Internet Revolution or Just Fitna: Towards the Tenth Anniversary of the Arab Spring

Cover Page

Abstract


The article is dedicated to the analysis of the tenth anniversary of the revolutionary events in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), called the Arab Spring. The relevance of the study of the consequences of political transformations in Arab countries is due to the incompleteness of the modernization processes in such areas as public administration, justice and human rights, which gave rise to the discontent of the active part of society, which had initiated the protests. The idea of the research was to compare the causes of popular uprisings, the methods of political struggle, the main actors and the results of the Arab Spring for most of the countries affected by this process. Particular attention has been paid to the growing popularity of Islamist political forces, which have given their answers and pseudo-answers to acute societal issues. With the help of comparative and typological analysis, the peculiarities of different models of political development in the Middle East and North African countries have been studied. Over the past decade, world science has accumulated a significant layer of research on the Arab Spring phenomenon. The authors have taken into account a wide range of opinions of scholars from Europe, the United States, Turkey, Israel, and the Arab states. Aiming to assess the political transformation of the MENA region over the past 10 years, this study analyzes changes in the position of external actors such as Russia and the USA. The authors conclude that the influence of the US as a whole in the region has decreased, while the influence of Russia, Turkey, Iran, and Saudi Arabia has increased. Israel has managed to strengthen its own security by establishing normal relations with a number of Arab states in the region. The popular unrest that erupted again in Iraq, Lebanon, Sudan, Algeria, and Tunisia in 2018-2021 was objectively caused by the same conditions that had given rise to the Arab Spring and with the same uncertain results so far.


About the authors

Aleksey Mikhailovich Vasiliev

Institute for African Studies Russian Academy of Sciences; Peoples Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University)

Author for correspondence.
Email: vasilyev-am@rudn.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0372-9775
Moscow, Russian Federation

PhD, Dr. of Sc. (History), Аcademician, Professor, Institute for African Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences; Head, Department of African and Arab Studies, RUDN University

Natalia Aleksandrovna Zherlitsina

Institute for African Studies Russian Academy of Sciences; Peoples Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University)

Email: zherlitsyna-na@rudn.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8647-9419
Moscow, Russian Federation

PhD in History, Leading Research Fellow, Center for History and Cultural Anthropology, Institute for African Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences; Associate Professor, Department of African and Arab Studies, RUDN University

References

  1. Vasiliev, A. M., & Zherlitsina, N. A. (2019). Evolution of the media in North Africa countries after the crisis of the Arab Spring. Theoretical and Practical Issues of Journalism, 8(1), 81-95. (In Russian). https://doi.org/10.17150/2308-6203.2019.8(1).81-95
  2. Krylov, A. V. (2020). Consequences of the civil war in Syria and ways of overcoming them. Mirovaya Ekonomika i Mezhdunarodnye Otnosheniya, 64(9), 114-125. (In Russian). https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2020-64-9-114-125
  3. Naumov, A. O. (2019). The use of ‘Soft Power’ technologies against the change in political regimes during the Arab Spring (the case study of the Jasmine Revolution in Tunisia). International relations, (1), 114-128. (In Russian). https://doi.org/10.7256/2454-0641.2019.1.23575
  4. Truevtsev, K. M. (2020). 2019 Turn: The new stage of the “Arab Spring” or start of the new paradigm of political development? Vostok. Afro-Aziatskie Obshchestva: Istoriia i Sovremennost’, (2), 96-105. (In Russian). https://doi.org/10.31857/S086919080009103-0
  5. Al-Anani, K. (2021). Islamism and revolution across the Middle East: Transformations of ideology and strategy after the Arab Spring. London: I.B. Tauris.
  6. Barbera, S., & Jackson, M. O. (2020). А model of protests, revolution, and information. Quarterly Journal of Political Science, 15(3), 297-335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/100.00019002
  7. Burns, S. (2019). Revolts and the military in the Arab Spring: Popular uprisings and the politics of repression. London: I.B. Tauris.
  8. Eid, M., & El-Desouky, A. (2021). Cultural production and social movements after the Arab Spring: Nationalism, politics and transnational identity. London: I. B. Tauris.
  9. Fakih, A., Haimoun, N., & Kassem, M. (2020). Youth unemployment, gender and institutions during transition: evidence from the Arab Spring. Social Indicators Research, 150(1), 311-336. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-020-02300-3
  10. Fisk, R., & Cockburn, P. (2017). Arab Spring then and now: From hope to despair. London: Independent Print Limited
  11. Gilbert, L., & Mohseni, P. (2020). NGO laws after the colour revolutions and the Arab Spring: Nondemocratic regime strategies in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Meditteranean Politics, 25(2), 182-214. https://doi.org/10.1080/13629395.2018.1537103
  12. Heydemann, S. (2016). Explaining the Arab uprisings: Transformations in comparative perspective. Mediterranean Politics, 21(1), 192-204. https://doi.org/10.1080/13629395.2015.1081450
  13. Idowu, A. S., & Oladiti, A. A. (2016). The forces of globalisation and the Arab Spring in modern Libya. Journal of Globalization Studies, 7(1), 112-123
  14. Issaev, L., & Zakharov, A. (2020). Decentralization in Libya after the Arab Spring. Middle East Policy, 27(1), 56-70. https://doi.org/10.1111/mepo.12474
  15. Kepel, G. (2020). Away from chaos: The Middle East and the challenge to the West. New York: Columbia University Press
  16. Khatib, I., & Ghanem, A. (2018). Diffusion in the Arab world: Turkey and Iran as models of emulation on the eve of the Arab Spring. Insight Turkey, 20(2), 223-250. Retrieved from https://www.insightturkey.com/file/909/diffusion-in-the-arab-world-turkey-and-iran-as-models-of-emulation-on-the-eve-of-the-arab-spring
  17. Koehler, K. (2017). Political militaries in popular uprisings: A comparative perspective on the Arab Spring. International Political Science Review, 38(3), 363-377. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192512116639746
  18. Köprülü, N. (2020). The paradox of inclusion/exclusion of Islamist parties in Tunisia and Jordan after the Arab uprisings: A comparative study. Insight Turkey, 22(1), 211-236. https://doi.org/10.25253/99.2019EV.03
  19. Korotayev, A. V., & Shishkina, A. R. (2020). Relative deprivation as a factor of sociopolitical destabilization: Toward a quantitative comparative analysis of the Arab Spring events. Cross-Cultural Research, 54(2-3), 296-318. https://doi.org/10.1177/1069397119882364
  20. Makangali, B., Amirbekova, S., Khamitova, M., & Baydarov, E. (2020). Religious aspects of the Syrian crisis on social media. Central Asia and the Caucasus, 21(1), 102-111. https://doi.org/10.37178/ca-c.20.1.10
  21. Prasanta, K. P. (2017). Arab Spring and sectarian faultlines in West Asia: Bahrain, Yemen and Syria. New Delhi: Pentagon Press
  22. Sánchez-Mateos, E. (2019). Internal dystrophy and international rivalry: The (de)construction of Libyan foreign policy. The Journal of North African Studies, 24(3), 468-489. https://doi.org/10.1080/13629387.2018.1454653
  23. Shishkina, A., & Issaev, L. (2017). From Fitnah to Thaura: The metamorphosis of the Arab-Muslim protest movements. Religions, 8(9), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel8090193
  24. Solomon, H., & Tausch, A. (2020). The demise of the Muslim Brotherhood in the Arab world? Jewish Political Studies Review, 31(1/2), 171-209. Retrieved from https://jcpa.org/article/the-demise-of-the-muslim-brotherhood-in-the-arab-world/
  25. Steinert-Threlkeld, Z. C. (2017). Spontaneous collective action: Peripheral mobilization during the Arab Spring. American Political Science Review, 111(2), 379-403. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055416000769
  26. Tkachenko, A. A., & Tkachenko, K. А. (2020). The renovation processes in the Middle East and North Africa in the 21 century. Asia and Africa Today, (6), 21-28. Retrieved from https://asaf-today.ru/s032150750009874-3-1/
  27. Vasiliev, A. (2018). Russia’s Middle East policy: From Lenin to Putin. London: Routledge

Statistics

Views

Abstract - 290

PDF (Russian) - 64

Cited-By


PlumX

Dimensions


Copyright (c) 2021 Vasiliev A.M., Zherlitsina N.A.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies