No 4 (2016)

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Articles
CONTROLLING STREET DOG POPULATION IN MOSCOW
Zhulenko A.S., Polynova G.V.
Abstract
The issue represents the analysis of the fundamentals and world-wide best practices of controlling street dog population in Moscow and other global cities. Actions proposed to improve the strategy of managing free-ranging dogs in Moscow.Some reasons of increase in number of stray dogs and “pet overpopulation” ware studied. There are ecological types of stray dogs characterized the types of running wild of dogs and foraging (food procurement) strategy of animals.The analysis of the basic principles of management of the number of stray dogs of urban areas was carried out. The work on the field of stray dogs’ population regulation is directed to prophylaxisactions and prevention of the animals’ homelessness phenomenon, and also carrying out actions of catching and creation of a network of shelters for available homeless animals.The international experience and methods of successful practice of stray dogs’ population management program were studied. It is necessary for developing various programs for stray dogs’ population management in Moscow. The basic principles of “TNR” program and experience of its application in Moscow and other countries was studied.Actions for management of the number of stray dogs in Moscow were offered. There are two main directions of different measures: a creation of specialized professional structures for the number of homeless animals’ management of the city and an active involvement of animals’ owners to increase of responsibility and knowledge of the people.The main actions of these directions consist of neutering of healthy and nonaggressive animals, vaccination against dangerous diseases (plague, rage, leptospirosis, enteritis and others) with the return to their habitat, construction of shelters for street animals, euthanasia of terminally ill and aggressive, finding new owners for healthy and nonaggressive animals; improvement of the waste system, limiting breeding of dogs, stimulation of neutering of pets, registration and the recording of animals, installing chips in pets and tagging stray sterilized dogs, administrative sanctions against people for violation of the rules of pets keeping, developing in society of a responsible attitude to animals, education in the field of the treatment of animals and public service advertising to promote the idea of animals from shelters are necessary.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(4):7-17
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SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF RAKOVINNY AMOEBAS IN RIZOSFERE OF THE BIRCH AND THE POPLAR
Kulyukina E.V., Kartashov A.G., Denisov T.V.
Abstract
Studying of spatial distribution of communities, the rakovinnykh of amoebas in the territory of Tomsk in a rizosfer of a pine and fir-tree 80 cm from a root neck of a tree were carried out at distances 20, 40, 60. As a result of research the number and specific structure of communities the rakovinnykh of amoebas in seasonal variability of biotopes were considered. In a rizosfer of a fir-tree and pine the rakovinnykh of amoebas is to 9 types. The main types of seasonal spatial adaptation of testation in a rizosfer of a birch and poplar are allocated.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(4):18-32
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AVIFAUNA OF THE LAKES SYSTEMS IN THE DELTA OF THE SYRDARYA RIVER (LAKE CARTMA)
Sihanova N.S., Rakhimov I.I.
Abstract
Presents results of a study of bird population of lake Kartma as part of the restoring of the ornithological complex of the Aral sea region. The information obtained in the course of this work, can serve as a starting point for monitoring community ornithocenosis lake systems of the Delta of the river Syrdarya. Was 49 species of birds of the 8 units. The total density is 1155,9 ind./km2. The majority of birds nesting on lake Kartma, belongs to the ecological group of limnophilic and trophic group - entomophages. Positive process taking place in the last decade and is associated with water-bearing role of the Syr Darya in the maintenance of coastal ecosystems to sposobstvuyuschyy unique objects of the Aral sea region. Lake systems of the Syrdarya Delta in 2012 is included in the list of wetlands of world importance, protected by the international Ramsar Convention. The studies were carried out to study ornithine lake Karma, the problem of the determination of the residence status of bird species in the area of recovery of the coastal strip. The lake is characterized by a comparatively small number of birds and low population density of waterfowl. The dominant density of habitation here are birds of wetlands. There were three species listed in the Red book of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Information are new for the studied object.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(4):33-43
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PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VESSELS ON PLATELET AGGREGATION AND NEUTROPHILS IN NEWBORN CALVES
Glagoleva T.I., Kutafina N.V.
Abstract
Success haemocirculation largely determines the overall physiological and biological status of newborn calves and is very largely due to the peculiarities of platelet aggregation and blood neutrophils and severity of control over it by the vascular wall. The goal - to establish the severity of antiaggregation opportunities vascular effects on platelets and neutrophils in newborn calves during the phase. The study was performed on 32 calves black-motley and Simmental breeds made in research on the 1-2 days of life. The examination was performed during the neonatal phase fivefold - 1-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-8 and 9-10 days of life with hematologic and statistical methods. Throughout the newborn calves marked by low platelet aggregation at the uptrend their sensitivity to disaggregate effects of the vascular wall. Indistinct aggregation of neutrophils in colostric power calves effectively constrained by severe vascular antiplatelet activity. Thus, for the newborn calves characterized physiologically justified balance of platelet aggregation and blood neutrophils and disaggregating control over it from the vascular wall.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(4):44-50
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SELECTION OF GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID PRODUCING LACTOBACILLUS AND BIFIDOBACTERIUM SYMBIONT STRAINS AS POTENTIAL PSYCHOBIOTICS
Yunes R.A., Poluektova E.U., Dyachkova M.S., Kozlovski Y.E., Orlova V.S., Danilenko V.N.
Abstract
Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is an active biogenic substance, synthesized in the organisms of plants, fungi, vertebrate animals and bacteria. GABA is used in food and drugs exhibiting antihypertensive, analgesic and antidepressant properties. GABA-producing strains can be considered as delivery vehicles of GABA to specific sites of the gut. Such strains are potential antidepressants promoting adaptation in the extreme north. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered the main producers of GABA among bacteria. GABA-producing Lactobacilli are isolated from food products such as cheese, yogurt, sourdough etc. and are the source of bioactive properties assigned to those foods. The ability of Human-derived Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria to synthesize GABA remains poorly characterized. In this paper, we screened our collection of 114 Human-derived Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains for their ability to produce GABA from its precursor monosodium glutamate (MSG). As a result 58 strains belonging to the species L.plantarum , L.brevis , B.adolescentis , B.angulatum , B.dentium were able to produce GABA. The most efficient GABA-producers were Bificobacterium strains (up to 6 g/L). We selected a GABA-producing strains that was further tested in Sprague-Dawley rats. Ingestion of L.plantarum 90sk strain increased GABA in the rats’ blood and decreased the rate of stress hormone prolactin.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(4):51-59
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CHANGE OF MOBILE FORMS OF HEAVY METALS IN GRAY FOREST SOILS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF HUMIC PREPARATIONS OBTAINED USING DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES
Cherdakova A.S., Galchenko S.V., Mazhajskij J.A.
Abstract
The article presents the results of experimental studies evaluating the effect of humic preparations obtained using different technologies in the content of mobile forms of heavy metals in contaminated gray forest soil. Analyzed humic preparations obtained by classical alkaline extraction technology and innovative ultrasonic cavitation technology of peat. The drugs were added to the gray forest soil artificially contaminated with heavy metals - zinc, lead, cadmium and copper. The humic preparations determined by the concentration of the active substance - the content of humic and fulvic acids. It was found that ultrasonic cavitation technology allows to obtain a more concentrated formulation as compared with the alkaline extraction technology. It was established experimentally that the concentration of mobile forms of heavy metals in the soil is reduced by using humic substances obtained by cavitation technology. These drugs help reduce the concentration of mobile forms 5-15% copper, 50% zinc, 25-30% lead, 5-15% cadmium.The preparations obtained according to the traditional alkaline peat extraction technology, by contrast, increases the mobility of heavy metals. Perhaps the reason for this phenomenon is due to the peculiarities of the chemical composition of the studied drugs. The basis of preparations obtained by cavitation technique lie fulvic and humic acids. They form inactive complexes with heavy metals. The basis of preparations obtained by alkaline technology - soluble potassium humates and fulvates. They can form soluble complexes of heavy metals, thereby increasing their mobility. But the soluble complexes are not stable over time and can be destroyed, with the release of heavy metals.The experimental results were analyzed one year after the laying of the experience.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(4):60-69
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THE ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS FOR URBAN PLOT OF LAND
Potapova E.V., Zelinskaya E.V.
Abstract
Green areas have many functions in increasing and supporting the quality of urban environment. Thus, most factors of people’s welfare depend on and are defined by green areas’ preservation, especially in cities with their concentrated population and intensive anthropogenic impact that create increased ecological risk. A risk is a qualitative or quantitative estimation of a hazard linked to undesirable consequences and losses. Risk estimation consists of several stages: risk identification, risk analysis, risk assessment. The paper is based on long-term field studies of green areas in a dozen Russian cities. The field data were recorded in standard geobotanical descriptions and forms as well as in specially developed author’s ecological assessment charts and defect lists. The main reasons, tendencies and factors of degradation and destruction of green areas were analyzed. A green area’s inability to fulfill its functions was estimated as the main risk. In the structure of the main risk nine event groups or secondary risks were described: destruction and loss of species diversity, its substitution, simplification of vertical and horizontal structure, diseases, infliction of harm, inhibition and loss of decorative value. The authors propose a classification and estimation of the risks, describe the main factors that cause a green area’s inability to fulfill its ecological functions: construction works, works for housing and public utilities, car runovers, recreational activities, trampling down, damaging and littering. The calculation of probabilities for the risk factors was carried out and their patterns were defined.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(4):70-81
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A METHOD OF PROTECTING AGAINST WASHOUT BEACH TIDAL WAVES
Naumov V.A., Akhmedova N.R., Belova L.A.
Abstract
The paper deals with hydraulic structure that is designed for the protection of the sea coast against washout, the results of calculations of the basic parameters.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(4):82-89
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THE ANALYSIS OF AIR POLLUTION BY VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE ROADSIDE SPACE OF ASTANA CITY
Meiramkulova K.S., Chekusheva D.V.
Abstract
The main ecological problem in each city is the atmospheric pollution and traffic noise. Since 1998 the city, after the capital of Kazakhstan was moved from Almaty to Astana,begun to grow rapidly. New buildings, entertainment and cultural centers are being built; the number of vehicles increases. Exhaust gases accumulate in the surface layer of the atmosphere, representing risk to human health. Currently, studies of roadside pollution in Astana are limited to heavy metals. While the need to consider other pollutants, such as volatile organic compounds (about 150 priority pollutants), is becoming more popular. The aim of thesis is the identification and quantification of major volatile organic exhaust substances in the atmosphere of the city. Identification of contaminants in the air samples was carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Concentrations of substances increased in direct proportion to the intensity of vehicular traffic. The highest concentration of identified volatile organic compounds observed in central city areas. The received data analysis is the scientific basis for the practical recommendations in assortment of green spaces, resistant to exposure to toxic components of traffic fumes. Improvement of the capital air space will benefit the biomedical dimension of sustainable development.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(4):90-95
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CORRECTION OF FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF PHYSICIANS ANAESTHESIOLOGISTS-REANIMATOLOGISTS BY XENON INHALATIONS
Shvetsky F.M., Potievskaya V.I., Smolnikov P.V., Chizhov A.Y.
Abstract
30 healthy intensive care physicians from 29 to 37 years participated in the study. The main characteristic of this group of subjects - regular daily duty responsibility (without the right to sleep) in the department of intensive care of hospital №51, Moscow. Evaluation of personality characteristics, accentuation and alarm level assessment were performed with determination of hormone profile and variability of cardiac rhythm. The inhalations of xenon-oxygen mixture were performed for correction of functional status of physicians. According to basic measurements prevalence of «strong»psychological reactive type was revealed in physicians. Cortisol level was lower normal ranges due to chronic fatigue. Xenon inhalations contributed to alarm level decrease and enhanced functional reserves of cardiovascular system evaluated by variability of cardiac rhythm assessment.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(4):96-104
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INFLUENCE ECOLOGICALLY UNFAVORABLE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH YOUNGER GENERATION
Ladnova G.G., Kurochitscaya M.G., Silyutina V.V., Frolova N.V.
Abstract
The results of studies on the influence of ecologically unfavorable environment on the health of school children aged 7-14 years. A correlation was established between the health and the state of malnutrition, lack of sleep, stay in the fresh air and physical activity. Displaying equity risk factors involved in reducing the indicators of health of schoolboys.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(4):105-108
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DISCOURSE MARKERS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES IN RUSSIAN AND ENGLISH
Valeeva N.G., Rudneva M.A.
Abstract
The article considers the problem of discourse markers from national-cultural medium aspect. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of discourse markers in environmental research papers has been carried out, specific nature of their use has been defined.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2016;(4):109-115
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