SOFT LAW REALISATION IN THE CONTEXT OF «PRINCIPLES RELEVANT TO THE USE OF NUCLEAR POWER SOURCES IN OUTER SPACE»: CASE STUDY THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION, THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE EUROPEAN UNION STATES

Cover Page

Abstract


Nowadays one of the most significant discussions in the international public law relates to the concept and the role of “soft law”. Some researchers assert the point of view of existence of such law, others consider that it is a new source of public international law However, different approaches don’t exclude the basic char-acteristics of soft law that is a non-binding nature and a streamlines process of drafting. Because of this situation, Member-States of public international organizations tend to use soft law as a pragmatic way of organizing interactions among sovereign states the in case of difficulties to pass unified international treaty. This article argues that similar practices also exist in international space law. Since the entry in force of the Moon Agreement in 1979, the Member States of UN COPUOS have not passed any additional international space treaties. Instead, they have found a solution for new chal-lenges: drafting and accepting soft law acts like UN General Assembly Resolutions (hereinafter GA Resolutions) and others. While GA Resolutions are not legally binding, States can transform them into national legislations and doing so they will have to be responsible for certain space activities which have not been regulated internationally yet. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview on the establishment of soft law as a new source of international space law by analyzing and comparing state practice in Russia, the USA and in several Member States of the European Union (EU). The emphasis will be made on the transformation of provisions of the UN General Assembly Resolution “Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Pow-er Sources in Outer Space” (hereinafter the NPS Principles) as nuclear power sources in outer space should be based on a thorough safety assessment. The article starts by a short overview of the concept of “soft law” and the resolutions produced by UN COPUOS. Then it will go on to the main three parts besides conclusion. The first chapter gives a brief overview of the drafting history of the NPS Principles and the second deals with activities of UN COPUOS and IAEA on the matter of nuclear power sources use in outer space. The last chapter pre-sents several case studies focusing on the following questions which provisions of NPS Principles have been implemented into national legislative system, what is the novel and what are the differences among the various national law instruments in these countries.

Irina A Chernykh

i.chernykh.law26@gmail.com
RUDN University Law Institute 6, Miklukho-Maklaya st., Moscow 117198, Russia

Chernykh Irina A. - Post-graduate Student, Department of International Law, Law Institute, RUDN University.

  • Aftergood, S. (1989) Background оn Space Nuclear Power. Science & Global Security. 1, 93-107.
  • Aftergood, S., Hafemeister, D. W., Prilutskiy, O. F., Primack, J. R. & Rodionov, S. N. (1991) Nuclear Power in space. Scientific American. 264 (6), 42-47.
  • Beard, J.M. (2016) Soft Law’s Failure on the Horizon: The International Code of Conduct for Outer Space Activities. In: Space and Telecommunications Law Program Faculty Publications. Paper. 87. Available from: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/spacelaw/87 [Accessed 18th May 2017]
  • Bennett, G. L. (1995) A Technical Review of the U.N. Principles on the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space. Available from: https://fas.org/nuke/space/technical.pdf [Accessed 20th May 2017]
  • Bennett, G. L., Sholtis, J.A. & Rashkow, B.C. (1989) United Nations Deliberations on the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Space: 1978-1987. In: EI-Genk, M. S., Hoover, M. D. (eds.) Space Nuclear Power Systems 1988. Malabar, Florida, Orbit Book Company Inc, pp. 45-58.
  • Boczek, B. A. (2005) International Law: A Dictionary. Lanham, Scarecrow Press.
  • Dunk, F. (2012) Contradictio in terminis or Realpolitik? A Qualified Plea for a Role of 'Soft Law' in the Context of Space Activities. In: Space and Telecommunications Law Program Faculty Publications. Paper 68. Available from: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/spacelaw/68 [Accessed 18th May 2017]
  • Dunk, F. & Tronchetti, F. (2015) Handbook of Space Law. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
  • Durdenevskii V. N. & Krylov, S. B. (1947) Mezhdunarodnoe pravo [International Law]. Moscow, Gosyurizdat.
  • Falk, R. A. (1967) New Approaches to the Study of International Law. American Journal of International Law. 61 (2), 477-495.
  • Kozhevnikov, F. I. (1957) Mezhdunarodnoe pravo [International Law]. Moscow, Gosyurizdat. (in Russian)
  • Lyall, F., Larsen, P. B. (eds.) (2009) Space law: a treatise. Aldershot, Ashgate Publishing Group.
  • Marboe, I. (2012) Soft law in outer space: the function of non-binding norms in international space law. Wien, Böhlau Verlag.
  • Mayence, J. F. (2011) Granting Access to Outer Space: Rights and Responsibilities for States and Their Citizens - An Alternative Approach to Article VI of the Outer Space Treaty, Notably through the Belgian Space Legislation. In: Dunk, F. (ed.) National Space Legislation in Europe. Leiden, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, рр. 73-124.
  • Minasyan, N. M. (1966) Pravo mirnogo sosushchestvovaniya [The Law of Peaceful Coexistence]. Rostov-on-Don, Rostovskii universitet Publ. (in Russian)
  • Morozov, G. I. (1962) Organizatsiya Ob»edinennykh Natsii (Osnovnye mezhdunarodno-pravovye aspekty struktury i deyatel'nosti) [United Nations (The Basic International Legal Aspects of Structure and Activities)]. Moscow, IMO Publ. (in Russian)
  • Portalis, J. E. M. (1820) De l'usage et de l'abus de l'esprit philosophique durant le dixhuitième siècle. Tome 1. Paris: A. Egron, Imprimeur.
  • Rozman R. (2012) Nuclear Energy in Space. Available from: http://mafija.fmf.unilj.si/seminar/files/2011_2012/NUCLEAR_ENERGY_IN_SPACE__ROK_ROZMAN.pdf [Accessed 20th January 2017].
  • Schwelb, E. (1966) Neue Etappen der Vortentwicklung des Völkerrechts durch die Vereinten Nationen. Archiv des Völkerrechts. 13 (1), 1-52.
  • Summerer, L., Gardini, B. & Gianfiglio, G. (2007) ESA’s Approach to Nuclear Power Sources for Space Applications. In: Proceedings of ICAPP. 13-18 May, Nice, France. Available from: http://www.esa.int/gsp/ACT/doc/POW/ACT-RPR-NRG-2007-SummererGardiniGiacinto-ICAPP-ESAs-Approach-to-NPS-for-Space-Applications.pdf [Accessed 18th May 2017].
  • Tunkin, G. I. (2014) Teoriya mezhdunarodnogo prava [Theory of International Law]. Moscow, IKD «Zertsalo-M». (in Russian)
  • Verdross, A. (1955) Völkerrecht. Dritte neubearbeitete und erweiterte Auflage. Translated from German Kublitskii, F. A., Naryshkina, R. L. (1959) Moscow, Inostrannaya literatura Publ.
  • Vereshchetin, V. S. (2010) The Law of Outer Space in the General Legal Field (Commonality and Particularities). In: Jorgenson, C. M. (ed.) Proceedings of the International Institute of Space Law. Washington, D.C., AIAA. pp. 3-14.
  • Wolter, D. (2006) Common Security in Outer Space and International Law. Geneva, Switzerland, United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research.
  • Zhukov, G. P., Abashidze, A. Kh. (eds.) (2014) Mezhdunarodnoe kosmicheskoe pravo [International Space Law]. Moscow, RUDN Publ. (in Russian)

Views

Abstract - 19

PDF (English) - 13

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Chernykh I.A.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.