2017;17(1):86-94
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The input of resolution A/RES/S-30/1 in the formation of the new global anti-drug approaches
Eremin A.A., Eremina M.S., Abdurashitova E.A.
Abstract

The problem with proliferation of illicit narcotic and psychotropic substances has existed for as long as the humanity itself. However only relatively recently it has evolved into an international issue. It is hard to argue that the world drug problem cannot be solved only by the efforts of just one country. For these reasons international community has united their efforts in order to effectively deal with the problem of drugs that is not limited by certain country or region. One of the most important mechanisms of effort coordination against the drug traffic on the international level is the United Nations. The modern developments in the sphere of finding proper ways of combating illicit drug trade have shown that the international community tends to believe that drugs do not only damage the health of users, but provide a wide variety of social, economic and security risks. Keeping that in mind, the importance of the recently adopted resolution of the UN General Assembly on the issue of drugs is obvious and demonstrates high interest of the World in forming a balanced and effective way to fight the illicit drug trade. Most recent United Nations resolution A/RES/S-30/1 thus poses an immediate scientific interest in terms of researching the potential of the global anti-drug efforts. The article also critically assesses the current approaches towards combating illicit drugs, among which are the traditional coercive approaches of the War on Drugs and various “zero tolerance” policies.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2017;17(1):95-110
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BILATERIAL RELATIONS
The current state of Belarusian-Israeli relations: basic trends
Shykh K.V.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the cooperation between the Republic of Belarus and the State of Israel at the present stage. This article describes the main factors that influence to the foreign policy of the two states, priority directions of the foreign policy of Belarus and Israel, and tools for its implementation. The basic cooperation forms between two countries are stated in the article. The author points out the lack of comprehensive studies of this issue by Israeli authors and considers that it demands further research. This article discusses the main areas of the Belarusian-Israeli cooperation at the new stage as well as its challenges and prospects. The author systematizes information related to the interaction between the two countries in various fields. He talks about the forms and types of activity of the two States. The article gives a brief description of the present stage of political dialogue and economic relations between the two countries. The article not only discusses current trends and features of political dialogue between Belarus and Israel, but also researches the regulatory framework that ensures effective regulation of economic relations between these States. The direct participation of Belarus and Israel in the cooperation is analyzed by examples of networking. Separate attention is paid to the analysis of the closure of the Israeli embassy in Minsk. The article sumps up some results of studying of this problem within recent years.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2017;17(1):111-121
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APPLIED ANALYSYS
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC): Models of Engagement with International Institutions in the Process of Regional Governance
Safonkina E.A.
Abstract

After the global financial crisis in 2008 the Asia-Pacific region has become a main driver of global economic growth leaving behind the US and European economies. The regional integration processes and business environment improvement as a result of the multilateral regional fora`s activities, such as the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) laid the foundation for such economic successes. In the process of regional governance the APEC engages with various international and regional organizations applying the models which help it to address its agenda demands in the best way. The article aims to explore what models of engagement with international and regional organizations the APEC forum applies in the process of regional governance; reasons and results of applying these models; track the evolution of engagement as well as assess the effectiveness of APEC`s engagement with international organizations in the context of shifting agenda. The research methods the author applied include qualitative and quantitative content analysis and comparative historical analysis. The official APEC documents adopted at the summits and ministerial meetings constituted the evidence base for the analysis. The author comes to the conclusion that the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation has clearly organized agenda aimed at implementing primary goals on trade and investment liberalization and favorable business environment in the region. Accomplishing objectives of its agenda the APEC takes advantage of policy, finance and expert potential as well as instruments and mechanisms of the international organizations (model “governance through multilateral organizations”). The model of “catalytic influence” is applied by the APEC in very rare cases. APEC applies the model of “parallel treatment” when it establishes its own bodies. APEC uses the “core group” model when it defines the mission of its own bodies as well as gives mandates to the international institutions. Drawing the results of the study it could be said that the APEC has formed a flexible and effective system of engagement with third-party organizations which helps it to make headway in implementing its objectives.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2017;17(1):122-136
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SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL
Studies of international organizations in the Russian Federation. Interview with Doctor of political sciences, Professor, Director of the Center for International Institutions Research (CIIR) of RANEPA M.V. Larionova
Bokeriya S.A.
Abstract

Marina V. Larionova is a leading Russian expert in studying international institutions. In 2007 she defended her doctoral thesis on the theme: “Creating a common educational space in conditions of the development of integration processes in the European Union” at the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia. In the period from 2002 to 2009 Marina Vladimirovna held the position of Vice-Rector of the National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, and now she is currently a professor at the Department of World Economy of the Faculty of World Economy and World Politics at HSE. Also in 2005-2016 she headed the Institute of International Organizations and International Cooperation of this University. Since 2014 Marina Vladimirovna is the Managing Director and Vice President for International Cooperation of the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs. Since 2015 she also heads the Center for International Institutions Research (CIIR) in RANEPA. M.V. Larionova has more than 70 scientific publications, is member of the Political Science Academy, University Association for Contemporary European Studies (UACES) and the president of the Association of Experts in the field of international development assistance. Marina Vladimirovna is also the chief editor of the scientific journal the International Organisations Research Journal (IORJ), a member of the editorial board of the Vestnik RUDN. International relations and a member of the editorial board of Global Summitry Journal - GSJ. In the interview, M.V. Larionova speaks about studies of international institutions (organizations) both in Russia and in the world, describes main schools and research methodology.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2017;17(1):137-143
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Regional integration of developing countries. Interview with Amr Moussa, the Secretary General of the League of Arab States (2001-2011)
Savicheva E.M.
Abstract

Amr Mussa is one of the most experienced diplomats with rich experience in international organizations. In 1958 Mr. Moussa joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Egypt, where he worked in several departments and Egyptian missions including Egypt’s UN mission (1985-1972). In 1974-1977 Amr Moussa was an Assistant and Advisor to the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Arab Republic of Egypt. In 1977-1981 and 1986-1990 he held office of the Department of International Organizations as the Director in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Egypt. In 1981-1983 Mr. Moussa was an Alternate Permanent Representative of Egypt to the United Nations in New York. In 1983-1986 he worked as Ambassador to India. Amr Moussa worked as Permanent Representative of the Arab Republic of Egypt to the United Nations in 1990-1991. In 1991-2001 he was a head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Egypt. In 2001-2011 he worked as Secretary General of the League of Arab States. In his interview, Mr. Amr Moussa talks about the role of international organizations in the developing world, the peculiarities of regional political and economic integration of developing countries. Particular attention is paid to the problems of peacekeeping activities at the regional level.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2017;17(1):144-149
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HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
International aspects of the creation of Union of South Africa in 1910
Arkhangelskaya A.A.
Abstract

The history of South Africa as a unified state is intertwined with the events of international scale. The colonization of South of Africa is linked to the resettlement of the Dutch and the English, engaged in various entrepreneurial activities - trade, mining, agriculture, etc. The formation of South African Union was preceded by a long period when the idea of uniting the British colonial possessions in southern Africa was consistently formed and created by long-term plans. At the same time, several powers competed for economic penetration into South Africa, for instance, albeit to a lesser degree, the United States of America in addition to Germany and England. From 1869 to 1886 the world's largest deposits of diamonds and gold were discovered, which produced a staggering effect on the whole world and radically changed the situation in the region. Conflict of interests in the struggle for control over the richest resources led to war (both campaigns are sometimes called the Boer War), which was the first one in the 20th century. The Anglo-Boer War, the largest international event is of interest from a wide variety of points of view, had left a notable mark in the history of Russia. The Russian government sought to support the Boers and take advantage of the difficulties of their then main rival in the world arena at a time, and the Boers in turn needed the support of world powers in their struggle. Although diplomatic relations with Russia were established the Russian embassy in Pretoria never appeared, due to the fact that a year later the war began. As a result of the war and the processes taking place in the southern part of Africa, emerged the British dominion - South African Union. The approval by the British Parliament of the “South Africa Act” liquidated the last obstacles to the establishment of the Union, and on May 31, 1910, the establishment of a new state, the South African Union, was officially proclaimed. Therefore the socio-economic and political processes that took place in South Africa were reflected in the world politics of that time and had serious consequences of the global scale. They had an important influence in shaping the foreign policy strategy of a new state as yet the dominion of Great Britain.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2017;17(1):150-161
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De-stalinisation of soviet foreign policy towards Indonesia: reviewing the feasibility of the theory of foreign policy change
Dharmaputra R.
Abstract
This paper re-evaluates the changing policies of the Soviet Union towards Indonesia during the era of Joseph Stalin and Nikita Khrushchev, by applying the contemporary theory of foreign policy change. After discussing the debates revolving around the theory of foreign policy change from Gustavsson and Hermann, this paper contends that if there were any changes, then the causal factors would likely be the interplay between the domestic factors and international factors, as Putnam has argued. This finding enhances the understanding that the domestic de-Stalinisation process undergone during Khrushchev’s era was not the only factor that might affect Soviet’s foreign policy. By using the case of Indonesia as the representation of the developing countries, the author shows that both sets of factors affected the changing policy. However, author also found that the systemic condition of the Cold War, namely the contestation between the US and USSR, was more influential than the domestic condition. This paper contributes to the deeper understanding of Soviet-Indonesia relations, the effect of domestic de-Stalinisation to foreign policy, and the feasibility of applying current theory of foreign policy change to an historical case.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2017;17(1):162-174
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Island of Mayotte on its way to the international community
Nezhentsev I.V., Ponomarenko L.V.
Abstract

The article devoted to the analysis of change of status of Mayotte with signing of the Treaty on the possession of Mayotte to France in 1841 continuing until Mayotte’s departmentalization in 2011. Relations between France and Mayotte are essentially different from traditional cooperation “Metropolitan-colony”, due the fact that Mayotte was an important strategic territory of France in the Indian Ocean since 19th century. The article contains the detail analysis of specifics features of French colonial administration. The legislative changes of territorial status of Mayotte traced on the basis of researched decrees, laws, resolutions. The status of Mayotte had changed with the expansion of the colonial Empire: from autonomy up until 1912, to the dependent and controlled up until 1946. In the next 20 years Mayotte crosses swords for the expansion of autonomy from France. Besides it, in this chapter of the article considers the processes of formation of various people's movements, such as “Mouvement du peuple mahorais”, which purposed to get from metropolitan France the status of the French Overseas territory. After the fall of the colonial system, France tried to prevent the final breakdown of the Empire, for that French Republic takes root intro their colonies in a structure of France by legislation. In 1975 Comoros gained independence, and entered immediately into a confrontation with France with regard to Mayotte. The international community headed by the UN required return the island to the Comoros, despite it France referred to a popular referendum during which the residents of Mayotte had expressed a desire to be a part of France. Hurriedly, France granted to Mayotte the status of the Overseas community of France. Despite the new status, Mayotte continued to be a backward region of France up until 1990s. In the 21st century starts a new period of changes. There is an active development of the island in such spheres as administration management, economy, culture and social integration with metropolitan France which ultimately will lead to the departmentalization in 2011. The conclusion examines the processes of integration of Mayotte with France and the EU after departmentalization, prospects of development and reinforcement of role of the island as a political and economic zone of France in East Africa.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2017;17(1):175-189
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INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL COOPERATION
The processes of transformation of the education system and science in Asia in the estimates of international organizations and transnational ranking agencies
Koldunova E.V., Lounev S.I.
Abstract

The article presents a historiographical review of assessments of higher education and science development in Asia, which has now become the key economic region of the world. It is a common knowledge that education, science and innovations represent a driving force of economic development and indispensable for building a knowledge-based economy. The analysis presented in this article adds to a better understanding of knowledge-based economy development in Greater Eastern Asia. The article presents the research literature and science metrics analysis on science and education development in Asia dividing it into four clusters. International organizations (e.g., the UN and OECD) and transnational ranking agencies (like QS) judging by the quantitative indicators point out that Greater Eastern Asia (Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia and India) has become one of the world leaders in terms of higher education development and innovations. In high technologies, the region is second only to the USA and is constantly bridging this gap. Greater Middle East (the Middle East and Central Asia) looks differently in this respect. Arab countries’ opportunities to build knowledge-based economy are very limited as well as those of Central Asia. In terms of quality of science and education Greater Eastern Asia (with the exception of the most advanced countries of the region) is still lagging behind the West and in terms of fundamental science this gap looks very serious. However, there are efforts in place to make the rise of science and education in Asia more quality-oriented, for instance focusing more on strengthening engineering and hard science in the Asian universities.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2017;17(1):190-200
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REVIEWS
Review of the book: Situational Analysis: Issue 5: International institutions in the contemporary world’s politics
Bokeriya S.A., Shabaga A.V.
Abstract

Review of the book

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2017;17(1):201-207
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