The Features of Political and Religious Development of Oirats in the middle of the XIV - the middle of the XV centuries

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The period starting from the second half of the XIV century. and up to the middle of the 15th century, had held under the sign of the fall of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty in China, and it was the most important one in the history of the Eastern Mongols and Oirats. Until then, the rule that only representatives of the Golden Family (that is, the descendants of Genghis Khan) were able to receive power to govern over Mongols, was, in fact, not questioned, but later the various interpretations began to appear. For example, Oirats, as non-Genghisids, had to assert their power, possessing only second roles (Taishi - the first minister). Despite the internal turmoil and the struggle with the descendants of the Yuan rulers, the Oirats did to try to create the united Mongol state headed by Taishis from the Choros Oirat clan. After a long struggle with the Eastern Mongols (who sometimes had also been led by Oirats, for example Ugechi Khashig and his son Esehu) of such Oirat leaders as Batula, Batubolo, Taiping and Toghon, the son of the latter, Esen, managed to not only to unite the Oirats in a short time, but also to create the united Mongolian state. In addition, he revived the religious and political role of the sangha, most likely the teachings of black-caped hat Karma Kagyu. This act was especially important because, besides the ideological counterweight to the right of Genghisids, one should have responded to the growth of Islamic activity in the region.

About the authors

Baatr Uchaevich Kitinov

Institute of Oriental Studies Russian Academy of Sciences

Author for correspondence.

PhD, Associates Professor, Senior research fellow, Department of history of East

12, Rozhdestvenka str., Moscow, Russian Federation, 107031


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