Vol 16, No 2 (2016): Africa in International Relations

Articles
BRICS: challenges of cooperation on the African continent
Yurtaev V.I.

Abstract

The happening paradigm shift of development both the kernel of world economy, and its periphery appearing by the hostage of limitation of financial resources updates task of judgment of the happening processes, especially with participation of the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) or the countries of the “big economies” which are looking for new formats of entry into worldwide policy. Also the problem of correlation of the monopolar structure of a world economic system which has arisen in the conditions of globalization of economies at the end of the 20th century with processes of forming of the new centers of world economic power is actual, including - in Africa, under the influence of an exit to the world scene of China and other countries of BRICS, disappearance of the so-called “second world”, opposition mitigation “East-West” and increase of contradictions on an axis “North-South”. The countries of Africa at the beginning of the second decade of the third millennium are more and more considerably involved in process of globalization which signs can be found everywhere on the African continent. First of all, it is necessary to pay attention on much the increased dynamics of political process, especially in North Africa where under the influence of “the Arab spring” scales and depth of the happened transformation of a socio-political context were shown, civilization breaks and perspective scenarios of development were more accurately designated. To conformably new challenges questions of regional integration have come under the spotlight in Africa, search of solutions of global problems of mankind in Africa is conducted (poverty, hunger, diseases, refugees, etc.) new formats of interaction of the states for the benefit of effective development are developed. It is possible that in so dynamic and turbulent socio-political and economic situation regional vector of interaction and interregional international cooperation (within BRICS, etc.) will become that a basis on which perspective strategy of economic development for the African countries will be created, giving it threefold measurement: global, regional and local. Studying of forming of the BRICS Agenda for Africa within activities of Merging of BRICS as instrument of really deep reorganization of a world order in line with transition to a polycentric world order, initiation of process of development of the new model of a democratic peace arrangement considering conditions of the global world of the 21st century, its multicivilization nature is almost significant.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(2):191-202
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The new start for Russian-African relations
Korendyasov E.N.

Abstract

Russia's return to Africa is widely discussed in the Russian and foreign scientific and expert circles, on the pages of newspapers and magazines. This covers a broad range of problems of country, regional and global scale, put forward and voiced conflicting estimates and judgments. Abroad, actively promoted the interpretation of the “return” of Russia to the continent as a new direction of neo-imperial ambitions of the new Russia and its aspirations to weaken the position of the West, “golden” its image in the developing countries, in the eyes of Africans. Author analyzes the impact of the emerging political, economic and social realities of the XXI century on the development prospects of the African continent in general, and on the Russian-African relations in particular. The author concludes that the increase in the weight and role of the continent in world politics and economy today requires a rethinking of the Russian approaches to the problems of scale Russian-African partnership and the formation of its long-term vision, building on the existing political, diplomatic and investment and the country's financial resources. The new dynamics of Russian-African relations is connected, first of all, with the development of partnerships in those areas where Russia has competitive potential, production capacities, high competence and experience. Including the development of natural resources, nuclear power and hydropower, military-technical cooperation, the establishment of satellite information and communication systems, cooperation in the sphere of education, health, the fight against epidemics, natural catastrophes. Russia is confident enough to overcome the deep recession of relations with Africa, recorded in the late 80's and 90-ies of XX century. However, it would be premature to claim that full-blooded “return” of Russia to the continent has already taken place. Scaling up comprehensive cooperation will depend, first, on the quality of the stability of the acceleration of development in Africa, the transformation of African economies to modern industrial and technological bases; and, secondly, on the dynamics of socio-economic and socio-political development of the Russian state. Russian potential of weakening the critical dependence on the West increase. Russia, along with the other members of the BRICS can make an impressive contribution to the development of this process as it has been made in achieving the objectives of the Non-Aligned Movement and the Organization of African Unity. History repeats, but at a different stage of development.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(2):203-214
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New Great Game of the Western powers in the Sahel region
Hassimiu B.

Abstract

This article examines and analyzes the role of Western countries in the process of destabilization of the Sahel region. The author describes in detail the process of legitimizing the invasion of the Western powers in the countries of Africa, revealing the sequence of events related to this phenomenon, as well as the totality of its consequences. The article highlighted and described a number of trends that have emerged as a result of the new “Great Game” and define the dynamics of the world order. Special attention is paid to the issue of fighting terrorism, as required in-depth study. The paper presents in detail the metamorphosis of armed movements and groups in the region, from the Algerian slaughter and before the revolution in Libya, accompanied by their strengthening and growing influence on the level of participants in the civil war to the threat of global proportions. Author resumes that in the end, the new "Great Game" caused a violation of the principle of sovereignty, redefining the ways of development of states, spoofing the direction of development from the maintenance of security and stability of the political process to the vulnerability and violence including all that is associated with the image of the post-colonial state.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(2):215-225
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African policy of Delhi and Indian community in Africa: current status
Usov V.A.

Abstract

The article is devoted to a changing nature of India-Africa relations and a role of Indian Diaspora in Africa. Indian Diaspora in African countries for many years was regarded by the Indian government more as a stumbling block for development India-Africa relations than as a source of opportunities. New policy to Diaspora was elaborated in the very beginning of 2000s but it was Narendra Modi, Indian prime-minister from 2014, who started promoting Diaspora as one of the priority in his international agenda. Indian government initiated in October 2015 third India-Africa Forum-Summit which happened to be much larger event than two previous forum summits in 2008 and 2011. However energetic policy of N. Modi has not brought India-Africa relations to a new level yet. While planned visit of N. Modi to a number of African countries in July 2016 is seen as a step to achieve this goal, his meetings with representatives of Indian communities in these African countries could be regarded as a sign of a new approach to the Indian Diaspora as “Ambassadors of India”. That could bring some controversy as many South African Indians consider themselves only citizens of their country and no more. Besides, the Indian government should take all necessary measures to prevent racist attacks against Africans in India which greatly tarnish the Indian image in the eyes of Africans.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(2):226-235
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The foreign policy of the Gabonese Republic: new priorities and challenges
Ndakissa Onkassa F.C.

Abstract

The article considers the features of formation and realization of foreign policy and the basic characteristics of the international image of modern Gabon are considered. It is shown, that the foreign policy is the important direction in the state activity of Gabon and is intended to offer the General public all over the world complete and reliable information on the situation in the country on key international issues, activities and initiatives of Gabon in the field of political space and the processes and projects of socio-economic development, its cultural and scientific achievements. Foreign policy activity is aimed at creating favorable conditions for the realization of the historic choice of the Gabonese people to strengthen the rule of law, market economy and democratic society, to focus on the social dimension. Нerewith this article analyzes the main provisions of the foreign policy of the Gabonese Republic, considered in conjunction with the country's development objectives defined in the strategic plan “A prosperous Gabon”. Particular attention is paid to the role of the President in making foreign policy decisions and ideas about the prospects for the development of Gabon's foreign policy. Key value of principles of maintenance of the sovereignty and the international inclusiveness, influence of the factor of the French language and policy of multilateral diplomacy is underlined at definition of objectives and priorities of foreign policy of Gabon during an epoch of new international realities. It is noted, that foreign policy activity of Gabon is aimed at creation a wide range of the international partnership in interests of national development in in the context of globalization.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(2):236-245
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Twenty years of the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries (CPLP): results and prospects
Chiaka O.W.

Abstract

This article is dedicated to the twentieth anniversary of the Community of Portuguese-speaking Countries (CPLP), which today comprises 9 countries of the world as its members. Relations between its members today differ significantly from the traditional cooperation between the former colonial power (Portugal) and its former colonies, as Brazil and Angola are recognized regional leaders today and are classified as “emerging” powers. The article details the creation of Community and shows the evolution of its activities over the past 20 years. The organization's management structure as well as its main bodies, including the Conference of Heads of State and Government, the Executive Secretariat, as well as regular meetings at ministerial, inter-parliamentary conference, meeting of representatives of the judicial authorities are described. The main purpose of the organization remains the cooperation in the economic, social and cultural development of the member-countries, the spread of the Portuguese language and the strengthening of the position of these countries in international organizations. However, with the beginning of the XXI century an important priority in the work of the organization became the defense and public security, including the formation of joint lusophone FELINO forces to participate in peacekeeping operations.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(2):246-254
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Formation of the US global energy strategy in 1991-2015
Ponomarev N.V.

Abstract

The article explores the formation of US global energy strategy in the timeframe of 1991-2015 and shifting emphasis in strategic documents indicating new regional priorities. Provisions concerning international energy interests of the United States can be traced back to the very first national security strategy and appear to be inherent core element of the American foreign policy. Due to domestic energy consumption patterns and cold war era strategic perception of fuel reserves US policy has been extensively centered on hydrocarbon resources. It proceeded from initial focus on the Persian Gulf to a global level commitment to ensure all-out output growth and transfer routs diversification for oil and gas exports in a number of key regions including the Caspian, and the Gulf of Guinea. By mid 2000s the US had become increasingly concerned with countering international influence and limiting regional clout of great powers that were pursuing independent policy and relying on state control of national energy companies and foreign energy assets, labeled as «resource nationalism». At the dawn of a new decade climate change in the Arctic and the rise of Indo-Asia-Pacific as a new global foremost transport and economic hub brought these rich in resources and critical in terms of resources shipping maritime domains to the forefront of US policy. Although the US prepares to assume the role of energy exporting country in the wake of shale oil and gas revolution that didn’t cause revision of this strategy but is merely supplementing it with a new international leverage. Revealed continuity rests on interpretation of unconstrained extraction and transit of hydrocarbon supplies to the world market and safety of the transit spaces as essential prerequisites for the stability of the US-centric global economy and entire postbipolar world order. Significant reliance on military instruments to maintain regional security regimes for international energy exports is a principal hallmark of US foreign policy.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(2):255-264
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A networks analysis of terrorism in Africa: implications for Kenya
Morumbasi S.K., Amuhaya C.

Abstract

This paper highlights the challenges that the international community faces in responding to the terrorists and the need to change tactics to respond more effectively to an increasingly nebulous enemy. Terrorism can take different forms and is perpetrated by both state and non-state actors. This research looks into the network structure of terrorism and terrorist groups. In the contemporary setting, terrorist organizations operate transnationally hence the use of the term ‘terrorism without borders’. An enabling factor of terrorism today is the network structure that it has adopted which gives it the ability to both project its reach and prevent easy infiltration. The network structure has also brought about renewed interests in Africa, where global terror networks such as al-Qaeda and the Islamic State compete for influence. Boko Haram in West Africa is an affiliate of the Islamic State and this provides possible linkages with the Islamic State in Libya. Boko Haram refers to itself as the Islamic State’s Western Province. Al-Shabaab has dominated headlines by carrying out deadly attacks in East Africa. The al-Qaeda affiliate has however faced resistance from a section of its members who seek ties with the Islamic State. This resulted in the formation of Jabha East Africa, a group that aligns itself to the Islamic State. The Sinai Peninsula has also witnessed an upsurge of terror attacks perpetrated by the Sinai Province, which views itself as a province of the Islamic State. This surmounts to a complex network structure of terrorist networks in Africa and the growing threat to militant Islam. The special attention is paid to analysis of terrorist challenges in Kenia.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(2):265-273
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Boko Haram: a new paradigm to West Africa security challenges
Bokeriya S.A., Omo-Ogbebor O.D.

Abstract

Since 2010 Boko Haram uprising, it has transformed into a powerful regional terrorist group whose terrorist act of bombing and kidnapping had attracted the world attention. Rapidly Boko Haram has become the second most dreaded terrorist group in the world after Islamic States (ISIS) in Iraq and Syria. The group’s tactics shifted and diversified from attacks on government installations to more damning quest through bombings, robberies, kidnappings, assaults on churches and mainstream Muslim targets, leading to occupation of villages and towns, indicating greater confidence and capacity to form a territory within the territory of Nigeria and declare an “Islamic Caliphate” in Nigeria which is their utmost objective. This article reviews the activities of Boko Haram Islamic Militant terror group operating in the northern region of Nigeria, the result of its frequent attacks in the region, governance and economic activities had been brought to a halt. This article also analyses the roles played by international community and the efforts of the Nigeria government in resolving the crisis. The article further points out the continuous attacks of Boko Haram if unchecked its will threaten the relatively peace and security in the West Africa region.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(2):274-284
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Soft power as a means of fighting international terrorism: a case study of Nigeria’s “Boko Haram”
Bakare I.A.

Abstract

The recent rise in global terrorism is alarming, but it also reaffirms the failure of our purely hard military approach to counter the phenomenon. This paper analyzes soft power as a means to combating terrorism, with the role of education, religion and international cooperation. The case of Boko Haram, the militant Islamist group operating in Northern Nigeria, is analyzed. This group has been attracting increasing levels of attention. The group is becoming ever more daring and violent. It is unlikely that Boko Haram will be defeated totally through military means. “Soft Power” will play a crucial role in our ability to attract the moderates and deny the extremists new recruits. Islamic education is viewed as a key instrument of these “soft power” counter-terrorism strategy. Islamic education refers to the totality of the upbringing of an individual within the content and context of Islam. The Almajiri system of education in Nigeria is analyzed in the article. Besides education, international cooperation is analyzed with the special focus on Moroccan experience of learning of Sunni Maliki jurisprudence and Achaari theology. The author underlines that many African countries requested Morocco to share its experiences in the education of Imams and signed several cooperation agreements.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(2):285-295
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Russia-Ghana relations in the past and the present: a time-proven partnership
Kulkova O.S., Sanusi H.A.

Abstract

The article of Russian and Ghanaian authors describes the evolution of political and economic relations between Soviet Union/Russia and Ghana throughout different historical periods (starting from 1950s to present). Great attention is paid to the basis of the cooperation laid in Soviet period. The article also observes current tendencies of the bilateral relations, which are quite friendly and fruitful. Moscow regards the Republic of Ghana as a reliable, time-proven partner especially on international issues: the establishment of a more democratic polycentric world order, ensuring regional and strategic stability, disarmament, combating international terrorism and other global challenges and threats. Russia and Ghana provide each other mutual support in the election of representatives of the two countries in international organizations. Russia and Ghana also develop their cooperation in the field of security. The participation of USSR/Russia in foreign trade of Ghana is analyzed. The significant increase in the number of Ghanaian trade partners is indicated while the share of Great Britain decreases and the share of Asian, African and other states increases. In recent years, the favorable conditions for the development of Russian-Ghanaian trade and economic relations were created. The cooperation of the two countries also develops in the field of nuclear energy. The main bilateral visits between Ghana and Russia are examined in the article. The special attention is paid to the first meeting of the Russian-Ghanaian Inter-governmental commission on trade, economic, academic and technical cooperation took place in Moscow in October 2014.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(2):296-310
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Main trends of foreign policy of Georgia and some aspects of its cooperation with the People’s Republic of China
Mailyan B.V.

Abstract

The article considers the characteristics and key aspects of cooperation between Georgia and China. Is celebrating the success of these countries in the institutionalization of economic contacts, which is the core of Beijing's initiative to form a pool of around his project «Economic Zone - the new Silk Road». At the same time it emphasizes that the potential for cooperation between the Georgian and Chinese sides only just gaining a positive momentum. Its rapid development in the near future promises to change the configuration of some of Georgia's foreign policy doctrine, which is now fixed focus exclusively on the Western community of nations. The country of the Golden Fleece clearly looking for themselves the status of the main partner of China in the South Caucasus region. The most active participation of the Georgian side in the implementation of China's geo-economic models in the already foreseeable future promises to the official Tbilisi to make the issue of accession of Georgia to NATO and the EU is not as relevant as it is today. Georgia's foreign policy strategy will be influenced by agreements signed in the framework of the strategic partnership between China and Russia on the multi-vector model of transportation of goods and resources within the framework of the convergence of the Eurasian Economic Union and Silk Road Economic Belt.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(2):311-322
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International importance of cooperation of Russia and Kazakhstan in use of “Baikonur” cosmodrome
Sagindikov R.E.

Abstract

This article analyzes the priority directions of cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan in the field of space exploration. In particular, special attention is paid to the sharing of the unique complex “Baikonur”. Shown the leading role of Russia in the training of Kazakhstan's own space program. All these issues are discussed on the basis of normative-legal base of cooperation between the two countries in the field of use of cosmodrome “Baikonur”. Simultaneously analyzes the problems arising in the implementation of the Russian-Kazakh cooperation in space exploration which have practical importance for space exploration as the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan. Particular attention is paid to the problem of ecological safety in the Republic of Kazakhstan related to the operation of the cosmodrome “Baikonur”. It is noted that Russia is responsible as the launching State, in accordance with the The Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects of 1972. Russian plans about the possible transfer of missile launches for new spaceports in the Russian territory, in particular to the launch site Vostochniy, to Plesetsk in Arkhangelsk region and to Kapustin Yar, Astrakhan Region are analyzed. The main proposals of the Kazakh side in this regard are also discussed.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(2):323-333
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Russia - Africa. Klondike of Interaction. Interview with Leonid L. Fituni, Institute of African Studies
Gerasimova O.

Abstract

Professor Leonid L. Fituni was born on the 27th of September 1953. He graduated from the Moscow State Institute of International Relations, MFA of the USSR in 1975. He is Deputy Director of the Institute for African Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Concurrently, he heads the Center for Strategic and Global Studies there. He is the author of 18 books and about 300 articles, is fluent in English, French and Arabic. Interview with Doctor of Economics, Professor L.L. Fituni is devoted to the most topical issues of Russian-African relations, as well as key features of interaction in historical perspective. According to Leonid Leonidovich, at the moment we can not say that these relations are at their peak, however, there can be traced a certain rise in the past decade. Professor also touches upon Russian debt relief to African countries and the presence of Russian business on the African continent. L.L. Fituni in details describes the economic potential of African countries and the prospects for cooperation with Russia. Particular attention is paid to the world scientific schools of African research and training in this area, including the national school of African studies.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(2):334-349
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International Studies in Africa. Interview with Prof. O. Igho Natufe, Nigeria
Tafotie Deffo Jerry Rowllings D.R.

Abstract

O. Igho Natufe is a Nigerian-born Sovietologist and a specialist in International Relations and Soviet/ Russian Foreign Policy. Dr. Natufe is an alumnus of the People's Friendship University, a former university professor of Political Science (University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana, 1978-1980, and the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria, 1980-1989) and senior advisor to the Government of Canada (1970-1978, 1989-2011). He is author of several of scientific research, including “Soviet policy in Africa: from Lenin to Brezhnev”. In his interview he speeks about IR studies in Africa, about mutual perceptions of Russians and Africans, about his recent book on Soviet and Russian Foreign Policy, about scramble for Africa between great and emerging powers. He expects Russia, the USA, and China to enhance their influence in Africa, at the expense of Britain and France. Prof. Natufe pays a special attention to the role of African Diaspora in Development of African countries.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(2):350-353
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The cossacks in history of Russian-Chinese relations (XVII - 1920)
Yang Sumei -.

Abstract

The article is an attempt to describe the role of the Cossacks in the history of the Russian-Chinese relations. The Cossacks played a special role in the history of Russian-Chinese relations in the diplomatic, spiritual and commercial areas. Relations between the Russian and Chinese peoples have begun in 1582, when Don Cossack Ermak Timofeevich undertook an expedition to Siberia. To find the way to China, Russian tsars and emperors began to send forth embassies and different missions to China. The Cossacks were the main members of these missions and embassies. The first such mission was composed of Tomsk Cossacks. In 1618, during the reign of Mikhail Fedorovich first state Russian Embassy, headed by Tomsk Cossack Ivan Petlin was sent from Tobolsk to Beijing. In 1641-1642 Tatar equestrian Cossack Yemelyan Vershinin with trade caravans visited China. Since the settlement of Albazin Cossacks in Beijing intensive diplomatic and trade relations between the two countries began. In XVIII-XIX centuries Cossacks not only participated in the wars in Siberia, but also in the conclusion of a number of treaties. After the defeat in the civil war in Russia in the XX century Siberian Cossacks fled to China. Among the Russian emigrants in Harbin and other cities of China there were also many descendants of the Cossacks.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(2):354-364
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Sub-Saharan Africa at the global education market: role of South Africa
Asmyatullin R.R.

Abstract

This article is dedicated to the development of the higher education in Sub-Saharan countries, particularly to the topic of internationalization of education. Most African countries have underdeveloped education systems. The quality and availability of higher education is a formidable obstacle for economic and social development. There is a growing demand for higher education in the SSA, but national education systems can’t cope fully with it. Hence many students go abroad, mostly in other African countries. The article focuses on the position of South Africa in the global and regional education market. As it’s a regional leader in this field South Africa attracts more than a half of international students within the Sub-Saharan Africa. The main reasons why African students choose South Africa are geographic proximity, familiar culture, lack of wanted higher education programs in their countries. However, there are as well disadvantages like xenophobia and race discrimination. South Africa has become a leader in Africa in the field of higher education, but it plays still small part at a global scale.

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(2):365-374
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Review of the book: Natufe Igho, 2015. “Russian foreign policy: in search of lost influence”, Moscow, Krasand, 297 p.
Nigusie Kassae B.M.

Abstract

The author of the monograph, Professor of Political Science of the Institute of African Studies O. Igo Natufe, is a specialist in Soviet and Russian foreign policy. He was educated at the Peoples' Friendship University, as well as at Carleton and McGill Universities (Canada), where he received a doctorate. In addition to the scientific work, he taught political science and international relations at universities in Canada, Ghana and Nigeria. His book is based on documentary evidence, on the vast literature of both Russian and foreign authors about Russian diplomacy since the 1980s. The author convincingly proved the chronological framework of the study. Lower chronological milestone - 1985 - can truly be called an important milestone in the history of modern Russia. That was the year the event took place, which have made major adjustments to the internal and external strategy of Moscow, including its foreign policy. The presented research work demonstrates the highly quality of the researcher, analyzing the qualitative theoretical level serious scientific problems. In his monograph, the author refers to the analysis of geopolitical and geo-economic processes taking place in the CIS which has arisen after the collapse in December 1991 of a major actor in world politics, as the USSR.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(2):375-377
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Our authors
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Abstract

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(2):378-381
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Editorial
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Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2016;16(2):382-384
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