# Vol 31, No 2 (2023)

**Year:**2023**Articles:**7**URL:**https://journals.rudn.ru/miph/issue/view/1660**DOI:**https://doi.org/10.22363/2658-4670-2023-31-2

## Full Issue

### Heterogeneous queueing system with Markov renewal arrivals and service times dependent on states of arrival process

#### Abstract

In the proposed work, we consider a heterogeneous queueing system with a Markov renewal process and an unlimited number of servers. The service time for requests on the servers is a positive random variable with an exponential probability distribution. The service parameters depend on the state of the Markov chain nested over the renewal moments. It should be noted that these parameters do not change their values until the end of maintenance. Thus, the devices in the system under consideration are heterogeneous. The object of the study is a multidimensional random process - the number of servers of each type being served with different intensities in the stationary regime. The method of asymptotic analysis under the condition of equivalent growing of service times in the units of servers is applied for the study. The method of asymptotic analysis is implemented in the construction of a sequence of asymptotic of increasing order, in which the asymptotic of the first order determines the asymptotic mean value of the number of occupied servers. The second-order asymptotic allows one to construct a Gaussian approximation of the probability distribution of the number of occupied servers in the system. It is shown that this approximation coincides with the Gaussian distribution.

**Discrete and Continuous Models and Applied Computational Science**. 2023;31(2):105-119

### Convergence of the grid method for the Fredholm equation of the first kind with Tikhonov regularization

#### Abstract

The paper describes a grid method for solving an ill-posed problem for the Fredholm equation of the first kind using the A. N. Tikhonov regularizer. The convergence theorem for this method was formulated and proved. A procedure for thickening grids with a simultaneous increase in digit capacity of calculations is proposed.

**Discrete and Continuous Models and Applied Computational Science**. 2023;31(2):120-127

### Quadratures with super power convergence

#### Abstract

The calculation of quadratures arises in many physical and technical applications. The replacement of integration variables is proposed, which dramatically increases the accuracy of the formula of averages. For infinitely smooth integrand functions, the convergence law becomes super power. It is significantly faster than the power law and is close to exponential one. For integrals with bounded smoothness, power convergence is realized with the maximum achievable order of accuracy.

**Discrete and Continuous Models and Applied Computational Science**. 2023;31(2):128-138

### Asymptote-based scientific animation

#### Abstract

This article discusses a universal way to create animation using Asymptote the language for vector graphics. The Asymptote language itself has a built-in library for creating animations, but its practical use is complicated by an extremely brief description in the official documentation and unstable execution of existing examples. The purpose of this article is to eliminate this gap. The method we describe is based on creating a PDF-file with frames using Asymptote, with further converting it into a set of PNG images and merging them into a video using FFmpeg. All stages are described in detail, which allows the reader to use the described method without being familiar with the used utilities.

**Discrete and Continuous Models and Applied Computational Science**. 2023;31(2):139-149

### Chebyshev collocation method for solving second order ODEs using integration matrices

#### Abstract

The spectral collocation method for solving two-point boundary value problems for second order differential equations is implemented, based on representing the solution as an expansion in Chebyshev polynomials. The approach allows a stable calculation of both the spectral representation of the solution and its pointwise representation on any required grid in the definition domain of the equation and additional conditions of the multipoint problem. For the effective construction of SLAE, the solution of which gives the desired coefficients, the Chebyshev matrices of spectral integration are actively used. The proposed algorithms have a high accuracy for moderate-dimension systems of linear algebraic equations. The matrix of the system remains well-conditioned and, with an increase in the number of collocation points, allows finding solutions with ever-increasing accuracy.

**Discrete and Continuous Models and Applied Computational Science**. 2023;31(2):150-163

### Implementation of the Adams method for solving ordinary differential equations in the Sage computer algebra system

#### Abstract

This work is devoted to the implementation and testing of the Adams method for solving ordinary differential equations in the Sage computer algebra system. The Sage computer algebra system has, to some extent, trivial means for numerical integration of ordinary differential equations, but at the same time, it is worth noting that this environment is convenient and practical for conducting computer experiments related to symbolic numerical calculations in it. The article presents the FDM package developed on the basis of the RUDN, which contains the developments of recent years, performed by M. D. Malykh and his students, for numerical integration of differential equations. In this package, attention is paid to the visualization of the calculation results, including the construction of various kinds of auxiliary diagrams, such as Richardson diagrams, as well as graphs of dependence, for example, the value of a function or step from a moment in time. The implementation of the Adams method will be considered from this package. In this article, this implementation of the Adams method will be tested on various examples of input data, and the method will also be compared with the Jacobi system. Exact and approximate values will be found and compared, and an estimate for the error will be obtained.

**Discrete and Continuous Models and Applied Computational Science**. 2023;31(2):164-173

### Buckling in inelastic regime of a uniform console with symmetrical cross section: computer modeling using Maple 18

#### Abstract

The method of numerical integration of Euler problem of buckling of a homogeneous console with symmetrical cross section in regime of plastic deformation using Maple 18 is presented. The ordinary differential equation for a transversal coordinate \(y\) was deduced which takes into consideration higher geometrical momenta of cross section area. As an argument in the equation a dimensionless console slope \(p=tg \theta\) is used which is linked in mutually unique manner with all other linear displacements. Real strain-stress diagram of metals (steel, titan) and PTFE polymers were modelled via the Maple nonlinear regression with cubic polynomial to provide a conditional yield point (\(t\),\(\sigma_f\)). The console parameters (free length \(l_0\), \(m\), cross section area \(S\) and minimal gyration moment \(J_x\)) were chosen so that a critical buckling forces \(F_\text{cr}\) corresponded to the stresses \(\sigma\) close to the yield strength \(\sigma_f\). To find the key dependence of the final slope \(p_f\) vs load \(F\) needed for the shape determination the equality for restored console length was applied. The dependences \(p_f(F)\) and shapes \(y(z)\), \(z\) being a longitudinal coordinate, were determined within these three approaches: plastic regime with cubic strain-stress diagram, tangent modulus \(E_\text{tang}\) approximations and Hook’s law. It was found that critical buckling load \(F_\text{cr}\) in plastic range nearly two times less of that for an ideal Hook’s law. A quasi-identity of calculated console shapes was found for the same final slope \(p_f\) within the three approaches especially for the metals.

**Discrete and Continuous Models and Applied Computational Science**. 2023;31(2):174-188